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1.
Sci Total Environ ; 802: 149695, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34438127

RESUMO

Particle number size distribution (PNSD) is of importance for understanding the mechanisms of particle growth, haze formation and climate impacts. However, the measurements of PNSD aloft in megacities are very limited. Here we report the first simultaneous winter measurements of size-resolved particle number concentrations along with collocated gaseous species and aerosol composition at ground level and 260 m in Beijing. Our study showed that the vertical differences of particle number concentrations between ground level and aloft varied significantly as a function of particle size throughout the study. Further analysis illustrated the impacts of boundary dynamics and meteorological conditions on the vertical differences of PNSD. In particular, the temperature and relative humidity inversions were one of the most important factors by decoupling the boundary layer into different sources and processes. Positive matrix factorization analysis identified six sources of PNSD at both ground level and city aloft. The local source emissions dominantly contributed to Aitken-mode particles, and showed the largest vertical gradients in the city. Comparatively, the regional particles were highly correlated between ground level and city aloft, and the vertical differences were relatively stable throughout the day. Our results point towards a complex vertical evolution of PNSD due to the changes in boundary layer dynamics, meteorological conditions, sources, and processes in megacities.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Aerossóis/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Pequim , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Tamanho da Partícula , Material Particulado/análise , Estações do Ano
2.
Environ Sci Technol ; 2021 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34806377

RESUMO

The understanding at a molecular level of ambient secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation is hampered by poorly constrained formation mechanisms and insufficient analytical methods. Especially in developing countries, SOA related haze is a great concern due to its significant effects on climate and human health. We present simultaneous measurements of gas-phase volatile organic compounds (VOCs), oxygenated organic molecules (OOMs), and particle-phase SOA in Beijing. We show that condensation of the measured OOMs explains 26-39% of the organic aerosol mass growth, with the contribution of OOMs to SOA enhanced during severe haze episodes. Our novel results provide a quantitative molecular connection from anthropogenic emissions to condensable organic oxidation product vapors, their concentration in particle-phase SOA, and ultimately to haze formation.

3.
Environ Sci Atmos ; 1(6): 434-448, 2021 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34604755

RESUMO

Aerosol particles negatively affect human health while also having climatic relevance due to, for example, their ability to act as cloud condensation nuclei. Ultrafine particles (diameter D p < 100 nm) typically comprise the largest fraction of the total number concentration, however, their chemical characterization is difficult because of their low mass. Using an extractive electrospray time-of-flight mass spectrometer (EESI-TOF), we characterize the molecular composition of freshly nucleated particles from naphthalene and ß-caryophyllene oxidation products at the CLOUD chamber at CERN. We perform a detailed intercomparison of the organic aerosol chemical composition measured by the EESI-TOF and an iodide adduct chemical ionization mass spectrometer equipped with a filter inlet for gases and aerosols (FIGAERO-I-CIMS). We also use an aerosol growth model based on the condensation of organic vapors to show that the chemical composition measured by the EESI-TOF is consistent with the expected condensed oxidation products. This agreement could be further improved by constraining the EESI-TOF compound-specific sensitivity or considering condensed-phase processes. Our results show that the EESI-TOF can obtain the chemical composition of particles as small as 20 nm in diameter with mass loadings as low as hundreds of ng m-3 in real time. This was until now difficult to achieve, as other online instruments are often limited by size cutoffs, ionization/thermal fragmentation and/or semi-continuous sampling. Using real-time simultaneous gas- and particle-phase data, we discuss the condensation of naphthalene oxidation products on a molecular level.

4.
Science ; 371(6529): 589-595, 2021 02 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33542130

RESUMO

Iodic acid (HIO3) is known to form aerosol particles in coastal marine regions, but predicted nucleation and growth rates are lacking. Using the CERN CLOUD (Cosmics Leaving Outdoor Droplets) chamber, we find that the nucleation rates of HIO3 particles are rapid, even exceeding sulfuric acid-ammonia rates under similar conditions. We also find that ion-induced nucleation involves IO3 - and the sequential addition of HIO3 and that it proceeds at the kinetic limit below +10°C. In contrast, neutral nucleation involves the repeated sequential addition of iodous acid (HIO2) followed by HIO3, showing that HIO2 plays a key stabilizing role. Freshly formed particles are composed almost entirely of HIO3, which drives rapid particle growth at the kinetic limit. Our measurements indicate that iodine oxoacid particle formation can compete with sulfuric acid in pristine regions of the atmosphere.

5.
Sci Total Environ ; 753: 142207, 2021 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33207435

RESUMO

Secondary aerosol formation in the aging process of primary emission is the main reason for haze pollution in eastern China. Pollution evolution with photochemical age was studied for the first time at a comprehensive field observation station during winter in Beijing. The photochemical age was used as an estimate of the timescale attributed to the aging process and was estimated from the ratio of toluene to benzene in this study. A low photochemical age indicates a fresh emission. The photochemical age of air masses during new particle formation (NPF) days was lower than that on haze days. In general, the strongest NPF events, along with a peak of the formation rate of 1.5 nm (J1.5) and 3 nm particles (J3), were observed when the photochemical age was between 12 and 24 h while rarely took place with photochemical ages less than 12 h. When photochemical age was larger than 48 h, haze occurred and NPF was suppressed. The sources and sinks of nanoparticles had distinct relation with the photochemical age. Our results show that the condensation sink (CS) showed a valley with photochemical ages ranging from 12 to 24 h, while H2SO4 concentration showed no obvious trend with the photochemical age. The high concentrations of precursor vapours within an air mass lead to persistent nucleation with photochemical age ranging from 12 to 48 h in winter. Coincidently, the fast increase of PM2.5 mass was also observed during this range of photochemical age. Noteworthy, CS increased with the photochemical age on NPF days only, which is the likely reason for the observation that the PM2.5 mass increased faster with photochemical age on NPF days compared with other days. The evolution of particles with the photochemical age provides new insights into understanding how particles originating from NPF transform to haze pollution.

6.
Faraday Discuss ; 226: 334-347, 2021 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33290451

RESUMO

Atmospheric gas-to-particle conversion is a crucial or even dominant contributor to haze formation in Chinese megacities in terms of aerosol number, surface area and mass. Based on our comprehensive observations in Beijing during 15 January 2018-31 March 2019, we are able to show that 80-90% of the aerosol mass (PM2.5) was formed via atmospheric reactions during the haze days and over 65% of the number concentration of haze particles resulted from new particle formation (NPF). Furthermore, the haze formation was faster when the subsequent growth of newly formed particles was enhanced. Our findings suggest that in practice almost all present-day haze episodes originate from NPF, mainly since the direct emission of primary particles in Beijing has considerably decreased during recent years. We also show that reducing the subsequent growth rate of freshly formed particles by a factor of 3-5 would delay the buildup of haze episodes by 1-3 days. Actually, this delay would decrease the length of each haze episode, so that the number of annual haze days could be approximately halved. Such improvement in air quality can be achieved with targeted reduction of gas-phase precursors for NPF, mainly dimethyl amine and ammonia, and further reductions of SO2 emissions. Furthermore, reduction of anthropogenic organic and inorganic precursor emissions would slow down the growth rate of newly-formed particles and consequently reduce the haze formation.

7.
Environ Sci Technol Lett ; 7(11): 809-818, 2020 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33195731

RESUMO

Sulfur trioxide (SO3) is a crucial compound for atmospheric sulfuric acid (H2SO4) formation, acid rain formation, and other atmospheric physicochemical processes. During the daytime, SO3 is mainly produced from the photo-oxidation of SO2 by OH radicals. However, the sources of SO3 during the early morning and night, when OH radicals are scarce, are not fully understood. We report results from two field measurements in urban Beijing during winter and summer 2019, using a nitrate-CI-APi-LTOF (chemical ionization-atmospheric pressure interface-long-time-of-flight) mass spectrometer to detect atmospheric SO3 and H2SO4. Our results show the level of SO3 was higher during the winter than during the summer, with high SO3 levels observed especially during the early morning (∼05:00 to ∼08:30) and night (∼18:00 to ∼05:00 the next day). On the basis of analysis of SO2, NO x , black carbon, traffic flow, and atmospheric ions, we suggest SO3 could be formed from the catalytic oxidation of SO2 on the surface of traffic-related black carbon. This previously unidentified SO3 source results in significant H2SO4 formation in the early morning and thus promotes sub-2.5 nm particle formation. These findings will help in understanding urban SO3 and formulating policies to mitigate secondary particle formation in Chinese megacities.

8.
Environ Sci Technol ; 54(14): 8547-8557, 2020 07 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32609510

RESUMO

Understanding the atmospheric new particle formation (NPF) process within the global range is important for revealing the budget of atmospheric aerosols and their impacts. We investigated the seasonal characteristics of NPF in the urban environment of Beijing. Aerosol size distributions down to ∼1 nm and H2SO4 concentration were measured during 2018-2019. The observed formation rate of 1.5 nm particles (J1.5) is significantly higher than those in the clean environment, e.g., Hyytiälä, whereas the growth rate is not significantly different. Both J1.5 and NPF frequency in urban Beijing show a clear seasonal variation with maxima in winter and minima in summer, while the observed growth rates are generally within the same range around the year. We show that ambient temperature is a governing factor driving the seasonal variation of J1.5. In contrast, the condensation sink and the daily maximum H2SO4 concentration show no significant seasonal variation during the NPF periods. In all four seasons, condensation of H2SO4 and (H2SO4)n(amine)n clusters contributes significantly to the growth rates in the sub-3 nm size range, whereas it is less important for the observed growth rates of particles above 3 nm. Therefore, other species are always needed for the growth of larger particles.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Material Particulado , Aerossóis/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Pequim , Monitoramento Ambiental , Tamanho da Partícula , Material Particulado/análise , Estações do Ano
9.
Environ Sci Technol ; 54(13): 7911-7921, 2020 07 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32515954

RESUMO

To better understand the role of aromatic hydrocarbons in new-particle formation, we measured the particle-phase abundance and volatility of oxidation products following the reaction of aromatic hydrocarbons with OH radicals. For this we used thermal desorption in an iodide-adduct Time-of-Flight Chemical-Ionization Mass Spectrometer equipped with a Filter Inlet for Gases and AEROsols (FIGAERO-ToF-CIMS). The particle-phase volatility measurements confirm that oxidation products of toluene and naphthalene can contribute to the initial growth of newly formed particles. Toluene-derived (C7) oxidation products have a similar volatility distribution to that of α-pinene-derived (C10) oxidation products, while naphthalene-derived (C10) oxidation products are much less volatile than those from toluene or α-pinene; they are thus stronger contributors to growth. Rapid progression through multiple generations of oxidation is more pronounced in toluene and naphthalene than in α-pinene, resulting in more oxidation but also favoring functional groups with much lower volatility per added oxygen atom, such as hydroxyl and carboxylic groups instead of hydroperoxide groups. Under conditions typical of polluted urban settings, naphthalene may well contribute to nucleation and the growth of the smallest particles, whereas the more abundant alkyl benzenes may overtake naphthalene once the particles have grown beyond the point where the Kelvin effect strongly influences the condensation driving force.


Assuntos
Hidrocarbonetos Aromáticos , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis , Aerossóis , Gases , Volatilização
10.
Nature ; 581(7807): 184-189, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32405020

RESUMO

A list of authors and their affiliations appears at the end of the paper New-particle formation is a major contributor to urban smog1,2, but how it occurs in cities is often puzzling3. If the growth rates of urban particles are similar to those found in cleaner environments (1-10 nanometres per hour), then existing understanding suggests that new urban particles should be rapidly scavenged by the high concentration of pre-existing particles. Here we show, through experiments performed under atmospheric conditions in the CLOUD chamber at CERN, that below about +5 degrees Celsius, nitric acid and ammonia vapours can condense onto freshly nucleated particles as small as a few nanometres in diameter. Moreover, when it is cold enough (below -15 degrees Celsius), nitric acid and ammonia can nucleate directly through an acid-base stabilization mechanism to form ammonium nitrate particles. Given that these vapours are often one thousand times more abundant than sulfuric acid, the resulting particle growth rates can be extremely high, reaching well above 100 nanometres per hour. However, these high growth rates require the gas-particle ammonium nitrate system to be out of equilibrium in order to sustain gas-phase supersaturations. In view of the strong temperature dependence that we measure for the gas-phase supersaturations, we expect such transient conditions to occur in inhomogeneous urban settings, especially in wintertime, driven by vertical mixing and by strong local sources such as traffic. Even though rapid growth from nitric acid and ammonia condensation may last for only a few minutes, it is nonetheless fast enough to shepherd freshly nucleated particles through the smallest size range where they are most vulnerable to scavenging loss, thus greatly increasing their survival probability. We also expect nitric acid and ammonia nucleation and rapid growth to be important in the relatively clean and cold upper free troposphere, where ammonia can be convected from the continental boundary layer and nitric acid is abundant from electrical storms4,5.

11.
Nat Protoc ; 15(3): 1013-1040, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32051616

RESUMO

Atmospheric new particle formation (NPF), which is observed in many environments globally, is an important source of boundary-layer aerosol particles and cloud condensation nuclei, which affect both the climate and human health. To better understand the mechanisms behind NPF, chamber experiments can be used to simulate this phenomenon under well-controlled conditions. Recent advancements in instrumentation have made it possible to directly detect the first steps of NPF of molecular clusters (~1-2 nm in diameter) and to calculate quantities such as the formation and growth rates of these clusters. Whereas previous studies reported particle formation rates as the flux of particles across a specified particle diameter or calculated them from measurements of larger particle sizes, this protocol outlines methods to directly quantify particle dynamics for cluster sizes. Here, we describe the instrumentation and analysis methods needed to quantify particle dynamics during NPF of sub-3-nm aerosol particles in chamber experiments. The methods described in this protocol can be used to make results from different chamber experiments comparable. The experimental setup, collection and post-processing of the data, and thus completion of this protocol, take from months up to years, depending on the chamber facility, experimental plan and level of expertise. Use of this protocol requires engineering capabilities and expertise in data analysis.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Química Analítica/métodos , Material Particulado/química , Aerossóis , Tamanho da Partícula
12.
Environ Sci Technol ; 53(21): 12357-12365, 2019 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31553886

RESUMO

We use a real-time temperature-programmed desorption chemical-ionization mass spectrometer (FIGAERO-CIMS) to measure particle-phase composition and volatility of nucleated particles, studying pure α-pinene oxidation over a wide temperature range (-50 °C to +25 °C) in the CLOUD chamber at CERN. Highly oxygenated organic molecules are much more abundant in particles formed at higher temperatures, shifting the compounds toward higher O/C and lower intrinsic (300 K) volatility. We find that pure biogenic nucleation and growth depends only weakly on temperature. This is because the positive temperature dependence of degree of oxidation (and polarity) and the negative temperature dependence of volatility counteract each other. Unlike prior work that relied on estimated volatility, we directly measure volatility via calibrated temperature-programmed desorption. Our particle-phase measurements are consistent with gas-phase results and indicate that during new-particle formation from α-pinene oxidation, gas-phase chemistry directly determines the properties of materials in the condensed phase. We now have consistency between measured gas-phase product concentrations, product volatility, measured and modeled growth rates, and the particle composition over most temperatures found in the troposphere.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Ozônio , Aerossóis , Monoterpenos Bicíclicos , Monoterpenos , Volatilização
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30658446

RESUMO

Ground level ozone (O3) plays an important role in controlling the oxidation budget in the boundary layer and thus affects the environment and causes severe health disorders. Ozone gas, being one of the well-known greenhouse gases, although present in small quantities, contributes to global warming. In this study, we present a predictive model for the steady-state ozone concentrations during daytime (13:00⁻17:00) and nighttime (01:00⁻05:00) at an urban coastal site. The model is based on a modified approach of the null cycle of O3 and NOx and was evaluated against a one-year data-base of O3 and nitrogen oxides (NO and NO2) measured at an urban coastal site in Jeddah, on the west coast of Saudi Arabia. The model for daytime concentrations was found to be linearly dependent on the concentration ratio of NO2 to NO whereas that for the nighttime period was suggested to be inversely proportional to NO2 concentrations. Knowing that reactions involved in tropospheric O3 formation are very complex, this proposed model provides reasonable predictions for the daytime and nighttime concentrations. Since the current description of the model is solely based on the null cycle of O3 and NOx, other precursors could be considered in future development of this model. This study will serve as basis for future studies that might introduce informing strategies to control ground level O3 concentrations, as well as its precursors' emissions.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Ozônio/análise , Modelos Teóricos , Óxidos de Nitrogênio/análise , Arábia Saudita
14.
Sci Adv ; 4(12): eaau5363, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30547087

RESUMO

A major fraction of atmospheric aerosol particles, which affect both air quality and climate, form from gaseous precursors in the atmosphere. Highly oxygenated organic molecules (HOMs), formed by oxidation of biogenic volatile organic compounds, are known to participate in particle formation and growth. However, it is not well understood how they interact with atmospheric pollutants, such as nitrogen oxides (NO x ) and sulfur oxides (SO x ) from fossil fuel combustion, as well as ammonia (NH3) from livestock and fertilizers. Here, we show how NO x suppresses particle formation, while HOMs, sulfuric acid, and NH3 have a synergistic enhancing effect on particle formation. We postulate a novel mechanism, involving HOMs, sulfuric acid, and ammonia, which is able to closely reproduce observations of particle formation and growth in daytime boreal forest and similar environments. The findings elucidate the complex interactions between biogenic and anthropogenic vapors in the atmospheric aerosol system.

15.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 115(37): 9122-9127, 2018 09 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30154167

RESUMO

Nucleation and growth of aerosol particles from atmospheric vapors constitutes a major source of global cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). The fraction of newly formed particles that reaches CCN sizes is highly sensitive to particle growth rates, especially for particle sizes <10 nm, where coagulation losses to larger aerosol particles are greatest. Recent results show that some oxidation products from biogenic volatile organic compounds are major contributors to particle formation and initial growth. However, whether oxidized organics contribute to particle growth over the broad span of tropospheric temperatures remains an open question, and quantitative mass balance for organic growth has yet to be demonstrated at any temperature. Here, in experiments performed under atmospheric conditions in the Cosmics Leaving Outdoor Droplets (CLOUD) chamber at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), we show that rapid growth of organic particles occurs over the range from [Formula: see text]C to [Formula: see text]C. The lower extent of autoxidation at reduced temperatures is compensated by the decreased volatility of all oxidized molecules. This is confirmed by particle-phase composition measurements, showing enhanced uptake of relatively less oxygenated products at cold temperatures. We can reproduce the measured growth rates using an aerosol growth model based entirely on the experimentally measured gas-phase spectra of oxidized organic molecules obtained from two complementary mass spectrometers. We show that the growth rates are sensitive to particle curvature, explaining widespread atmospheric observations that particle growth rates increase in the single-digit-nanometer size range. Our results demonstrate that organic vapors can contribute to particle growth over a wide range of tropospheric temperatures from molecular cluster sizes onward.

16.
Sci Adv ; 4(4): eaar5218, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29707638

RESUMO

A substantial fraction of aerosols, which affect air quality and climate, is formed from gaseous precursors. Highly oxygenated organic molecules (HOMs) are essential to grow the newly formed particles and have been evidenced to initiate ion-induced nucleation in chamber experiments in the absence of sulfuric acid. We investigate this phenomenon in the real atmosphere using an extensive set of state-of-the-art ion and mass spectrometers deployed in a boreal forest environment. We show that within a few hours around sunset, HOMs resulting from the oxidation of monoterpenes are capable of forming and growing ion clusters even under low sulfuric acid levels. In these conditions, we hypothesize that the lack of photochemistry and essential vapors prevents the organic clusters from growing past 6 nm. However, this phenomenon might have been a major source of particles in the preindustrial atmosphere and might also contribute to particle formation in the future and consequently affect the climate.


Assuntos
Atmosfera/análise , Íons/análise , Aerossóis , Poluição do Ar , Clima , Monoterpenos/análise , Oxirredução , Tamanho da Partícula
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