Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 386
Filtrar
1.
Environ Health ; 21(1): 111, 2022 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36401268

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Both environmental and social factors have been linked to birth weight and adiposity at birth, but few studies consider the effects of exposure mixtures. Our objective was to identify which components of a mixture of neighborhood-level environmental and social exposures were driving associations with birth weight and adiposity at birth in the Healthy Start cohort. METHODS: Exposures were assessed at the census tract level and included air pollution, built environment characteristics, and socioeconomic status. Prenatal exposures were assigned based on address at enrollment. Birth weight was measured at delivery and adiposity was measured using air displacement plethysmography within three days. We used non-parametric Bayes shrinkage (NPB) to identify exposures that were associated with our outcomes of interest. NPB models were compared to single-predictor linear regression. We also included generalized additive models (GAM) to assess nonlinear relationships. All regression models were adjusted for individual-level covariates, including maternal age, pre-pregnancy BMI, and smoking. RESULTS: Results from NPB models showed most exposures were negatively associated with birth weight, though credible intervals were wide and generally contained zero. However, the NPB model identified an interaction between ozone and temperature on birth weight, and the GAM suggested potential non-linear relationships. For associations between ozone or temperature with birth weight, we observed effect modification by maternal race/ethnicity, where effects were stronger for mothers who identified as a race or ethnicity other than non-Hispanic White. No associations with adiposity at birth were observed. CONCLUSIONS: NPB identified prenatal exposures to ozone and temperature as predictors of birth weight, and mothers who identify as a race or ethnicity other than non-Hispanic White might be disproportionately impacted. However, NPB models may have limited applicability when non-linear effects are present. Future work should consider a two-stage approach where NPB is used to reduce dimensionality and alternative approaches examine non-linear effects.


Assuntos
Composição Corporal , Ozônio , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Feminino , Peso ao Nascer , Teorema de Bayes , Obesidade
2.
Pediatr Obes ; 17(12): e12967, 2022 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36350199

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Early-life exposure to tobacco is associated with obesity, but the most susceptible developmental periods are unknown. OBJECTIVE: To explore windows of susceptibility in a cohort of 568 mother-child pairs. METHODS: We measured seven measures of tobacco exposure (five self-reported and two biomarkers) spanning from pre-conception to age 5 years. Mothers self-reported active smoking (pre-conception, 17 weeks, and delivery) and household smokers (5 and 18 months postnatally). Cotinine was measured in maternal urine (27 weeks) and child urine (5 years). Adiposity (fat mass percentage) was measured at birth and 5 years via air displacement plethysmography. Using a multiple informant approach, we tested whether adiposity (5 years) and changes in adiposity (from birth to 5 years) differed by the seven measures of tobacco exposure. RESULTS: The associations may depend on timing. For example, only pre-conception (ß = 3.1%; 95% CI: 1.0-5.1) and late gestation (ß = 4.0%; 95% CI: 0.4-7.6) exposures influenced adiposity accretion from birth to 5 years (p for interaction = 0.01). Early infancy exposure was also associated with 1.7% higher adiposity at 5 years (95% CI: 0.1-3.2). Mid-pregnancy and early childhood exposures did not influence adiposity. CONCLUSIONS: Pre-conception, late gestation, and early infancy exposures to tobacco may have the greatest impact on childhood adiposity.


Assuntos
Obesidade Pediátrica , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco , Recém-Nascido , Feminino , Gravidez , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Tabaco , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Adiposidade , Cotinina , Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/etiologia
3.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 22(1): 758, 2022 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36209070

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prior research has demonstrated bidirectional associations between gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and perinatal maternal depression. However, the association between GDM, prenatal depression, and postpartum depression (PPD) has not been examined in a prospective cohort longitudinally. METHODS: Participants in the current analysis included 5,822 women from the National Institutes of Health's Environmental influences on Child Health Outcomes (ECHO) Research Program: N = 4,606 with Neither GDM nor Prenatal Maternal Depression (Reference Category); N = 416 with GDM only; N = 689 with Prenatal Maternal Depression only; and N = 111 with Comorbid GDM and Prenatal Maternal Depression. The PROMIS-D scale was used to measure prenatal and postnatal maternal depressive symptoms. Primary analyses consisted of linear regression models to estimate the independent and joint effects of GDM and prenatal maternal depression on maternal postpartum depressive symptoms. RESULTS: A higher proportion of women with GDM were classified as having prenatal depression (N = 111; 21%) compared to the proportion of women without GDM who were classified as having prenatal depression (N = 689; 13%), however this finding was not significant after adjustment for covariates. Women with Comorbid GDM and Prenatal Maternal Depression had significantly increased postpartum depressive symptoms measured by PROMIS-D T-scores compared to women with Neither GDM nor Prenatal Maternal Depression (mean difference 7.02, 95% CI 5.00, 9.05). Comorbid GDM and Prenatal Maternal Depression was associated with an increased likelihood of PPD (OR 7.38, 95% CI 4.05, 12.94). However, women with GDM only did not have increased postpartum PROMIS-D T-scores or increased rates of PPD. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings underscore the importance of universal depression screening during pregnancy and in the first postpartum year. Due to the joint association of GDM and prenatal maternal depression on risk of PPD, future studies should examine potential mechanisms underlying this relation.


Assuntos
Depressão Pós-Parto , Diabetes Gestacional , Criança , Depressão/epidemiologia , Depressão Pós-Parto/epidemiologia , Depressão Pós-Parto/etiologia , Diabetes Gestacional/diagnóstico , Diabetes Gestacional/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos
4.
Am J Health Promot ; : 8901171221136532, 2022 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36302397

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Assess family-level factors associated with childhood immunization schedule adherence. DESIGN: Prospective cohort; Setting; The Healthy Start study enrolled 1,410 pregnant women in Denver, Colorado 2009-2014. SUBJECTS: Children with available vaccination data in medical records (0-6 years old). MEASURES: Vaccine schedule completion and compliance. ANALYSIS: Logistic regression comparing family-level factors that differ based on vaccine schedule adherence. RESULTS: Most immunizations required in Colorado for school entry were below national completion goals with 61.8% of participants (n = 532/861) completing the full vaccination series. Most participants received the first dose of individual vaccines on time (73.5% - 90.7%), but fewer received all doses on time (21.0% - 39.5%). Factors associated with not completing the vaccination series (OR [95% CI]) included: in-utero exposure to cigarette smoke (1.97 [1.41, 2.75]), single parent household (1.70 [1.21, 2.38]), children identified as non-White (Hispanic 1.40 [1.01, 1.94]; Black 1.88 [1.24, 2.85]; Other 2.17 [1.34, 3.49]), mothers not working outside the home (1.98 [1.46, 2.67]), and household income <$70,000 per year (<$40,000 1.93 [1.35, 2.75]; $40,000-$70,000 1.64 [1.09, 2.46]). Conversely, families with more educated mothers (0.47 [0.29, 0.76]) and older parents (0.97 [0.94, 0.99]) were significantly more likely to complete the series. CONCLUSIONS: These findings may help identify groups at risk of immunization schedule non-adherence and may be used to target education/advocacy campaigns to reduce hesitancy and increase access in these populations.

5.
Pediatr Res ; 2022 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36195633

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sleep in childhood is affected by behavioral, environmental, and parental factors. We propose that these factors were altered during the COVID-19 pandemic. This study investigates sleep habit changes during the pandemic in 528 children 4-12 years old in the US, leveraging data from the Environmental Influences on Child Health Outcomes (ECHO) Program. METHODS: Data collection occurred in July 2019-March 2020 (pre-pandemic) and two pandemic periods: December 2020-April 2021 and May-August 2021. Qualitative interviews were performed in 38 participants. RESULTS: We found no changes in sleep duration, but a shift to later sleep midpoint during the pandemic periods. There was an increase in latency at the first pandemic collection period but no increase in the frequency of bedtime resistance, and a reduced frequency of naps during the pandemic. Qualitative interviews revealed that parents prioritized routines to maintain sleep duration but were more flexible regarding timing. Children from racial/ethnic minoritized communities slept less at night, had later sleep midpoint, and napped more frequently across all collection periods, warranting in-depth investigation to examine and address root causes. CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 pandemic significantly impacted children sleep, but parental knowledge of the importance of sleep might have played a significant protective role. IMPACT: During the COVID-19 pandemic, US children changed their sleep habits, going to bed and waking up later, but their sleep duration did not change. Sleep latency was longer. Parental knowledge of sleep importance might have played a protective role. Regardless of data collection periods, children from racial/ethnic minoritized communities slept less and went to bed later. This is one of the first study on this topic in the US, including prospective pre-pandemic qualitative and quantitative data on sleep habits. Our findings highlight the pandemic long-term impact on childhood sleep. Results warrants further investigations on implications for overall childhood health.

6.
Diabet Med ; 39(11): e14925, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36224717

RESUMO

AIMS: No reports examine the relationship between in-utero exposure to gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), offspring epigenetic age acceleration (EAA), and offspring insulin sensitivity. METHODS: Using data from a cohort study, we examined associations between GDM in-utero exposure and offspring EAA at approximately 10 years of age, using separate regression models adjusting for offspring chronological age and sex. We also examined associations between EAA with updated homeostasis model assessment of insulin sensitivity and secretion (HOMA2-S and HOMA2-ß) measured at approximately 10 and 16 years of age, using mixed linear regression models accounting for repeated measures after adjustment for offspring chronological age and sex. RESULTS: Compared to unexposed offspring (n = 91), offspring exposed to GDM (n = 88) had greater EAA or older extrinsic age compared to chronological age (ß-coefficient 2.00, 95% confidence interval [0.71, 3.28], p = 0.0025), but not greater intrinsic EAA (ß-coefficient -0.07, 95% CI [-0.71, 0.57], p = 0.93). Extrinsic EAA was associated with lower insulin sensitivity (ß-coefficient -0.018, 95% CI [-0.035, -0.002], p = 0.03) and greater insulin secretion (ß-coefficient 0.018, 95% CI [0.006, 0.03], p = 0.003), and these associations persisted after further adjustment for measures of maternal and child adiposity. No associations were observed between intrinsic EAA and insulin sensitivity and secretion, before or after adjustment for measures of maternal and child adiposity. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, children exposed to GDM experience greater extrinsic EAA, which is associated with lower insulin sensitivity and greater insulin secretion. Further studies are needed to determine the directionality of these associations.


Assuntos
Diabetes Gestacional , Resistência à Insulina , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Adiposidade , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Diabetes Gestacional/epidemiologia , Epigênese Genética , Feminino , Humanos , Obesidade/complicações , Gravidez
7.
Diabetes Care ; 45(11): 2653-2661, 2022 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36098658

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine glycemic and nonglycemic risk factors that contribute to the presence of diabetic retinopathy (DR) before and after the onset of type 2 diabetes (T2D). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: During the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) and DPP Outcome Study (DPPOS), we performed fundus photography over time in adults at high risk for developing T2D, including after they developed diabetes. Fundus photographs were graded using the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) grading system, with DR defined as typical lesions of DR (microaneurysms, exudates, hemorrhage, or worse) in either eye. RESULTS: By DPPOS year 16 (∼20 years after random assignment into DPP), 24% of 1,614 participants who had developed T2D and 14% of 885 who remained without diabetes had DR. In univariate analyses, using results from across the entire duration of follow-up, American Indian race was associated with less frequent DR compared with non-Hispanic White (NHW) race, and higher HbA1c, fasting and 2-h plasma glucose levels during an oral glucose tolerance test, weight, and history of hypertension, dyslipidemia, and smoking, but not treatment group assignment, were associated with more frequent DR. On multivariate analysis, American Indian race was associated with less DR compared with NHW (odds ratio [OR] 0.36, 95% CI 0.20-0.66), and average HbA1c was associated with more DR (OR 1.92, 95% CI 1.46-1.74 per SD [0.7%] increase in HbA1c). CONCLUSIONS: DR may occur in adults with prediabetes and early in the course of T2D. HbA1c was an important risk factor for the development of DR across the entire glycemic range from prediabetes to T2D.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Retinopatia Diabética , Estado Pré-Diabético , Adulto , Humanos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Glicemia/análise , Fatores de Risco
8.
Pediatr Diabetes ; 23(7): 1027-1037, 2022 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36054435

RESUMO

To assess changes in diabetes autoantibodies (DAs) over time in children and young adults with diabetes and determine whether observed changes were associated with demographic characteristics, clinical parameters and diabetes complications. Participants had DAs measured at baseline (10.3 ± 7.1 months after diabetes diagnosis) and at 12, 24 months and ≥5 years after the baseline measurement. At the ≥5-year follow-up, the presence of diabetes complications was assessed. We examined the associations between change in number of positive DAs and changes in individual DA status with the participants' characteristics and clinical parameters over time. Out of 4179 participants, 62% had longitudinal DA data and 51% had complications and longitudinal DA data. In participants with ≥1 baseline positive DA (n = 1699), 83.4% remained positive after 7.3 ± 2.3 years duration of diabetes. Decrease in number of positive DAs was associated with longer diabetes duration (p = 0.003 for 1 baseline positive DA; p < 0.001 for 2 baseline positive DAs) and younger age at diagnosis (p < 0.001 for 2 baseline positive DAs). No associations were found between change in number of positive DAs in participants with ≥1 baseline positive DA (n = 1391) and HbA1c, insulin dose, acute, or chronic complications after 7.7 ± 1.9 years duration of diabetes. DA status likely remains stable in the first 7 years after diabetes diagnosis. Younger age at diabetes diagnosis and longer duration were associated with less persistence of DAs. Measuring DAs after initial presentation may aid in diabetes classification but not likely in predicting the clinical course.


Assuntos
Autoanticorpos , Diabetes Mellitus , Adolescente , Criança , Hemoglobina A Glicada , Humanos , Insulina , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
9.
Pediatr Diabetes ; 2022 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36097824

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine the prevalence, time trends, and risk factors of diabetic retinopathy (DR) among youth with type 1 diabetes (T1D) from 11 countries (Australia, Austria, Denmark, England, Germany, Italy, Luxemburg, Netherlands, Slovenia, United States, and Wales). SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Data on individuals aged 10-21 years with T1D for >1 year during the period 2000-2020 were analyzed. We used a cross-sectional design using the most recent year of visit to investigate the time trend. For datasets with longitudinal data, we aggregated the variables per participant and observational year, using data of the most recent year to take the longest observation period into account. DR screening was performed through quality assured national screening programs. Multiple logistic regression models adjusted for the year of the eye examination, age, gender, minority status, and duration of T1D were used to evaluate clinical characteristics and the risk of DR. RESULTS: Data from 156,090 individuals (47.1% female, median age 15.7 years, median duration of diabetes 5.2 years) were included. Overall, the unadjusted prevalence of any DR was 5.8%, varying from 0.0% (0/276) to 16.2% between countries. The probability of DR increased with longer disease duration (aORper-1-year-increase  = 1.04, 95% CI: 1.03-1.04, p < 0.0001), and decreased over time (aORper-1-year-increase  = 0.99, 95% CI: 0.98-1.00, p = 0.0093). Evaluating possible modifiable risk factors in the exploratory analysis, the probability of DR increased with higher HbA1c (aORper-1-mmol/mol-increase-in-HbA1c  = 1.03, 95% CI: 1.03-1.03, p < 0.0001) and was higher among individuals with hypertension (aOR = 1.24, 95% CI: 1.11-1.38, p < 0.0001) and smokers (aOR = 1.30, 95% CI: 1.17-1.44, p < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of DR in this large cohort of youth with T1D varied among countries, increased with diabetes duration, decreased over time, and was associated with higher HbA1c, hypertension, and smoking.

10.
Matern Health Neonatol Perinatol ; 8(1): 6, 2022 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36096906

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fetal exposure to tobacco increases the risk for many adverse birth outcomes, but whether diet mitigates these risks has yet to be explored. Here, we examined whether maternal folate intake (from foods and supplements) during pregnancy modified the association between prenatal exposure to tobacco and with preterm delivery, small-for-gestational age (SGA) births, or neonatal adiposity. METHODS: Mother-child pairs (n = 701) from Healthy Start were included in this analysis. Urinary cotinine was measured at ~ 27 weeks gestation. Diet was assessed using repeated 24-h dietary recalls. Neonatal adiposity (fat mass percentage) was measured via air displacement plethysmography. Interaction was assessed by including a product term between cotinine (< / ≥ limit of detection [LOD]) and folate (< / ≥ 25th percentile [1077 µg/day]) in separate logistic or linear regression models, adjusting for maternal age, race, ethnicity, education, pre-pregnancy body mass index, and infant sex. RESULTS: Approximately 26% of women had detectable levels of cotinine. Folate intake was significantly lower among women with cotinine ≥ LOD as compared to those with cotinine < LOD (1293 µg/day vs. 1418 µg/day; p = 0.01). Folate modified the association between fetal exposure to tobacco with neonatal adiposity (p for interaction = 0.07) and SGA (p for interaction = 0.07). Among those with lower folate intake, fetal exposure to tobacco was associated with lower neonatal adiposity (mean difference: -2.09%; 95% CI: -3.44, -0.74) and increased SGA risk (OR: 4.99; 95% CI: 1.55, 16.14). Conversely, among those with higher folate intake, there was no difference in neonatal adiposity (mean difference: -0.17%; 95% CI: -1.13, 0.79) or SGA risk (OR: 1.15; 95% CI: 0.57, 2.31). CONCLUSIONS: Increased folate intake during pregnancy (from foods and/or supplements) may mitigate the risk of fetal growth restriction among those who are unable to quit smoking or cannot avoid secondhand smoke during pregnancy.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36150675

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Allergic diseases in children are increasing. Although maternal diet quality in pregnancy may be protective, it is unclear which measure of maternal diet best predicts offspring diseases. OBJECTIVE: To examine the associations between multiple diet measures and allergy outcomes, and to compare the diagnostic accuracy of the measures for the prediction of allergy outcomes. METHODS: Maternal diet during pregnancy was measured using a validated instrument, and scored using 5 measures: the maternal diet index (MDI), Healthy Eating Index, total diet diversity, healthy diet diversity, and unhealthy diet diversity. Unadjusted and adjusted logistic regression models assessed associations between maternal diet measures and offspring allergy outcomes up to age 4 years. The diagnostic accuracy of the diet measures was compared. RESULTS: There were significant associations between MDI (odds ratio [OR], 0.78; 95% CI, 0.70-0.87), Healthy Eating Index (OR, 0.98; 95% CI, 0.97-0.99), and healthy diet diversity scores (OR, 0.91; 95% CI, 0.85-0.98) during pregnancy and the primary combined outcome "any allergy excluding wheeze" in children up to age 4 years. Neither maternal total diet diversity (OR, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.95-1.03) nor unhealthy diet diversity scores (OR, 1.05; 95% CI, 0.98-1.13) were associated with the "any allergy excluding wheeze" outcome. For all outcomes studied, except for food allergy, there was a significant difference in the diagnostic accuracy between the 5 measures of maternal diet. The area under the curve for MDI was highest for every disease outcome, although not always significantly higher. CONCLUSIONS: Better quality and higher diversity of a woman's diet during pregnancy, measured in various ways, is associated with offspring allergy outcomes, with healthy foods associated with decreased risk, and unhealthy foods associated with a higher risk. The MDI, which appropriately weighted both healthy and unhealthy foods, best predicted childhood allergic disease.

12.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 116(4): 1010-1018, 2022 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36055960

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adiposity is an established risk factor for pediatric nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), but little is known about the influence of body composition patterns earlier in life on NAFLD risk. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to examine associations of body composition at birth and body composition trajectories from birth to early childhood with hepatic fat in early childhood. METHODS: Data were from the longitudinal Healthy Start Study in Colorado. Fat-free mass index (FFMI), fat mass index (FMI), percentage body fat (BF%), and BMI were assessed at birth and/or ∼5 y in >1200 children by air displacement plethysmography and anthropometrics. In a subset (n = 285), hepatic fat was also assessed at ∼5 y by MRI. We used a 2-stage modeling approach: first, we fit body composition trajectories from birth to early childhood using mixed models with participant-specific intercepts and linear slopes (i.e., individual deviations from the population average at birth and rate of change per year, respectively); second, associations of participant-specific trajectory deviations with hepatic fat were assessed by multivariable-adjusted linear regression. RESULTS: Participant-specific intercepts at birth for FFMI, FMI, BF%, and BMI were inversely associated with log-hepatic fat in early childhood in models adjusted for offspring demographics and maternal/prenatal variables [back-transformed ß (95% CI) per 1 SD: 0.93 (0.88, 0.99), 0.94 (0.88, 0.99), 0.94 (0.89, 0.99), and 0.90 (0.85, 0.96), respectively]. Whereas, faster velocities for BF% and BMI from birth to ∼5 y were positively associated with log-hepatic fat [back-transformed ß (95% CI) per 1 SD: 1.08 (1.01, 1.15) and 1.08 (1.02, 1.15), respectively]. These latter associations of BF% and BMI velocities with childhood hepatic fat were attenuated to the null when adjusted for participant-specific intercepts at birth. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that a smaller birth weight, combined with faster adiposity accretion in the first 5 y, predicts higher hepatic fat in early childhood. Strategies aiming to promote healthy body composition early in life may be critical for pediatric NAFLD prevention.This study was registered voluntarily at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02273297.


Assuntos
Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica , Antropometria , Peso ao Nascer , Composição Corporal , Índice de Massa Corporal , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Obesidade , Pletismografia , Gravidez
13.
Womens Health Rep (New Rochelle) ; 3(1): 698-708, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36147836

RESUMO

Objective: To capture multidimensional maternal psychosocial stress using responses from the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) and Cohen's Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) administered during pregnancy, and to identify sociodemographic, biological, and health behavioral correlates of the stress domains. Methods: Using data from 1,079 pregnant women, we implemented principal component analysis on EPDS and PSS responses and retained factors based on the Scree plot and Eigenvalues >1. We then used linear regression to identify perinatal correlates of each domain. Results: We identified three stress domains: "Feeling Overwhelmed," "Anhedonia," and "Lack of Control," which accounted for 10.6% of variance in questionnaire responses. In multivariable analyses, household income ≤$70,000 (ß = 0.21 confidence interval [95% CI: 0.05-0.39]), primiparity (0.36 [0.02-0.71]), inadequate (0.21 [0.04-0.39]) or excessive gestational weight gain (0.27 [0.11-0.42]), and Healthy Eating Index (HEI) score ≤57 (0.14 [0.00-0.28]) were associated with Feeling Overwhelmed. Older age (0.02 [0.00-0.03] per 1-year), Hispanic ethnicity (0.19 [0.00-0.38]), and HEI score ≤57 (0.15 [0.02-0.28]) were associated with Anhedonia. Non-Hispanic Black race/ethnicity (0.37 [0.10-0.63]), not having graduated from college (0.16 [-0.02 to 0.35]), having a partner born outside the United States (0.17 [-0.02 to 0.37]), household size of ≥5 persons (0.21 [-0.02 to 0.37]), receiving public assistance (0.18 [-0.02 to 0.37]), and prenatal smoking (0.32 [0.05-0.59]) were associated with Lack of Control. Conclusions: Three domains of maternal psychosocial stress during pregnancy (Feeling Overwhelmed, Anhedonia, and Lack of Control) were differentially related to sociodemographic, biological, and health behavioral characteristics that may be targets for interventions to ameliorate stress in pregnant women. Clinical Trial Registry: : The Healthy Start study is registered as an observational study at clinicaltrials.gov (NCT #002273297).

14.
J Diabetes Res ; 2022: 8554991, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35910529

RESUMO

Objective: Hyperglycemia early in the course of type 1 diabetes (T1D) may increase the risk of cardiometabolic complications later in life. We tested the hypothesis that there were temporal trends in population-level glycemia and insulin pump use near T1D diagnosis among incident youth cohorts diagnosed between 2002 and 2016. Methods: Weighted and adjusted regression models were applied to data from the SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth study to analyze trends in hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), suboptimal glycemia (HbA1c > 9% or not), and insulin pump use among youth with T1D within 30 months of diagnosis. We tested the interaction of year with race and ethnicity, sex, and insulin regimen to assess potential disparities. Results: Among the 3,956 youth with T1D, there was a small, clinically insignificant reduction in HbA1c between 2002 (7.9% ± 1.5) and 2016 (7.8% ± 2.4) (fully adjusted change by year (-0.013% [95% CI -0.026, -0.0008], p = 0.04). The proportion of youth with suboptimal glycemia increased with each year, but the adjusted odds did not change. Insulin pump use increased more than fivefold. Although interaction effects of time with race and ethnicity, sex, and insulin regimen were not detected, in 2016, suboptimal glycemia was 4.3 and 1.8 times more prevalent among Black and Hispanic than among non-Hispanic White youth, respectively. Conclusions: There was not a clinically significant population-level improvement in glycemia across incident youth cohorts early in the course of T1D, despite severalfold increases in insulin pump use. Comprehensive clinical interventions to improve glycemia early in the T1D course and address disparities are urgently needed.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1 , Adolescente , Glicemia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/epidemiologia , Hemoglobina A Glicada , Humanos , Insulina/uso terapêutico , Sistemas de Infusão de Insulina
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35954577

RESUMO

This longitudinal study compared children's health behaviors before the COVID-19 pandemic versus during the pandemic. This analysis examined the association between individual-level characteristics and health behavior change. Four prospective cohort studies in the Environmental influences on Child Health Outcomes (ECHO) Program contributed data. Children aged 4-12 years and their caregivers were recruited in California, Colorado, North Dakota, and New Hampshire. Dietary intake, physical activity, screen time, and sleep duration were assessed with questionnaires pre-pandemic and during the pandemic. The final sample included 347 children: 47% female and 62% non-Hispanic White. Compared with pre-pandemic, weekday screen time duration was higher during the pandemic (3.0 vs. 4.5 h, p < 0.001). Unadjusted increases in screen time duration differed by race and ethnicity: 1.3 h/day for non-Hispanic White children, 2.3 h/day for Hispanic children, and 5.3 h/day for non-Hispanic Black children. Overall, no changes occurred in sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) intake (p = 0.26), discretionary food intake (p = 0.93), and physical activity (p = 0.15). Sleep duration increased by 30 min among children who did not meet sleep recommendations pre-pandemic. Child sex and maternal education level were not associated with health behavior change. The pandemic may have exacerbated disparities in some health behaviors. Families may need support to re-establish healthy routines.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Criança , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos
16.
Child Obes ; 2022 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35856858

RESUMO

Background: Societal changes during the COVID-19 pandemic may affect children's health behaviors and exacerbate disparities. This study aimed to describe children's health behaviors during the COVID-19 pandemic, how they vary by sociodemographic characteristics, and the extent to which parent coping strategies mitigate the impact of pandemic-related financial strain on these behaviors. Methods: This study used pooled data from 50 cohorts in the Environmental influences on Child Health Outcomes Program. Children or parent proxies reported sociodemographic characteristics, health behaviors, and parent coping strategies. Results: Of 3315 children aged 3-17 years, 49% were female and 57% were non-Hispanic white. Children of parents who reported food access as a source of stress were 35% less likely to engage in a higher level of physical activity. Children of parents who changed their work schedule to care for their children had 82 fewer min/day of screen time and 13 more min/day of sleep compared with children of parents who maintained their schedule. Parents changing their work schedule were also associated with a 31% lower odds of the child consuming sugar-sweetened beverages. Conclusions: Parents experiencing pandemic-related financial strain may need additional support to promote healthy behaviors. Understanding how changes in parent work schedules support shorter screen time and longer sleep duration can inform future interventions.

17.
Environ Res ; 214(Pt 1): 113881, 2022 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35835166

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prenatal exposure to ambient air pollution has been associated with adverse offspring health outcomes. Childhood health effects of prenatal exposures may be mediated through changes to DNA methylation detectable at birth. METHODS: Among 429 non-smoking women in a cohort study of mother-infant pairs in Colorado, USA, we estimated associations between prenatal exposure to ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and ozone (O3), and epigenome-wide DNA methylation of umbilical cord blood cells at delivery (2010-2014). We calculated average PM2.5 and O3 in each trimester of pregnancy and the full pregnancy using inverse-distance-weighted interpolation. We fit linear regression models adjusted for potential confounders and cell proportions to estimate associations between air pollutants and methylation at each of 432,943 CpGs. Differentially methylated regions (DMRs) were identified using comb-p. Previously in this cohort, we reported positive associations between 3rd trimester O3 exposure and infant adiposity at 5 months of age. Here, we quantified the potential for mediation of that association by changes in DNA methylation in cord blood. RESULTS: We identified several DMRs for each pollutant and period of pregnancy. The greatest number of significant DMRs were associated with third trimester PM2.5 (21 DMRs). No single CpGs were associated with air pollutants at a false discovery rate <0.05. We found that up to 8% of the effect of 3rd trimester O3 on 5-month adiposity may be mediated by locus-specific methylation changes, but mediation estimates were not statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: Differentially methylated regions in cord blood were identified in association with maternal exposure to PM2.5 and O3. Genes annotated to the significant sites played roles in cardiometabolic disease, immune function and inflammation, and neurologic disorders. We found limited evidence of mediation by DNA methylation of associations between third trimester O3 exposure and 5-month infant adiposity.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Adiposidade , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Metilação de DNA , Feminino , Sangue Fetal , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Exposição Materna , Obesidade , Material Particulado , Gravidez
18.
Clin Epigenetics ; 14(1): 83, 2022 07 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35790973

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sleep is important for healthy functioning in children. Numerous genetic and environmental factors, from conception onwards, may influence this phenotype. Epigenetic mechanisms such as DNA methylation have been proposed to underlie variation in sleep or may be an early-life marker of sleep disturbances. We examined if DNA methylation at birth or in school age is associated with parent-reported and actigraphy-estimated sleep outcomes in children. METHODS: We meta-analysed epigenome-wide association study results. DNA methylation was measured from cord blood at birth in 11 cohorts and from peripheral blood in children (4-13 years) in 8 cohorts. Outcomes included parent-reported sleep duration, sleep initiation and fragmentation problems, and actigraphy-estimated sleep duration, sleep onset latency and wake-after-sleep-onset duration. RESULTS: We found no associations between DNA methylation at birth and parent-reported sleep duration (n = 3658), initiation problems (n = 2504), or fragmentation (n = 1681) (p values above cut-off 4.0 × 10-8). Lower methylation at cg24815001 and cg02753354 at birth was associated with longer actigraphy-estimated sleep duration (p = 3.31 × 10-8, n = 577) and sleep onset latency (p = 8.8 × 10-9, n = 580), respectively. DNA methylation in childhood was not cross-sectionally associated with any sleep outcomes (n = 716-2539). CONCLUSION: DNA methylation, at birth or in childhood, was not associated with parent-reported sleep. Associations observed with objectively measured sleep outcomes could be studied further if additional data sets become available.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília , Epigênese Genética , Epigenoma , Humanos , Sono/genética , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/genética
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35881986

RESUMO

Tribal Turning Point (TTP) is a community-based randomized controlled trial of a lifestyle intervention to reduce risk factors for type 2 diabetes in Native youth. TTP began in 2018 and was interrupted by the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020. In this paper we aimed to understand 1) how the pandemic impacted TTP's operations, and how the TTP team successfully adapted to these impacts; 2) how the effects of COVID-19 and our adaptations to them were similar or different across TTP's research sites; and 3) lessons learned from this experience that may help other Native health research teams be resilient in this and future crises. Using a collaborative mixed methods approach, this report explored five a priori domains of adaptation: intervention delivery, participant engagement, data collection, analytic strategies, and team operations. We derived three lessons learned: 1) ensure that support offered is flexible to differing needs and responsive to changes over time; 2) adapt collaboratively and iteratively while remaining rooted in community; and 3) recognize that relationships are the foundation of successful research.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Índios Norte-Americanos , Adolescente , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Pandemias/prevenção & controle
20.
Health Place ; 76: 102858, 2022 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35872389

RESUMO

Limited studies examine how prenatal environmental and social exposures jointly impact perinatal health. Here we investigated relationships between a neighborhood-level combined exposure (CE) index assessed during pregnancy and perinatal outcomes, including birthweight, gestational age, and preterm birth. Across all participants, higher CE index scores were associated with small decreases in birthweight and gestational age. We also observed effect modification by race; infants born to Black pregnant people had a greater risk of preterm birth for higher CE values compared to White infants. Overall, our results suggest that neighborhood social and environmental exposures have a small but measurable joint effect on neonatal indicators of health.


Assuntos
Nascimento Prematuro , Peso ao Nascer , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...