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1.
Genome Res ; 29(7): 1057-1066, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31160375

RESUMO

Germline mutations in fundamental epigenetic regulatory molecules including DNA methyltransferase 3 alpha (DNMT3A) are commonly associated with growth disorders, whereas somatic mutations are often associated with malignancy. We profiled genome-wide DNA methylation patterns in DNMT3A c.2312G > A; p.(Arg771Gln) carriers in a large Amish sibship with Tatton-Brown-Rahman syndrome (TBRS), their mosaic father, and 15 TBRS patients with distinct pathogenic de novo DNMT3A variants. This defined widespread DNA hypomethylation at specific genomic sites enriched at locations annotated as genes involved in morphogenesis, development, differentiation, and malignancy predisposition pathways. TBRS patients also displayed highly accelerated DNA methylation aging. These findings were most marked in a carrier of the AML-associated driver mutation p.Arg882Cys. Our studies additionally defined phenotype-related accelerated and decelerated epigenetic aging in two histone methyltransferase disorders: NSD1 Sotos syndrome overgrowth disorder and KMT2D Kabuki syndrome growth impairment. Together, our findings provide fundamental new insights into aberrant epigenetic mechanisms, the role of epigenetic machinery maintenance, and determinants of biological aging in these growth disorders.

3.
Am J Hum Genet ; 104(5): 815-834, 2019 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31031012

RESUMO

We identified individuals with variations in ACTL6B, a component of the chromatin remodeling machinery including the BAF complex. Ten individuals harbored bi-allelic mutations and presented with global developmental delay, epileptic encephalopathy, and spasticity, and ten individuals with de novo heterozygous mutations displayed intellectual disability, ambulation deficits, severe language impairment, hypotonia, Rett-like stereotypies, and minor facial dysmorphisms (wide mouth, diastema, bulbous nose). Nine of these ten unrelated individuals had the identical de novo c.1027G>A (p.Gly343Arg) mutation. Human-derived neurons were generated that recaptured ACTL6B expression patterns in development from progenitor cell to post-mitotic neuron, validating the use of this model. Engineered knock-out of ACTL6B in wild-type human neurons resulted in profound deficits in dendrite development, a result recapitulated in two individuals with different bi-allelic mutations, and reversed on clonal genetic repair or exogenous expression of ACTL6B. Whole-transcriptome analyses and whole-genomic profiling of the BAF complex in wild-type and bi-allelic mutant ACTL6B neural progenitor cells and neurons revealed increased genomic binding of the BAF complex in ACTL6B mutants, with corresponding transcriptional changes in several genes including TPPP and FSCN1, suggesting that altered regulation of some cytoskeletal genes contribute to altered dendrite development. Assessment of bi-alleic and heterozygous ACTL6B mutations on an ACTL6B knock-out human background demonstrated that bi-allelic mutations mimic engineered deletion deficits while heterozygous mutations do not, suggesting that the former are loss of function and the latter are gain of function. These results reveal a role for ACTL6B in neurodevelopment and implicate another component of chromatin remodeling machinery in brain disease.

4.
J Med Genet ; 56(7): 444-452, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30842225

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A single variant in NAA10 (c.471+2T>A), the gene encoding N-acetyltransferase 10, has been associated with Lenz microphthalmia syndrome. In this study, we aimed to identify causative variants in families with syndromic X-linked microphthalmia. METHODS: Three families, including 15 affected individuals with syndromic X-linked microphthalmia, underwent analyses including linkage analysis, exome sequencing and targeted gene sequencing. The consequences of two identified variants in NAA10 were evaluated using quantitative PCR and RNAseq. RESULTS: Genetic linkage analysis in family 1 supported a candidate region on Xq27-q28, which included NAA10. Exome sequencing identified a hemizygous NAA10 polyadenylation signal (PAS) variant, chrX:153,195,397T>C, c.*43A>G, which segregated with the disease. Targeted sequencing of affected males from families 2 and 3 identified distinct NAA10 PAS variants, chrX:g.153,195,401T>C, c.*39A>G and chrX:g.153,195,400T>C, c.*40A>G. All three variants were absent from gnomAD. Quantitative PCR and RNAseq showed reduced NAA10 mRNA levels and abnormal 3' UTRs in affected individuals. Targeted sequencing of NAA10 in 376 additional affected individuals failed to identify variants in the PAS. CONCLUSION: These data show that PAS variants are the most common variant type in NAA10-associated syndromic microphthalmia, suggesting reduced RNA is the molecular mechanism by which these alterations cause microphthalmia/anophthalmia. We reviewed recognised variants in PAS associated with Mendelian disorders and identified only 23 others, indicating that NAA10 harbours more than 10% of all known PAS variants. We hypothesise that PAS in other genes harbour unrecognised pathogenic variants associated with Mendelian disorders. The systematic interrogation of PAS could improve genetic testing yields.

5.
Genome Res ; 29(2): 159-170, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30587507

RESUMO

Mutations that perturb normal pre-mRNA splicing are significant contributors to human disease. We used exome sequencing data from 7833 probands with developmental disorders (DDs) and their unaffected parents, as well as more than 60,000 aggregated exomes from the Exome Aggregation Consortium, to investigate selection around the splice sites and quantify the contribution of splicing mutations to DDs. Patterns of purifying selection, a deficit of variants in highly constrained genes in healthy subjects, and excess de novo mutations in patients highlighted particular positions within and around the consensus splice site of greater functional relevance. By using mutational burden analyses in this large cohort of proband-parent trios, we could estimate in an unbiased manner the relative contributions of mutations at canonical dinucleotides (73%) and flanking noncanonical positions (27%), and calculate the positive predictive value of pathogenicity for different classes of mutations. We identified 18 patients with likely diagnostic de novo mutations in dominant DD-associated genes at noncanonical positions in splice sites. We estimate 35%-40% of pathogenic variants in noncanonical splice site positions are missing from public databases.


Assuntos
Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/genética , Mutação , Sítios de Splice de RNA , Exoma , Humanos , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
6.
Wellcome Open Res ; 3: 46, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29900417

RESUMO

Tatton-Brown-Rahman syndrome (TBRS; OMIM 615879), also known as the DNMT3A-overgrowth syndrome, is an overgrowth intellectual disability syndrome first described in 2014 with a report of 13 individuals with constitutive heterozygous DNMT3A variants. Here we have undertaken a detailed clinical study of 55 individuals with de novoDNMT3A variants, including the 13 previously reported individuals. An intellectual disability and overgrowth were reported in >80% of individuals with TBRS and were designated major clinical associations. Additional frequent clinical associations (reported in 20-80% individuals) included an evolving facial appearance with low-set, heavy, horizontal eyebrows and prominent upper central incisors; joint hypermobility (74%); obesity (weight ³2SD, 67%); hypotonia (54%); behavioural/psychiatric issues (most frequently autistic spectrum disorder, 51%); kyphoscoliosis (33%) and afebrile seizures (22%). One individual was diagnosed with acute myeloid leukaemia in teenage years. Based upon the results from this study, we present our current management for individuals with TBRS.

7.
Mol Vis ; 24: 847-852, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30713423

RESUMO

Purpose: To identify the genetic variation in two unrelated probands with congenital cataract and to perform functional analysis of the detected variants. Methods: Clinical examination and phenotyping, segregation, and functional analysis were performed for the two studied pedigrees. Results: A novel OCRL gene variant (c.1964A>T, p. (Asp655Val)) was identified. This variant causes defects in OCRL protein folding and mislocalization to the cytoplasm. In addition, the variant's location close to the Rab binding site is likely to be associated with membrane targeting abnormalities. Conclusions: The results highlight the importance of early genetic diagnosis in infants with congenital cataract and show that mutations in the OCRL gene can present as apparently isolated congenital cataract.


Assuntos
Catarata/genética , Síndrome Oculocerebrorrenal/genética , Monoéster Fosfórico Hidrolases/genética , Mutação Puntual , Proteínas rab de Ligação ao GTP/genética , Substituição de Aminoácidos , Sítios de Ligação , Catarata/congênito , Catarata/metabolismo , Catarata/patologia , Criança , Expressão Gênica , Hemizigoto , Humanos , Masculino , Síndrome Oculocerebrorrenal/metabolismo , Síndrome Oculocerebrorrenal/patologia , Linhagem , Fenótipo , Monoéster Fosfórico Hidrolases/química , Monoéster Fosfórico Hidrolases/metabolismo , Ligação Proteica , Conformação Proteica em alfa-Hélice , Conformação Proteica em Folha beta , Dobramento de Proteína , Domínios e Motivos de Interação entre Proteínas , Proteínas rab de Ligação ao GTP/química , Proteínas rab de Ligação ao GTP/metabolismo
8.
Am J Hum Genet ; 101(5): 768-788, 2017 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29100089

RESUMO

Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CAMK2) is one of the first proteins shown to be essential for normal learning and synaptic plasticity in mice, but its requirement for human brain development has not yet been established. Through a multi-center collaborative study based on a whole-exome sequencing approach, we identified 19 exceedingly rare de novo CAMK2A or CAMK2B variants in 24 unrelated individuals with intellectual disability. Variants were assessed for their effect on CAMK2 function and on neuronal migration. For both CAMK2A and CAMK2B, we identified mutations that decreased or increased CAMK2 auto-phosphorylation at Thr286/Thr287. We further found that all mutations affecting auto-phosphorylation also affected neuronal migration, highlighting the importance of tightly regulated CAMK2 auto-phosphorylation in neuronal function and neurodevelopment. Our data establish the importance of CAMK2A and CAMK2B and their auto-phosphorylation in human brain function and expand the phenotypic spectrum of the disorders caused by variants in key players of the glutamatergic signaling pathway.


Assuntos
Proteína Quinase Tipo 2 Dependente de Cálcio-Calmodulina/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Mutação/genética , Animais , Encéfalo/patologia , Linhagem Celular , Exoma/genética , Feminino , Ácido Glutâmico/genética , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Neurônios/patologia , Fosforilação/genética , Transdução de Sinais/genética
9.
Mol Genet Genomic Med ; 5(5): 495-507, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28944233

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Syntaxin-binding protein 1, encoded by STXBP1, is highly expressed in the brain and involved in fusing synaptic vesicles with the plasma membrane. Studies have shown that pathogenic loss-of-function variants in this gene result in various types of epilepsies, mostly beginning early in life. We were interested to model pathogenic missense variants on the protein structure to investigate the mechanism of pathogenicity and genotype-phenotype correlations. METHODS: We report 11 patients with pathogenic de novo mutations in STXBP1 identified in the first 4293 trios of the Deciphering Developmental Disorder (DDD) study, including six missense variants. We analyzed the structural locations of the pathogenic missense variants from this study and the literature, as well as population missense variants extracted from Exome Aggregation Consortium (ExAC). RESULTS: Pathogenic variants are significantly more likely to occur at highly conserved locations than population variants, and be buried inside the protein domain. Pathogenic mutations are also more likely to destabilize the domain structure compared with population variants, increasing the proportion of (partially) unfolded domains that are prone to aggregation or degradation. We were unable to detect any genotype-phenotype correlation, but unlike previously reported cases, most of the DDD patients with STXBP1 pathogenic variants did not present with very early-onset or severe epilepsy and encephalopathy, though all have developmental delay with intellectual disability and most display behavioral problems and suffered seizures in later childhood. CONCLUSION: Variants across STXBP1 that cause loss of function can result in severe intellectual disability with or without seizures, consistent with a haploinsufficiency mechanism. Pathogenic missense mutations act through destabilization of the protein domain, making it prone to aggregation or degradation. The presence or absence of early seizures may reflect ascertainment bias in the literature as well as the broad recruitment strategy of the DDD study.

10.
Hum Mutat ; 37(2): 148-54, 2016 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26507355

RESUMO

Mandibulofacial dysostosis with microcephaly (MFDM) is a multiple malformation syndrome comprising microcephaly, craniofacial anomalies, hearing loss, dysmorphic features, and, in some cases, esophageal atresia. Haploinsufficiency of a spliceosomal GTPase, U5-116 kDa/EFTUD2, is responsible. Here, we review the molecular basis of MFDM in the 69 individuals described to date, and report mutations in 38 new individuals, bringing the total number of reported individuals to 107 individuals from 94 kindreds. Pathogenic EFTUD2 variants comprise 76 distinct mutations and seven microdeletions. Among point mutations, missense substitutions are infrequent (14 out of 76; 18%) relative to stop-gain (29 out of 76; 38%), and splicing (33 out of 76; 43%) mutations. Where known, mutation origin was de novo in 48 out of 64 individuals (75%), dominantly inherited in 12 out of 64 (19%), and due to proven germline mosaicism in four out of 64 (6%). Highly penetrant clinical features include, microcephaly, first and second arch craniofacial malformations, and hearing loss; esophageal atresia is present in an estimated ∼27%. Microcephaly is virtually universal in childhood, with some adults exhibiting late "catch-up" growth and normocephaly at maturity. Occasionally reported anomalies, include vestibular and ossicular malformations, reduced mouth opening, atrophy of cerebral white matter, structural brain malformations, and epibulbar dermoid. All reported EFTUD2 mutations can be found in the EFTUD2 mutation database (http://databases.lovd.nl/shared/genes/EFTUD2).


Assuntos
Anormalidades Múltiplas/genética , Perda Auditiva/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Disostose Mandibulofacial/genética , Microcefalia/genética , Mutação , Fatores de Alongamento de Peptídeos/genética , Ribonucleoproteína Nuclear Pequena U5/genética , Anormalidades Múltiplas/diagnóstico , Anormalidades Múltiplas/patologia , Motivos de Aminoácidos , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Expressão Gênica , Haploinsuficiência , Perda Auditiva/diagnóstico , Perda Auditiva/patologia , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/diagnóstico , Deficiência Intelectual/patologia , Disostose Mandibulofacial/diagnóstico , Disostose Mandibulofacial/patologia , Microcefalia/diagnóstico , Microcefalia/patologia , Modelos Moleculares , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Penetrância , Fenótipo , Estrutura Secundária de Proteína , Estrutura Terciária de Proteína , Processamento de RNA , Spliceossomos/genética
11.
Am J Med Genet A ; 167A(9): 2052-64, 2015 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26097203

RESUMO

The 8p23.1 duplication syndrome (8p23.1 DS) is a recurrent genomic condition with an estimated prevalence of 1 in 58,000. The core 3.68 Mb duplication contains 32 genes of which five are currently candidates for the phenotypic features. Here we describe four patients and five families with eight microduplications of 8p23.1 ranging from 187 to 1082 kb in size and one atypical duplication of 4 Mb. These indicate that a minimal region of overlap (MRO) in medial 8p23.1 can give rise to features of 8p23.1 DS including developmental delay, dysmorphism, macrocephaly and otitis media, but not congenital heart disease (CHD). This MRO spans 776 kb (chr8:10,167,881-10,943,836 hg19) and contains SOX7 and seven of the other 32 core 8p23.1 DS genes. In centromeric 8p23.1, microduplications including GATA4 can give rise to non-syndromic CHD but the clinical significance of two smaller centromeric microduplications without GATA4 was uncertain due to severe neurological profiles not usually found in 8p23.1 DS. The clinical significance of three further 8p23.1 microduplications was uncertain due to additional genetic factors without which the probands might not have come to medical attention. Variable expressivity was indicated by the almost entirely unaffected parents in all five families and the mildly affected sibling in one. Intronic interruptions of six genes by microduplication breakpoint intervals had no apparent additional clinical consequences. Our results suggest that 8p23.1 DS is an oligogenetic condition largely caused by the duplication and interactions of the SOX7 and GATA4 transcription factors.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Múltiplas/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 8/genética , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/genética , Duplicação Gênica/genética , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Deleção Cromossômica , Feminino , Fator de Transcrição GATA4/genética , Cardiopatias Congênitas/genética , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Síndrome
12.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 23(9): 1165-70, 2015 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25424711

RESUMO

KAT6B sequence variants have been identified previously in both patients with the Say-Barber-Biesecker type of blepharophimosis mental retardation syndromes (SBBS) and in the more severe genitopatellar syndrome (GPS). We report on the findings in a previously unreported group of 57 individuals with suggestive features of SBBS or GPS. Likely causative variants have been identified in 34/57 patients and were commonly located in the terminal exons of KAT6B. Of those where parental samples could be tested, all occurred de novo. Thirty out of thirty-four had truncating variants, one had a missense variant and the remaining three had the same synonymous change predicted to affect splicing. Variants in GPS tended to occur more proximally to those in SBBS patients, and genotype/phenotype analysis demonstrated significant clinical overlap between SBBS and GPS. The de novo synonymous change seen in three patients with features of SBBS occurred more proximally in exon 16. Statistical analysis of clinical features demonstrated that KAT6B variant-positive patients were more likely to display hypotonia, feeding difficulties, long thumbs/great toes and dental, thyroid and patella abnormalities than KAT6B variant-negative patients. The few reported patients with KAT6B haploinsufficiency had a much milder phenotype, though with some features overlapping those of SBBS. We report the findings in a previously unreported patient with a deletion of the KAT6B gene to further delineate the haploinsufficiency phenotype. The molecular mechanisms giving rise to the SBBS and GPS phenotypes are discussed.


Assuntos
Blefarofimose/genética , Hipotireoidismo Congênito/genética , Anormalidades Craniofaciais/genética , Éxons , Cardiopatias Congênitas/genética , Histona Acetiltransferases/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Instabilidade Articular/genética , Rim/anormalidades , Mutação , Patela/anormalidades , Transtornos Psicomotores/genética , Escroto/anormalidades , Anormalidades Urogenitais/genética , Blefarofimose/diagnóstico , Blefarofimose/patologia , Pré-Escolar , Hipotireoidismo Congênito/diagnóstico , Hipotireoidismo Congênito/patologia , Anormalidades Craniofaciais/diagnóstico , Anormalidades Craniofaciais/patologia , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Exoma , Facies , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Estudos de Associação Genética , Genótipo , Cardiopatias Congênitas/diagnóstico , Cardiopatias Congênitas/patologia , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/diagnóstico , Deficiência Intelectual/patologia , Instabilidade Articular/diagnóstico , Instabilidade Articular/patologia , Rim/patologia , Masculino , Patela/patologia , Fenótipo , Transtornos Psicomotores/diagnóstico , Transtornos Psicomotores/patologia , Escroto/patologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Anormalidades Urogenitais/diagnóstico , Anormalidades Urogenitais/patologia
13.
Nat Genet ; 46(4): 385-8, 2014 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24614070

RESUMO

Overgrowth disorders are a heterogeneous group of conditions characterized by increased growth parameters and other variable clinical features such as intellectual disability and facial dysmorphism. To identify new causes of human overgrowth, we performed exome sequencing in ten proband-parent trios and detected two de novo DNMT3A mutations. We identified 11 additional de novo mutations by sequencing DNMT3A in a further 142 individuals with overgrowth. The mutations alter residues in functional DNMT3A domains, and protein modeling suggests that they interfere with domain-domain interactions and histone binding. Similar mutations were not present in 1,000 UK population controls (13/152 cases versus 0/1,000 controls; P < 0.0001). Mutation carriers had a distinctive facial appearance, intellectual disability and greater height. DNMT3A encodes a DNA methyltransferase essential for establishing methylation during embryogenesis and is commonly somatically mutated in acute myeloid leukemia. Thus, DNMT3A joins an emerging group of epigenetic DNA- and histone-modifying genes associated with both developmental growth disorders and hematological malignancies.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Múltiplas/genética , DNA (Citosina-5-)-Metiltransferases/genética , Transtornos do Crescimento/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Modelos Moleculares , Conformação Proteica , Sequência de Bases , DNA (Citosina-5-)-Metiltransferases/química , DNA (Citosina-5-)-Metiltransferases/metabolismo , Exoma/genética , Componentes do Gene , Histonas/metabolismo , Humanos , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Mutação/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Síndrome , Reino Unido
14.
Neonatology ; 94(1): 68-70, 2008.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18196933

RESUMO

This paper describes a female infant with achondroplasia, Down syndrome and tetralogy of Fallot. Down syndrome and achondroplasia were confirmed by karyotyping and presence of a common fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 mutation (Gly380Arg), respectively. The clinical course was complicated by pulmonary hypoplasia and subsequent intractable respiratory failure secondary to the combination of congenital conditions, which resulted in the patient's death at 5 months.


Assuntos
Acondroplasia/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Down/diagnóstico , Tetralogia de Fallot/diagnóstico , Acondroplasia/complicações , Acondroplasia/genética , Síndrome de Down/complicações , Síndrome de Down/genética , Evolução Fatal , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Cariotipagem , Mutação/genética , Receptores de Fatores de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/genética , Insuficiência Respiratória/etiologia , Tetralogia de Fallot/complicações , Tetralogia de Fallot/genética
15.
Clin Dysmorphol ; 16(3): 197-201, 2007 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17551338

RESUMO

Primary hypertrophic osteoarthropathy is a condition characterized by clubbing, arthropathy and periostosis of long tubular bones. Three variants of primary hypertrophic osteoarthropathy are distinguished: pachydermoperiostosis, which shows as additional symptom pachydermia; cranio-osteoarthropathy, which has a decreased neurocranium ossification as additional feature; and a secondary form. Primary hypertrophic osteoarthropathy is also genetically heterogeneous, with evidence for both autosomal dominant and autosomal recessive inheritance. We describe two sibs with cranio-osteoarthropathy and briefly review previously reported cases. The present cases demonstrate the phenotypic variability of the condition. The consanguinity in the present family and analysis of previously described cases support autosomal recessive inheritance for cranio-osteoarthropathy.


Assuntos
Osteoartropatia Hipertrófica Primária/patologia , Irmãos , Crânio/anormalidades , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Mãos/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Radiografia , Crânio/diagnóstico por imagem
16.
Fam Cancer ; 5(2): 201-4, 2006.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16736292

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We describe a 4-generation family with familial medullary thyroid carcinoma (FMTC) -- a variant of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 (MEN 2) without extra-thyroid features. RET mutation analysis confirmed an E768D mutation in exon 13 in 8 family members, 3 affected with medullary thyroid cancer alone while the other 5 were detected to be mutation carriers. This mutation has been described in very few families worldwide and the spectrum of disease and natural history is unclear. RESULTS: Three affected members had medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) confirmed histologically at ages 25, 50 and 56 years, respectively. The E768D mutation appears to have a less aggressive clinical course compared to other high risk RET mutations with no evidence of clinical recurrence up to 11 years after initial therapy. Of five gene carriers identified, two are asymptomatic at the age of 70 and 61, and three had raised calcitonin levels at 46, 39, and 45 years. Following total thyroidectomy, one gene carrier had a histologically normal thyroid at age 46, following a mildly elevated calcitonin, one had C-cell hyperplasia at the age of 39, and one had a frank focus of carcinoma in the left thyroid lobe at the age of 45. No members had evidence of phaeochromocytoma or parathyroid disease on screening. CONCLUSION: The RET E768D mutation is associated with MTC with a later age at presentation, incomplete penetrance and less aggressive course compared with other high risk RET mutations. To date in this family the E768D mutation has not been associated with either phaeochromocytoma or hyperparathyroidism. The appropriate screening strategy for and management of E768D carriers is difficult reflecting the phenotypic heterogeneity.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Medular/genética , Testes Genéticos , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Penetrância , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-ret/genética , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/genética , Adulto , Carcinoma Medular/terapia , Feminino , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasia Endócrina Múltipla Tipo 2a/genética , Fenótipo , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/terapia
17.
Clin Dysmorphol ; 15(1): 25-7, 2006 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16317303

RESUMO

We report a male child born with complete absence of his external ear, hemifacial microsomia of the right side, high arched palate, a down-turned upper lip and slightly up-slanting palpebral fissures. The features were suggestive of facio-auriculo-vertebral spectrum. Investigations showed a tandem duplication of the short arm of one chromosome 10 with apparent breakpoints at p14 and p15. This case extends the list of chromosomal abnormalities associated with the facio-auriculo-vertebral phenotype and also adds useful clinical information to possible trisomy 10p phenotypes.


Assuntos
Quebra Cromossômica/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 10/genética , Anormalidades Craniofaciais/metabolismo , Trissomia/genética , Criança , Anormalidades Craniofaciais/patologia , Seguimentos , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino
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