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1.
Curr Oncol ; 28(5): 3393-3402, 2021 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34590592

RESUMO

Ampullary carcinomas (ACs) represent a rare entity, accounting for approximately 0.2% of all gastrointestinal solid tumors and 20% of all periampullary cancers (PACs). Unfortunately, few data are available regarding the optimal therapeutic strategy for ACs due to their rarity, and physicians frequently encounter significant difficulties in the management of these malignancies. In this review, we will provide an overview of current evidence on AC, especially focusing on biological features, histological characteristics, and available data guiding present and future therapeutic strategies for these rare, and still barely known, tumors.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma , Ampola Hepatopancreática , Neoplasias do Ducto Colédoco , Neoplasias do Ducto Colédoco/terapia , Humanos
2.
Liver Cancer ; 10(4): 370-379, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34414124

RESUMO

Introduction: Cabozantinib has been approved by the European Medicine Agency (EMA) for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) previously treated with sorafenib. Cabozantinib is also being tested in combination with immune checkpoint inhibitors in the frontline setting. Real-life clinical data of cabozantinib for HCC are still lacking. Moreover, the prognostic factors for HCC treated with cabozantinib have not been investigated. Methods: We evaluated clinical data and outcome of HCC patients who received cabozantinib in the legal context of named patient use in Italy. Results: Ninety-six patients from 15 centres received cabozantinib. All patients had preserved liver function (Child-Pugh A), mostly with an advanced HCC (77.1%) in a third-line setting (75.0%). The prevalence of performance status (PS) > 0, macrovascular invasion (MVI), extrahepatic spread, and alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) >400 ng/mL was 50.0, 30.2, 67.7, and 44.8%, respectively. Median overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival were 12.1 (95% confidence interval 9.4-14.8) and 5.1 (3.3-6.9) months, respectively. Most common treatment-related adverse events (AEs) were fatigue (67.7%), diarrhoea (54.2%), anorexia (45.8%), HFSR (43.8%), weight loss (24.0%), and hypertension (24.0%). Most common treatment-related Grade 3-4 AEs were fatigue (6.3%), HFSR (6.3%), and increased aminotransferases (6.3%). MVI, ECOG-PS > 0, and AFP >400 ng/mL predicted a worse OS. Discontinuation for intolerance and no new extrahepatic lesions at the progression were associated with better outcomes. Conclusions: In a real-life Western scenario (mostly in a third-line setting), cabozantinib efficacy and safety data were comparable with those reported in its registration trial. Data regarding the prognostic factors might help in patient selection and design of clinical trials.

3.
Expert Opin Investig Drugs ; : 1-8, 2021 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34167433

RESUMO

Introduction: While sorafenib monotherapy represented the mainstay of medical treatment for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients for more than a decade, novel agents and combination therapies have recently produced unprecedented paradigm shifts. The combination of lenvatinib plus pembrolizumab is now being evaluated as a front-line treatment in advanced HCC patients; early phase clinical trials have already reported promising results.Areas covered: This paper reviews the combination of lenvatinib plus pembrolizumab for the treatment of advanced HCC. The preclinical rationale and completed and ongoing trials are examined and later, the authors reflect on biomarkers of predictive of response to immune-based combinations and future treatment decision-making on the basis of tolerability and clinical benefits provided by these novel therapeutics. A literature search was conducted in April 2021 of Pubmed/Medline, Cochrane library and Scopus databases; moreover, abstracts of international cancer meetings were reviewed.Expert opinion: The landscape of new agents and combinations continues to expand. Recently, immune-based combinations have reported important results in advanced HCC, as witnessed by the landmark IMbrave150 trial. Based on the promising results of early phase clinical trials, lenvatinib plus pembrolizumab has the potential to represent a novel treatment option in this setting.

4.
HPB (Oxford) ; 23(6): 915-920, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33191108

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: The aim of our retrospective study is to evaluate the prognostic significance of aspirin in patients with advanced HCC treated with sorafenib. METHODS: 304 patients with HCC,consecutively treated with sorafenib from May 2007 to September 2018, were included in the clinical study. Of Them 93 patients token aspirin. Progression-free survival (PFS)and overall survival (OS)were estimated with the Kaplan-Meier method and compared with the log-rank test. RESULTS: The concomitant use of sorafenib and aspirin was associated with a median OS of 18.3 months compared to 8.8 months of patients who did not receive aspirin (HR 0.57; P < 0.0001). The concomitant use of sorafenib and aspirin was associated with a median PFS of 7.3 months compared to 3.0 months of patients who did not receive aspirin (HR 0.61; P = 0.0003). In the multivariate analysis, the use of aspirin maintained an independent prognostic value for OS(HR 0.61; P = 0.0013). In second line the concomitant use of regorafenib and aspirin was associated with a median OS of 16.9 months compared to 8.0 months of patients who did not receive aspirin (HR 0.30; P = 0.02). CONCLUSION: Globally, our data seem to suggest that aspirin use may improve the clinical outcome of patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma receiving sorafenib and regorafenib.

6.
Target Oncol ; 15(6): 773-785, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33044683

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Inflammation is a long-established hallmark of liver fibrosis and carcinogenesis. Eosinophils are emerging as crucial components of the inflammatory process influencing cancer development. The role of blood eosinophils in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma receiving systemic treatment is an unexplored field. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to analyse the prognostic role of the baseline eosinophil count in patients with sorafenib-treated hepatocellular carcinoma. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A training cohort of 92 patients with advanced- or intermediate-stage sorafenib-treated hepatocellular carcinoma and two validation cohorts of 65 and 180 patients were analysed. Overall survival and progression-free survival in relation to baseline eosinophil counts were estimated by the Kaplan-Meier method. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed. RESULTS: A negative prognostic impact of low baseline eosinophil counts (< 50*109/L) was demonstrated in all cohorts (training cohort: hazard ratio = 50.1, 95% confidence interval 11.6-216.5, p < 0.0001 for low vs high eosinophil counts; first validation cohort: hazard ratio = 4.55, 95% confidence interval 1.24-16.65, p = 0.022; second validation cohort: hazard ratio = 3.21, 95% confidence interval 1.83-5.64, p < 0.0001). Moreover, low eosinophil counts had a negative prognostic role in patients progressing on or intolerant to sorafenib who received second-line regorafenib, but not capecitabine or best supportive care. CONCLUSIONS: Our analysis identified baseline blood eosinophil counts as a new prognostic factor in patients with sorafenib-treated hepatocellular carcinoma. Concerning second-line therapies, eosinophil counts were associated with survival outcomes only in regorafenib-treated patients, suggesting a possible predictive role in this setting.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular/tratamento farmacológico , Eosinófilos/metabolismo , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Sorafenibe/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/mortalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Sorafenibe/farmacologia , Análise de Sobrevida , Adulto Jovem
7.
Clin Cancer Res ; 26(18): 4795-4804, 2020 09 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32636319

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The phase III CELESTIAL study demonstrated improved overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) with cabozantinib versus placebo in patients with previously treated, advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We analyzed outcomes by baseline alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) and on-treatment AFP changes. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Serum AFP was measured every 8 weeks by blinded, centralized testing. Outcomes were analyzed by baseline AFP bifurcated at 400 ng/mL and by on-treatment AFP response (≥20% decrease from baseline at Week 8). The optimal cutoff for change in AFP at Week 8 was evaluated using maximally selected rank statistics. RESULTS: Median OS for cabozantinib versus placebo was 13.9 versus 10.3 months [HR, 0.81; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.62-1.04] for patients with baseline AFP <400 ng/mL, and 8.5 versus 5.2 months (HR, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.54-0.94) for patients with baseline AFP ≥400 ng/mL. Week 8 AFP response rate was 50% for cabozantinib versus 13% for placebo. In the cabozantinib arm, median OS for patients with and without AFP response was 16.1 versus 9.1 months (HR, 0.61; 95% CI, 0.45-0.84). AFP response was independently associated with longer OS. The optimal cutoff for association with OS in the cabozantinib arm was ≤0% change in AFP at Week 8 [AFP control; HR 0.50 (95% CI, 0.35-0.71)]. HRs for PFS were consistent with those for OS. CONCLUSIONS: Cabozantinib improved outcomes versus placebo across a range of baseline AFP levels. On-treatment AFP response and control rates were higher with cabozantinib than placebo, and were associated with longer OS and PFS with cabozantinib.

8.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 10871, 2020 07 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32616782

RESUMO

Hepatic resection is the gold standard treatment for patients affected by liver-limited colorectal metastases. Reports addressing the impact of multidisciplinary team (MDT) evaluation on survival are controversial. The aim of this study was to evaluate the benefit of MDT management in these patients in our Institution experience. The objective of the analysis was to compare survivals of patients managed within our MDT (MDT cohort) to those of patients referred to surgery from other hospitals without MDT discussion (non-MDT cohort). Of the 523 patients, 229 were included in the MDT cohort and 294 in the non-MDT cohort. No difference between the two groups was found in terms of median overall survival (52.5 vs 53.6 months; HR 1.13; 95% CI, 0.88-1.45; p = 0.344). In the MDT cohort there was a higher number of metastases (4.5 vs 2.7; p < 0.0001). The median duration of chemotherapy was lower in MDT patients (8 vs 10 cycles; p < 0.001). Post-operative morbidity was lower in the MDT cohort (6.2 vs 21.5%; p < 0.001). One hundred and ninety-seven patients in each group were matched by propensity score and no significant difference was observed between the two groups in terms of OS and DFS. Our study does not demonstrate a survival benefit from MDT management, but it allows surgery to patients with a more advanced disease. MDT assessment reduces the median duration of chemotherapy and post-operative morbidities.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/mortalidade , Cirurgia Colorretal/mortalidade , Neoplasias Hepáticas/mortalidade , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/cirurgia , Gerenciamento Clínico , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Comunicação Interdisciplinar , Neoplasias Hepáticas/secundário , Neoplasias Hepáticas/cirurgia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Taxa de Sobrevida , Adulto Jovem
9.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(22): e19958, 2020 May 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32481366

RESUMO

Sorafenib is the first multikinase inhibitor demonstrating a survival benefit for patients suffering from advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, 1 issue remains open: what is the factor able to predict which patients will be long survivors?In the present study, we harnessed the potential of conditional survival, aiming at estimating the probability that a patient receiving sorafenib survives for more than 3 years.The present multicentric study was conducted on a cohort of 438 HCC patients. The primary end point was conditional overall survival. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was used to calculate conditional overall survival probabilities at 3 years.The 3-year conditional survival of patients without disease progression highlights that NLR and ECOG are the factors that most accurately predict the probability of long survival. The 3-year conditional survival of patients with disease progression showed a medium effect size for HCV status, alpha-fetoprotein and NLR at all time-points. Macro-vascular portal vein invasion, extra hepatic disease, and BCLC we have a large effect size at 6 months and a medium effect size at 12 and 24 months.Our findings support the use of baseline NLR for the identification of patients with a higher probability of long-survival. NLR should be used as a stratification factor in the forthcoming clinical trials on the drugs for the advanced HCC now in pipeline.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/mortalidade , Neoplasias Hepáticas/mortalidade , Sorafenibe/uso terapêutico , Sobreviventes/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/imunologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/imunologia , Contagem de Linfócitos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Intervalo Livre de Progressão
10.
Clin Cancer Res ; 26(17): 4485-4493, 2020 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32371540

RESUMO

PURPOSE: After 10 years of clinical practice and research studies, there are still no validated prognostic or predictive factors of response to sorafenib for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). On the basis of the results of our two retrospective studies, we designed the multicenter INNOVATE study with the aim to validate the role of nitric oxide synthase 3 (NOS3) and ANGPT2 polymorphisms in patients with HCC treated with sorafenib [NCT02786342]. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This prospective multicenter study was conducted at 10 centers in Italy. All eligible patients received a continuous oral treatment with 400 mg of sorafenib twice daily. Genotyping analysis was performed for NOS3 (rs2070744) and ANGPT2 SNPs (rs55633437). The primary outcome was progression-free survival (PFS), whereas secondary outcomes included overall survival (OS) and disease-control rate. RESULTS: A total of 165 patients were enrolled between March 2016 and June 2018. NOS3 rs2070744 CC/CT genotypes were significantly associated with a higher median PFS (5.9 months vs. 2.4 months; HR = 0.43; P = 0.0007) and OS (15.7 months vs. 8.6 months; HR = 0.38; P < 0.0001) compared with TT genotype. There was no statistically significant association between ANGPT2 rs55633437 TT/GT genotypes and PFS (2.4 months vs. 5.7 months; HR = 1.93; P = 0.0833) and OS (15.1 months vs. 13.0 months; HR = 2.68; P = 0.55) when compared with the other genotype. Following adjustment for clinical covariates, multivariate analysis confirmed NOS3 as an independent prognostic factor for PFS (HR = 0.50; P = 0.0128) and OS (HR = 0.29; P = 0.0041). CONCLUSIONS: The INNOVATE study met the primary endpoint, confirming that patients with advanced HCC with NOS3 rs2070744 CC/CT genotypes had a better prognosis with respect to TT genotype patients.

11.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0232449, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32379785

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The present study aims to investigate the role of the prognostic nutritional index (PNI) on survival in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) treated with sorafenib. METHODS: This multicentric study included a training cohort of 194 HCC patients and three external validation cohorts of 129, 76 and 265 HCC patients treated with Sorafenib, respectively. The PNI was calculated as follows: 10 × serum albumin (g/dL) + 0.005 × total lymphocyte count (per mm3). Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to investigate the association between the covariates and the overall survival (OS). RESULTS: A PNI cut-off value of 31.3 was established using the ROC analysis. In the training cohort, the median OS was 14.8 months (95% CI 12-76.3) and 6.8 months (95% CI 2.7-24.6) for patients with a high (>31.3) and low (<31.3) PNI, respectively. At both the univariate and the multivariate analysis, low PNI value (p = 0.0004), a 1-unit increase of aspartate aminotransferase (p = 0.0001), and age > 70 years (p< 0.0038) were independent prognostic factors for OS. By performing the same multivariate analysis of the training cohort, the PNI <31.3 versus >31.3 was found to be an independent prognostic factor for predicting OS in all the three validation cohorts. CONCLUSIONS: PNI represents a prognostic tool in advanced HCC treated with first-line Sorafenib. It is readily available and low-cost, and it could be implemented in clinical practice in patients with HCC.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Avaliação Nutricional , Sorafenibe/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/sangue , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/mortalidade , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Neoplasias Hepáticas/sangue , Neoplasias Hepáticas/mortalidade , Contagem de Linfócitos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Albumina Sérica/metabolismo
12.
Liver Int ; 40(8): 2008-2020, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32279446

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Limited data on treatment of elderly patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) increase the unmet need. REACH and REACH-2 were global phase III studies of ramucirumab in patients with HCC after prior sorafenib, where patients with alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) ≥400 ng/mL showed an overall ssurvival (OS) benefit for ramucirumab. These post-hoc analyses examined efficacy and safety of ramucirumab in patients with HCC and baseline AFP ≥ 400 ng/mL by three prespecified age subgroups (<65, ≥65 to <75 and ≥75 years). METHODS: Individual patient data were pooled from REACH (baseline AFP ≥400 ng/mL) and REACH-2. Kaplan-Meier and Cox proportional hazards regression methods (stratified by study) assessed OS, progression-free survival (PFS), time to progression (TTP) and patient-reported outcomes (Functional Hepatobiliary System Index-8 [FHSI-8] score). RESULTS: A total of 542 patients (<65 years: n = 302; ≥65 to <75 years: n = 160; ≥75 years: n = 80) showed similar baseline characteristics between ramucirumab and placebo. Older subgroups had higher hepatitis C and steatohepatitis incidences, and lower AFP levels, than the <65 years subgroup. Ramucirumab prolonged OS in patients <65 years (hazard ratio [HR], 0.753; 95% CI 0.581-0.975), ≥65 to <75 years (0.602; 0.419-0.866) and ≥75 years (0.709; 0.420-1.199), PFS and TTP irrespective of age. Ramucirumab showed similar overall safety profiles across subgroups, with a consistent median relative dose intensity ≥97.8%. A trend towards a delay in symptom deterioration in FHSI-8 with ramucirumab was observed in all subgroups. CONCLUSIONS: In this post-hoc analysis, ramucirumab showed a survival benefit across age subgroups with a tolerable safety profile, supporting its use in advanced HCC with elevated AFP, irrespective of age, including ≥75 years.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular , Neoplasias Hepáticas , Idoso , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Sorafenibe , Resultado do Tratamento , alfa-Fetoproteínas
13.
Gastrointest Tumors ; 6(3-4): 71-80, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31768351

RESUMO

Background and Aims: The aim of the present study is to evaluate a new index influenced by the balance between the immune system, α-fetoprotein (AFP), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) (RAPID index) as a prognostic factor in patients treated with sorafenib. Methods: This study was conducted on a training cohort of 159 hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients and a validation cohort of 68 HCC patients treated with sorafenib. The RAPID index was calculated as neutrophil/lymphocyte count × LDH × AFP. Results: In the training cohort, the median overall survival (OS) was 23.2 months (95% CI 11-25) and 12.1 months (95% CI 9-15) for patients with a low (≤3,226) and high (>3,226) RAPID index, respectively (ref. <3,226, HR = 0.56, 95% CI 0.35-0.88, p = 0.017). Following adjustment for clinical covariates, multivariate analysis confirmed the RAPID index ≤3,226 versus >3,226 (HR = 0.37, 95% CI 0.18-0.74, p = 0.0054) as an independent prognostic factor for OS. In the validation cohort, the median OS was 26.9 months (95% CI 17.6-26.9) and 7.0 months (95% CI 6.2-9.2) for patients with a low (≤ 3,226) and high (>3,226) RAPID index, respectively (ref. <3,226, HR = 0.19, 95% CI 0.10-0.36, p < 0.0001). Performing the same multivariate analysis of the training cohort (AFP, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group, aspartate aminotransferase, neutrophil, platelet, systemic inflammatory index and RAPID index), the RAPID index <3,226 versus >3,226 (HR = 3.86, 95% CI 1.45-10.29, p = 0.007) was found to be an independent prognostic factor for predicting OS. Conclusion: The low cost, easy assessment, and reproducibility of a full blood count make the RAPID index a promising tool for assessing HCC prognosis in future clinical practice.

14.
Br J Cancer ; 121(7): 593-599, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31474758

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: V600EBRAF mutated metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) is a subtype (10%) with overall poor prognosis, but the clinical experience suggests a great heterogeneity in survival. It is still unexplored the real distribution of traditional and innovative biomarkers among V600EBRAF mutated mCRC and which is their role in the improvement of clinical prediction of survival outcomes. METHODS: Data and tissue specimens from 155 V600EBRAF mutated mCRC patients treated at eight Italian Units of Oncology were collected. Specimens were analysed by means of immunohistochemistry profiling performed on tissue microarrays. Primary endpoint was overall survival (OS). RESULTS: CDX2 loss conferred worse OS (HR = 1.72, 95%CI 1.03-2.86, p = 0.036), as well as high CK7 expression (HR = 2.17, 95%CI 1.10-4.29, p = 0.026). According to Consensus Molecular Subtypes (CMS), CMS1 patients had better OS compared to CMS2-3/CMS4 (HR = 0.37, 95%CI 0.19-0.71, p = 0.003). Samples showing less TILs had worse OS (HR = 1.72, 95%CI 1.16-2.56, p = 0.007). Progression-free survival analyses led to similar results. At multivariate analysis, CK7 and CMS subgrouping retained their significant correlation with OS. CONCLUSION: The present study provides new evidence on how several well-established biomarkers perform in a homogenousV600EBRAF mutated mCRC population, with important and independent information added to standard clinical prognosticators. These data could be useful to inform further translational research, for patients' stratification in clinical trials and in routine clinical practice to better estimate patients' prognosis.


Assuntos
Fator de Transcrição CDX2/metabolismo , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/mortalidade , Queratina-7/metabolismo , Mutação , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Análise de Variância , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Fator de Transcrição CDX2/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/metabolismo , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Proteínas do Citoesqueleto/metabolismo , Feminino , Deleção de Genes , Genes MCC , Humanos , Queratina-20/metabolismo , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteína 2 Homóloga a MutS/metabolismo , Prognóstico , Análise Serial de Tecidos
15.
J Surg Oncol ; 120(6): 956-965, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31373009

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Videolaparoscopic (VL) microwave ablation (MWA) is not included in most of the international guidelines as a therapeutic option for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Aim of this study was to assess the safety of VL MWA in patients with HCC for whom resection or percutaneous ablation is unsuitable. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was performed on a prospective database of patients with HCC treated with VL MWA at our institution from 2009 to 2016. Patient demographics, operational characteristics, and complications were recorded. Statistical analysis was performed to identify safety profile, overall survival and recurrence rate. RESULTS: A total of 815 VL MWA were performed in 674 patients with a mean age of 64 years. Patients had a mean Model for End-stage Liver Disease score of 10 (±3); 32.8% were Child B, 44.1% Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer B-C. Perioperative mortality was 0.4%. Overall morbidity was 30.8%, with Dindo-Clavien complications ≥3 in 2%. The median length of stay was 2 days. In 43.1% VL MWA was the first-line therapy. Overall 1-, 3-, and 5-year survival rates were 81.9%, 54.9%, and 35.9%. CONCLUSIONS: The present is the largest series of VL ablation and the bigger number of patients with HCC treated with MW reported nowadays. It confirms the safety of a minimally invasive procedure for patients with HCC when resection or percutaneous ablation is not feasible.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular/terapia , Ablação por Cateter/mortalidade , Hospitais com Alto Volume de Atendimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Laparoscopia/mortalidade , Neoplasias Hepáticas/terapia , Micro-Ondas/uso terapêutico , Cirurgia Vídeoassistida/mortalidade , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida
16.
Dig Liver Dis ; 51(12): 1713-1719, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31320302

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recent data suggest a potential activity and a good tolerability of capecitabine in advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). AIMS: To evaluate capecitabine activity and safety in a wide cohort of advanced HCC patients. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of 143 capecitabine-treated patients (January 2010 to December 2017) in three centers of the Veneto Oncology Network. RESULTS: Capecitabine was administered in second and third line, but also in first line instead of sorafenib in Child-Pugh B patients (70%), compromised clinical conditions (14%) or contraindications to antiangiogenetics (16%). Median overall survival (OS) and time to progression (TTP) were 6.9 and 2.8 months, respectively. There were no differences in OS and TTP between the 32 patients treated with non-metronomic scheme (2000 mg/day for 14 days) and the 111 patients treated with metronomic scheme (1000 mg/day) after correction for prognostic factors at baseline with a propensity score analysis. Capecitabine was more active in patients intolerant to sorafenib than in those progressing during treatment (p = 0.024). At least one adverse event (mainly hematological) was experienced by 73% of patients but discontinuation was necessary only in 11 (8%). CONCLUSIONS: Capecitabine can be considered an active and safe option in advanced HCC, especially for patients unfit for other treatments.


Assuntos
Capecitabina , Carcinoma Hepatocelular , Neoplasias Hepáticas , Administração Metronômica , Antimetabólitos Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Antimetabólitos Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Capecitabina/administração & dosagem , Capecitabina/efeitos adversos , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/epidemiologia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Monitoramento de Medicamentos , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
Clin Colorectal Cancer ; 18(2): 125-132.e2, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30846365

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: MET overexpression/amplification has been associated with resistance to anti- epidermal growth factor receptor therapies in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). Combining tivantinib, an inhibitor of the MET receptor tyrosine kinase, and cetuximab may be effective in patients with epidermal growth factor receptor-resistant MET-high mCRC. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This multicenter, single-arm, Simon 2-stage, phase II study enrolled patients with MET-high, KRAS wild-type mCRC, who were treated with ≥ 1 prior systemic therapy, with at least stable disease on the last treatment regimen containing cetuximab or panitumumab. Patients were enrolled if they presented tumor progression on cetuximab or panitumumab within 3 months before enrollment. Patients received tivantinib (360 mg twice daily) plus cetuximab (500 mg intravenously every 2 weeks). The primary endpoint was objective response rate; secondary endpoints included progression-free survival, overall survival, and safety. The treatment would be considered effective if ≥ 5 confirmed partial responses were observed among 41 patients. RESULTS: In total, 41 patients were evaluated, 4 patients (9.8%) achieved an objective response, the median progression-free survival was 2.6 months (95% confidence interval, 1.9-4.2 months), and the median overall survival was 9.2 months (95% confidence interval, 7.1-15.1 months). Among 13 patients with tested MET amplification, 2 responding patients had MET amplification compared with none of the nonresponding patients. The most common grade ≥ 3 treatment-emergent adverse events were neutropenia (14.6%), skin toxicity (12.2%), and fatigue (9.8%). CONCLUSION: Although the study did not meet its primary endpoint, efficacy results suggest some activity of the tested combination, with almost 10% of patients achieving objective response in a difficult-to-treat setting. Treatment-emergent adverse events were consistent with the known safety profile of tivantinib and cetuximab.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Cetuximab/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Pirrolidinonas/uso terapêutico , Quinolinas/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/farmacologia , Cetuximab/farmacologia , Neutropenia Febril Induzida por Quimioterapia/epidemiologia , Neutropenia Febril Induzida por Quimioterapia/etiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Erupção por Droga/epidemiologia , Erupção por Droga/etiologia , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/genética , Receptores ErbB/antagonistas & inibidores , Fadiga/induzido quimicamente , Fadiga/epidemiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Amplificação de Genes , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Panitumumabe/farmacologia , Panitumumabe/uso terapêutico , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-met/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-met/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas p21(ras)/genética , Pirrolidinonas/farmacologia , Quinolinas/farmacologia
18.
Drug Saf ; 42(2): 159-179, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30649744

RESUMO

Angiogenesis is an essential process for tumor growth and metastasis. Inhibition of angiogenesis as an anticancer strategy has shown significant results in a plethora of tumors. Anti-angiogenic agents are currently part of many standard-of-care options for several metastatic gastrointestinal cancers. Bevacizumab, aflibercept, ramucirumab, and regorafenib have significantly improved both progression-free and overall survival in different lines of treatment in metastatic colorectal cancer. Second-line ramucirumab and third-line apatinib are effective anti-angiogenic treatments for patients with metastatic gastric cancer. Unfortunately, the anti-angiogenic strategy has major practical limitations: resistance inevitably develops through redundancy of signaling pathways and selection for subclonal populations adapted for hypoxic conditions. Anti-angiogenic agents may be more effective in combination therapies, with not only cytotoxics but also other emerging compounds in the anti-angiogenic class or in the separate class of the so-called vascular-disrupting agents. This review aims to provide an overview of the approved and "under development" anti-angiogenic compounds as well as the vascular-disrupting agents in the treatment of gastrointestinal cancers, focusing on the actual body of knowledge available on therapy challenges, pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic mechanisms, safety profiles, promising predictive biomarkers, and future perspectives.


Assuntos
Inibidores da Angiogênese/administração & dosagem , Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias Gastrointestinais/tratamento farmacológico , Neovascularização Patológica/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/administração & dosagem , Inibidores da Angiogênese/metabolismo , Animais , Antineoplásicos/metabolismo , Desenvolvimento de Medicamentos/métodos , Neoplasias Gastrointestinais/metabolismo , Humanos , Neovascularização Patológica/metabolismo , Ligação Proteica/fisiologia , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/metabolismo , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo
19.
J Geriatr Oncol ; 10(4): 637-642, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30686679

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pain is a common symptom among patients with cancer, yet pain prevalence and management in older cancer pts. are poorly known. METHODS: Patients aged ≥70 years referred to Istituto Oncologico Veneto IRCCS from January 2011 to December 2013 were evaluated with Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment (CGA). Pain was assessed by means of short form of McGill Pain Questionnaire (MPQ-sf), Brief Pain Inventory (BPI-sf), and numerical rating scale (NRS). Pts with completed CGA, no severe cognitive impairment and completed pain assessment were enrolled. RESULTS: Enrolled patients were 745; 51% male, median age 76 years, median ECOG Performance Status (PS) 1. Frail patients at CGA were 45.2%. Patients with pain were 266 (35.7%). Mean Average Pain Intensity (API) was significantly higher among females, patients fit at CGA, with advanced disease, poorer PS and more comorbidity. Pain was detected by the oncologist in 20.4% of cases and deemed cancer-related in 54.8%. Gender, PS, status of disease, stage, function disability, mood, cognitive functioning and frailty were significantly associated with reporting of pain. At BPI, moderate-severe pain was found in 81 patients. The degree of agreement between API and pain intensity evaluated by physician was minimal. Patients on pain medications were 184, with 113 patients reporting rates of pain relief ≥50%. CONCLUSION: About one third of older patients with cancer report pain, which is not cancer-related in about half of cases. Female gender, fitness at CGA, advanced stage, poorer PS, higher number of comorbidities and primary site were associated with significant differences in pain reporting.


Assuntos
Dor do Câncer/epidemiologia , Fragilidade/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Afeto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/uso terapêutico , Dor do Câncer/tratamento farmacológico , Dor do Câncer/fisiopatologia , Dor do Câncer/psicologia , Cognição , Feminino , Avaliação Geriátrica , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Modelos Lineares , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Neoplasias/patologia , Neoplasias/fisiopatologia , Neoplasias/psicologia , Dor/tratamento farmacológico , Dor/epidemiologia , Dor/fisiopatologia , Dor/psicologia , Medição da Dor , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores Sexuais
20.
Oncologist ; 24(2): e77-e79, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30120156

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The prognostic value of primary tumor location (PTL) in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) was reported by recent analyses in RAS wild-type patients. Here, we investigated the prognostic value of PTL in RAS mutated mCRC patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: PTL was defined as left or right if distal or proximal to the splenic flexure. Primary endpoint was overall survival (OS) according to PTL. Subgroup analyses were conducted according to time to metastases and RAS mutation subtypes. RESULTS: Five hundred sixty-four patients were included. Left- and right-sided cases were 65% and 35%, respectively. No difference in OS was detected according to PTL (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.99, p = .964). No difference in OS was observed in right versus left when looking at synchronous (HR 0.92, p = .557) or metachronous (HR 1.07, p = .807) patients. CONCLUSION: No OS difference was detected in RAS mutated mCRC. Molecular and clinical features able to improve prognosis and treatment strategies in this setting are needed.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Prognóstico , Adulto Jovem
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