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1.
Am J Transplant ; 2021 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33527725

RESUMO

Simultaneous heart-kidney transplant (sHK) has enabled the successful transplantation of patients with end-stage heart disease and concomitant kidney disease, with non-inferior outcomes to heart transplant (HT) alone. The decision for sHK is challenged by difficulties in differentiating those patients with a significant component of reversible kidney injury due to cardiorenal syndrome who may recover kidney function after HT, from those with intrinsic advanced kidney disease who would benefit most from sHK. A consensus conference on sHK took place on June 1, 2019 in Boston, Massachusetts. The conference represented a collaborative effort by experts in cardiothoracic and kidney transplantation from centers across the United States to explore the development of guidelines for the interdisciplinary criteria for kidney transplantation in the sHK candidate, to evaluate the current allocation of kidneys to follow the heart for sHK, and to recommend standardized care for the management of sHK recipients. The conference served as a forum to unify criteria between the different specialties and to forge a pathway for patients who may need dual organ transplantation. Due to the continuing shortage of available donor organs, ethical problems related to multi-organ transplantation were also debated. The findings and consensus statements are presented.

2.
Clin Transplant ; : e14260, 2021 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33605497

RESUMO

Post-transplant diarrhea is a common complication after solid organ transplantation and is frequently attributed to the widely prescribed immunosuppressant mycophenolate mofetil (MMF). Given recent work identifying the relationship between MMF toxicity and gut bacterial ß-glucuronidase activity, we evaluated the relationship between gut microbiota composition, fecal ß-glucuronidase activity, and post-transplant diarrhea. We recruited 97 kidney transplant recipients and profiled the gut microbiota in 273 fecal specimens using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. We further characterized fecal ß-glucuronidase activity in a subset of this cohort. Kidney transplant recipients with post-transplant diarrhea had decreased gut microbial diversity and decreased relative gut abundances of 12 genera when compared to those without post-transplant diarrhea (adjusted P value<0.15, Wilcoxon rank sum test). Among the kidney transplant recipients with post-transplant diarrhea, those with higher fecal ß-glucuronidase activity had a more prolonged course of diarrhea (≥7 days) compared to patients with lower fecal ß-glucuronidase activity (91% vs 40%, P=0.02, Fisher's exact test). Our data reveal post-transplant diarrhea as a complex phenomenon with decreased gut microbial diversity and commensal gut organisms. This study further links commensal bacterial metabolism with an important clinical outcome measure, suggesting fecal ß-glucuronidase activity could be a novel biomarker for gastrointestinal-related MMF toxicity.

3.
Am J Transplant ; 2021 Feb 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33559315

RESUMO

Kidney allograft failure and return to dialysis carries a high risk of morbidity. A practice survey was developed by the AST Kidney Pancreas Community of Practice workgroup and distributed electronically to the AST members. There were 104 responders that represented 92 kidney transplant centers. Most survey respondents were transplant nephrologists at academic centers. The most common approach to immunosuppression management was to withdraw the anti-metabolite first (73%), while 12% responded they would withdraw calcineurin inhibitor first. More than 60% reported that the availability of a living donor is the most important factor in the decision to taper immunosuppression, followed by the risk of infection, risk of sensitization, frailty, and side effects of medications. More than half of respondents reported that embolization was either not available or offered to less than 10% as an option for surgical intervention. More than half reported that ≤50% of failed allograft patients were re-listed before dialysis, and less than a quarter of transplant nephrologists perform frequent follow-ups with their failed allograft patients after dialysis. This survey demonstrates a heterogeneity in the care of patients with a failing allograft and the need for more evidence to guide improvements in clinical practice related to transition of care.

4.
Clin Transplant ; : e14230, 2021 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33484065

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic brought living donor kidney transplant programs across the United States to a near halt in March 2020. As programs have begun to reopen, potential donor candidates often inquire about their risk of a COVID-19 infection and its potential impact on kidney function after donation. To address their concerns, we surveyed 1740 former live kidney donors at four transplant centers located in New York and Michigan. Of these, 839 (48.2%) donors responded, their mean age was 46 ± 12.5 years, 543 (65%) were females, and 611 (73%) were white. Ninety-two donors (11%) had symptoms suggestive of a COVID-19 infection with fever (48%) and fatigue (43%) being the most common. Among those with symptoms, 42 donors underwent testing and 16 tested positive. Testing was more common among donors with private insurance, and a positive test result was more common among young black donors. Only one donor surveyed required hospitalization and none required dialysis. Fourteen donors have recovered completely and two partially. Our survey highlights that a COVID-19 infection in former donors results in a mild disease with good recovery. These data will be useful for transplant programs to counsel living donors who are considering kidney donation during this pandemic.

5.
Clin Transplant ; 35(2): e14200, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33349997

RESUMO

Identifying kidney transplant recipients at risk for graft failure following BK virus nephropathy (BKVN) may allow personalization of therapy. We have reported that a noninvasive composite signature of urinary cell level of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1(PAI-1) mRNA and serum creatinine level, measured at the time of BKVN diagnosis, is prognostic of graft failure. In this investigation, we determined whether the composite signature is prognostic of graft failure in an independent cohort of 25 patients with BKVN. Of the 25 patients, 8 developed graft failure and 17 did not. We measured urinary cell levels of PAI-1 mRNA, 18S rRNA, and BKV VP1 mRNA at the time of BKVN diagnosis and evaluated clinical parameters including Banff pathology scores, acute rejection, and graft function. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for the noninvasive composite signature was 0.95 (P < .001) for prognosticating graft failure. The previously reported threshold of -0.858 predicted graft failure with a sensitivity of 75% and a specificity of 94%. Our current study validates the use of composite signature and the threshold of -0.858 to identify those at risk for graft failure following BKVN diagnosis, and supports future studies utilizing the composite signature score to personalize treatment of BKVN.

6.
Transplantation ; 2020 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33031221

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: T-cell-mediated rejection (TCMR) is the most frequent type of acute rejection and is associated with kidney allograft failure. Almost 40% of TCMR episodes are nonresponsive to therapy and molecular mechanisms for the nonresponsiveness are unknown. Our single-center study identified that urinary cell FOXP3 mRNA abundance predicts TCMR reversibility and allograft survival. METHODS: We developed PCR assays and measured absolute copy numbers of transcripts for FOXP3, CD25, CD3E, perforin, and 18S rRNA in 3559 urines from 480 kidney allograft recipients prospectively enrolled in the multicenter Clinical Trials in Organ Transplantation-04. In this replication study, we investigated the association between mRNA profile and TCMR diagnosis, TCMR reversibility and allograft survival. RESULTS: 18S rRNA normalized levels of mRNA for FOXP3 (P=0.01, Kruskal-Wallis test), CD25 (P=0.01), CD3E (P<0.0001), and perforin (P<0.0001) were diagnostic of TCMR, but only FOXP3 mRNA level predicted TCMR reversibility (ROC AUC=0.764; 95% confidence interval, 0.611 to 0.917; P=0.008). Multivariable logistic regression analyses showed that urinary cell FOXP3 mRNA level predicted reversal, independent of clinical variables. A composite model of clinical variables and FOXP3 mRNA (AUC = 0.889; 95% CI, 0.781 to 0.997; P<0.001) outperformed FOXP3 mRNA or clinical variables in predicting TCMR reversibility (P=0.01, likelihood ratio test). Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression analyses showed that FOXP3 mRNA level predicts kidney allograft survival (P=0.047), but not after controlling for TCMR reversal (P=0.477). CONCLUSIONS: Urinary cell level of FOXP3 mRNA is diagnostic of TCMR, predicts TCMR reversibility, and is prognostic of kidney allograft survival via a mechanism involving TCMR reversal.

7.
Am J Transplant ; 2020 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33043597

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic has brought unprecedented challenges to the transplant community. The reduction in transplantation volume during this time is partly due to concerns over potentially increased susceptibility and worsened outcomes of COVID-19 in immunosuppressed recipients. The consequences of COVID-19 on patients waitlisted for kidney transplantation, however, have not previously been characterized. We studied 56 waitlisted patients and 80 kidney transplant recipients diagnosed with COVID-19 between March 13 and May 20, 2020. Despite similar demographics and burden of comorbidities between waitlisted and transplant patients, waitlisted patients were more likely to require hospitalization (82% vs. 65%, P = .03) and were at a higher risk of mortality (34% vs. 16%, P = .02). Intubation was required in one third of hospitalized patients in each group, and portended a very poor prognosis. The vast majority of patients who died were male (84% waitlist, 100% transplant). Multivariate analysis demonstrated waitlist status, age, and male sex were independently associated with mortality. COVID-19 has had a dramatic impact on waitlisted patients, decreasing their opportunities for transplantation and posing significant mortality risk. Understanding the impact of COVID-19 on waitlist patients in comparison to transplant recipients may aid centers in weighing the risks and benefits of transplantation in the setting of ongoing COVID-19.

8.
Gut Microbes ; 12(1): 1805281, 2020 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32865119

RESUMO

Urinary tract infection (UTI) is a common complication in kidney transplant recipients and can lead to significant morbidity and mortality. Recent evidence supports a role for the gut as a source for UTIs but little is known about the relationship between gut commensal bacteria and UTI development. We hypothesized that the abundance of gut commensal bacteria is associated with a lower risk of developing bacteriuria and UTIs. We performed gut microbiome profiling using 16S rRNA gene sequencing of the V4-V5 hypervariable region on 510 fecal specimens in 168 kidney transplant recipients. Fifty-one kidney transplant recipients (30%) developed Enterobacteriaceae bacteriuria within the first 6 months after transplantation (Enterobacteriaceae Bacteriuria Group) and 117 did not (No Enterobacteriaceae Bacteriuria Group). The relative abundances of Faecalibacterium and Romboutsia were significantly higher in the fecal specimens from the No Enterobacteriaceae Bacteriuria Group than those from the Enterobacteriaceae Bacteriuria Group (Adjusted P value<.01). The combined relative abundance of Faecalibacterium and Romboutsia was inversely correlated with the relative abundance of Enterobacteriaceae (r = -0.13, P = .003). In a multivariable Cox Regression, a top tercile cutoff of the combined relative abundance of Faecalibacterium and Romboutsia of ≥13.7% was independently associated with a decreased risk for Enterobacteriaceae bacteriuria (hazard ratio 0.3, P = .02) and Enterobacteriaceae UTI (hazard ratio 0.4, P = .09). In conclusion, we identify bacterial taxa associated with decreased risk for Enterobacteriaceae bacteriuria and Enterobacteriaceae UTI in kidney transplant recipients, which supports future studies on modulating the gut microbiota as a novel treatment for preventing UTIs.

9.
Transplant Direct ; 6(9): e599, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32903964

RESUMO

Background: The impact of functional status on survival among simultaneous pancreas-kidney transplant (SPKT) candidates and recipients is not well described. Methods: We examined national Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients (SRTR) data for patients listed for SPKT in the United States (2006-2019). Functional status was categorized by center-reported Karnofsky Performance Score (KPS). We used Cox regression to quantify associations of KPS at listing and transplant with subsequent patient survival, adjusted for baseline patient and transplant factors (adjusted hazard ratio, 95% LCLaHR95%UCL). We also explored time-dependent associations of SPKT with survival risk after listing compared with continued waiting in each functional status group. Results: KPS distributions among candidates (N = 16 822) and recipients (N = 10 316), respectively, were normal (KPS 80-100), 62.0% and 57.8%; capable of self-care (KPS 70), 23.5% and 24.7%; requires assistance (KPS 50-60), 12.4% and 14.2%; and disabled (KPS 10-40), 2.1% and 3.3%. There was a graded increase in mortality after listing and after transplant with lower functional levels. Compared with normal functioning, mortality after SPKT rose progressively for patients capable of self-care (aHR, 1.001.181.41), requiring assistance (aHR, 1.061.311.60), and disabled (aHR, 1.101.552.19). In time-dependent regression, compared with waiting, SPKT was associated with 2-fold mortality risk within 30 days of transplant. However, beyond 30 days, SPKT was associated with reduced mortality, from 52% for disabled patients (aHR, 0.260.480.88) to 70% for patients with normal functioning (aHR, 0.260.300.34). Conclusions: While lower functional status is associated with increased mortality risk among SPKT candidates and recipients, SPKT can provide long-term survival benefit across functional status levels in those selected for transplant.

12.
Nephrol Dial Transplant ; 35(7): 1250-1261, 2020 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32678882

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Kidney graft recipients receiving immunosuppressive therapy may be at heightened risk for coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) and adverse outcomes. It is therefore important to characterize the clinical course and outcome of Covid-19 in this population and identify safe therapeutic strategies. METHODS: We performed a retrospective chart review of 73 adult kidney graft recipients evaluated for Covid-19 from 13 March to 20 April 2020. Primary outcomes included recovery from symptoms, acute kidney injury, graft failure and case fatality rate. RESULTS: Of the 73 patients screened, 54 tested positive for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-39 with moderate to severe symptoms requiring hospital admission and 15 with mild symptoms managed in the ambulatory setting. Hospitalized patients were more likely to be male, of Hispanic ethnicity and to have cardiovascular disease. In the hospitalized group, tacrolimus dosage was reduced in 46% of patients and mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) therapy was stopped in 61% of patients. None of the ambulatory patients had tacrolimus reduction or discontinuation of MMF. Azithromycin or doxycycline was prescribed at a similar rate among hospitalized and ambulatory patients (38% versus 40%). Hydroxychloroquine was prescribed in 79% of hospitalized patients. Graft failure requiring hemodialysis occurred in 3 of 39 hospitalized patients (8%) and 7 patients died, resulting in a case fatality rate of 13% among Covid-19-positive patients and 18% among hospitalized Covid-19-positive patients. CONCLUSIONS: Data from our study suggest that a strategy of systematic triage to outpatient or inpatient care, early management of concurrent bacterial infections and judicious adjustment of immunosuppressive drugs rather than cessation is feasible in kidney transplant recipients with Covid-19.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Rejeição de Enxerto/terapia , Hidroxicloroquina/uso terapêutico , Imunossupressão/métodos , Transplante de Rim , Ácido Micofenólico/uso terapêutico , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Aloenxertos , Antimaláricos/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Inibidores Enzimáticos/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Rejeição de Enxerto/complicações , Rejeição de Enxerto/epidemiologia , Humanos , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cidade de Nova Iorque/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Transplantados
13.
Am J Kidney Dis ; 76(3): 374-383, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32359820

RESUMO

RATIONALE & OBJECTIVES: Posttransplantation membranous nephropathy (MN) represents a rare complication of kidney transplantation that can be classified as recurrent or de novo. The clinical, pathologic, and immunogenetic characteristics of posttransplantation MN and the differences between de novo and recurrent MN are not well understood. STUDY DESIGN: Multicenter case series. SETTING & PARTICIPANTS: We included 77 patients from 5 North American and European medical centers with post-kidney transplantation MN (27 de novo and 50 recurrent). Patients with MN in the native kidney who received kidney allografts but did not develop recurrent MN were used as nonrecurrent controls (n = 43). To improve understanding of posttransplantation MN, we compared de novo MN with recurrent MN and then contrasted recurrent MN with nonrecurrent controls. FINDINGS: Compared with recurrent MN, de novo MN was less likely to be classified as primary MN (OR, 0.04; P < 0.001) and had more concurrent antibody-mediated rejection (OR, 12.0; P < 0.001) and inferior allograft survival (HR for allograft failure, 3.2; P = 0.007). HLA-DQ2 and HLA-DR17 antigens were more common in recipients with recurrent MN compared with those with de novo MN; however, the frequency of these recipient antigens in recurrent MN was similar to that in nonrecurrent MN controls. Among the 93 kidney transplant recipients with native kidney failure attributed to MN, older recipient age (HR per each year older, 1.03; P = 0.02), recipient HLA-A3 antigen (HR, 2.5; P = 0.003), steroid-free immunosuppressive regimens (HR, 2.84; P < 0.001), and living related allograft (HR, 1.94; P = 0.03) were predictors of MN recurrence. LIMITATIONS: Retrospective case series, limited sample size due to rarity of the disease, nonstandardized nature of data collection and biopsies. CONCLUSIONS: De novo and recurrent MN likely represent separate diseases. De novo MN is associated with humoral alloimmunity and guarded outcome. Potential predisposing factors for recurrent MN include recipients who are older, recipient HLA-A3 antigen, steroid-free immunosuppressive regimen, and living related donor kidney.


Assuntos
Glomerulonefrite Membranosa/imunologia , Antígenos HLA/análise , Transplante de Rim , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/imunologia , Adulto , Idoso , Aloenxertos/imunologia , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Glomerulonefrite Membranosa/epidemiologia , Glomerulonefrite Membranosa/etiologia , Glomerulonefrite Membranosa/cirurgia , Teste de Histocompatibilidade , Humanos , Imunossupressores , Isoanticorpos/imunologia , Isoantígenos/imunologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , América do Norte/epidemiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Receptores da Fosfolipase A2/imunologia , Recidiva , Estudos Retrospectivos
14.
Am J Transplant ; 20(7): 1800-1808, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32330343

RESUMO

Solid organ transplant recipients may be at a high risk for SARS-CoV-2 infection and poor associated outcomes. We herein report our initial experience with solid organ transplant recipients with SARS-CoV-2 infection at two centers during the first 3 weeks of the outbreak in New York City. Baseline characteristics, clinical presentation, antiviral and immunosuppressive management were compared between patients with mild/moderate and severe disease (defined as ICU admission, intubation or death). Ninety patients were analyzed with a median age of 57 years. Forty-six were kidney recipients, 17 lung, 13 liver, 9 heart, and 5 dual-organ transplants. The most common presenting symptoms were fever (70%), cough (59%), and dyspnea (43%). Twenty-two (24%) had mild, 41 (46%) moderate, and 27 (30%) severe disease. Among the 68 hospitalized patients, 12% required non-rebreather and 35% required intubation. 91% received hydroxychloroquine, 66% azithromycin, 3% remdesivir, 21% tocilizumab, and 24% bolus steroids. Sixteen patients died (18% overall, 24% of hospitalized, 52% of ICU) and 37 (54%) were discharged. In this initial cohort, transplant recipients with COVID-19 appear to have more severe outcomes, although testing limitations likely led to undercounting of mild/asymptomatic cases. As this outbreak unfolds, COVID-19 has the potential to severely impact solid organ transplant recipients.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Transplante de Órgãos/efeitos adversos , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Transplantados , Monofosfato de Adenosina/análogos & derivados , Monofosfato de Adenosina/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Alanina/análogos & derivados , Alanina/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Azitromicina/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Cuidados Críticos , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Hidroxicloroquina/uso terapêutico , Imunossupressão , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Intubação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cidade de Nova Iorque/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Respiração Artificial , Esteroides/uso terapêutico , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos
15.
Kidney Int Rep ; 5(3): 278-288, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32154449

RESUMO

Introduction: Much of the higher risk for end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) in African American individuals relates to ancestry-specific variation in the apolipoprotein L1 gene (APOL1). Relative to kidneys from European American deceased-donors, kidneys from African American deceased-donors have shorter allograft survival and African American living-kidney donors more often develop ESKD. The National Institutes of Health (NIH)-sponsored APOL1 Long-term Kidney Transplantation Outcomes Network (APOLLO) is prospectively assessing kidney allograft survival from donors with recent African ancestry based on donor and recipient APOL1 genotypes. Methods: APOLLO will evaluate outcomes from 2614 deceased kidney donor-recipient pairs, as well as additional living-kidney donor-recipient pairs and unpaired deceased-donor kidneys. Results: The United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS), Association of Organ Procurement Organizations, American Society of Transplantation, American Society for Histocompatibility and Immunogenetics, and nearly all U.S. kidney transplant programs, organ procurement organizations (OPOs), and histocompatibility laboratories are participating in this observational study. APOLLO employs a central institutional review board (cIRB) and maintains voluntary partnerships with OPOs and histocompatibility laboratories. A Community Advisory Council composed of African American individuals with a personal or family history of kidney disease has advised the NIH Project Office and Steering Committee since inception. UNOS is providing data for outcome analyses. Conclusion: This article describes unique aspects of the protocol, design, and performance of APOLLO. Results will guide use of APOL1 genotypic data to improve the assessment of quality in deceased-donor kidneys and could increase numbers of transplanted kidneys, reduce rates of discard, and improve the safety of living-kidney donation.

16.
Nephrol Dial Transplant ; 35(7): 1099-1112, 2020 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32191296

RESUMO

The construct of frailty was first developed in gerontology to help identify older adults with increased vulnerability when confronted with a health stressor. This article is a review of studies in which frailty has been applied to pre- and post-kidney transplantation (KT) populations. Although KT is the optimal treatment for end-stage kidney disease (ESKD), KT candidates often must overcome numerous health challenges associated with ESKD before receiving KT. After KT, the impacts of surgery and immunosuppression represent additional health stressors that disproportionately impact individuals with frailty. Frailty metrics could improve the ability to identify KT candidates and recipients at risk for adverse health outcomes and those who could potentially benefit from interventions to improve their frail status. The Physical Frailty Phenotype (PFP) is the most commonly used frailty metric in ESKD research, and KT recipients who are frail at KT (~20% of recipients) are twice as likely to die as nonfrail recipients. In addition to the PFP, many other metrics are currently used to assess pre- and post-KT vulnerability in research and clinical practice, underscoring the need for a disease-specific frailty metric that can be used to monitor KT candidates and recipients. Although frailty is an independent risk factor for post-transplant adverse outcomes, it is not factored into the current transplant program risk-adjustment equations. Future studies are needed to explore pre- and post-KT interventions to improve or prevent frailty.


Assuntos
Fragilidade/fisiopatologia , Falência Renal Crônica/cirurgia , Transplante de Rim/normas , Idoso , Humanos , Fatores de Risco
17.
Microbiome ; 8(1): 18, 2020 02 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32046792

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cell-free DNA (cfDNA) in blood, urine, and other biofluids provides a unique window into human health. A proportion of cfDNA is derived from bacteria and viruses, creating opportunities for the diagnosis of infection via metagenomic sequencing. The total biomass of microbial-derived cfDNA in clinical isolates is low, which makes metagenomic cfDNA sequencing susceptible to contamination and alignment noise. RESULTS: Here, we report low biomass background correction (LBBC), a bioinformatics noise filtering tool informed by the uniformity of the coverage of microbial genomes and the batch variation in the absolute abundance of microbial cfDNA. We demonstrate that LBBC leads to a dramatic reduction in false positive rate while minimally affecting the true positive rate for a cfDNA test to screen for urinary tract infection. We next performed high-throughput sequencing of cfDNA in amniotic fluid collected from term uncomplicated pregnancies or those complicated with clinical chorioamnionitis with and without intra-amniotic infection. CONCLUSIONS: The data provide unique insight into the properties of fetal and maternal cfDNA in amniotic fluid, demonstrate the utility of cfDNA to screen for intra-amniotic infection, support the view that the amniotic fluid is sterile during normal pregnancy, and reveal cases of intra-amniotic inflammation without infection at term. Video abstract.


Assuntos
Ácidos Nucleicos Livres/análise , Biologia Computacional/métodos , DNA Bacteriano/análise , Metagenoma , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Líquido Amniótico/microbiologia , Ácidos Nucleicos Livres/sangue , Ácidos Nucleicos Livres/urina , Corioamnionite/microbiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis/diagnóstico , Doenças Transmissíveis/microbiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis/urina , Estudos Transversais , Análise de Dados , Reações Falso-Positivas , Feminino , Feto/microbiologia , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Inflamação , Masculino , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/diagnóstico , Complicações na Gravidez/microbiologia , Software
18.
JCI Insight ; 5(4)2020 02 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32102984

RESUMO

BACKGROUNDRNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) is a molecular tool to analyze global transcriptional changes, deduce pathogenic mechanisms, and discover biomarkers. We performed RNA-Seq to investigate gene expression and biological pathways in urinary cells and kidney allograft biopsies during an acute rejection episode and to determine whether urinary cell gene expression patterns are enriched for biopsy transcriptional profiles.METHODSWe performed RNA-Seq of 57 urine samples collected from 53 kidney allograft recipients (patients) with biopsies classified as acute T cell-mediated rejection (TCMR; n = 22), antibody-mediated rejection (AMR; n = 8), or normal/nonspecific changes (No Rejection; n = 27). We also performed RNA-Seq of 49 kidney allograft biopsies from 49 recipients with biopsies classified as TCMR (n = 12), AMR (n = 17), or No Rejection (n = 20). We analyzed RNA-Seq data for differential gene expression, biological pathways, and gene set enrichment across diagnoses and across biospecimens.RESULTSWe identified unique and shared gene signatures associated with biological pathways during an episode of TCMR or AMR compared with No Rejection. Gene Set Enrichment Analysis demonstrated enrichment for TCMR biopsy signature and AMR biopsy signature in TCMR urine and AMR urine, irrespective of whether the biopsy and urine were from the same or different patients. Cell type enrichment analysis revealed a diverse cellular landscape with an enrichment of immune cell types in urinary cells compared with biopsies.CONCLUSIONSRNA-Seq of urinary cells and biopsies, in addition to identifying enriched gene signatures and pathways associated with TCMR or AMR, revealed genomic changes between TCMR and AMR, as well as between allograft biopsies and urinary cells.

19.
Endocr Pract ; 26(3): 299-304, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31682519

RESUMO

Objective: To assess the evolving standards of care for hyperparathyroidism in kidney transplant candidates. Methods: An 11-question, Institutional Review Board-approved survey was designed and reviewed by multiple institutions. The questionnaire was made available to the American Society of Transplantation's Kidney Pancreas Community of Practice membership via their online hub from April through July 2019. Results: Twenty percent (n = 41) of kidney transplant centers responded out of 202 programs in the United States. Forty-one percent (n = 17) of respondents believed medical literature supports the concept that a serum parathyroid hormone level greater than 800 pg/mL could endanger the survival of a transplanted kidney and therefore makes transplantation in an affected patient relatively or absolutely contraindicated. Sixty-six percent (n = 27) said they occasionally recommend parathyroidectomy for secondary hyperparathyroidism prior to transplantation, and 66% (n = 27) recommend parathyroidectomy after transplantation based on persistent, unsatisfactory posttransplantation parathyroid hormone levels. Forty-six percent (n = 19) prefer subtotal parathyroidectomy as their choice; 44% (n = 18) had no standard preference. Endocrine surgery and otolaryngology were the most common surgical specialties consulted to perform parathyroidectomy in kidney transplant candidates. The majority of respondents (71%, n = 29) do not involve endocrinologists in the management of kidney transplantation candidates. Conclusion: Our survey shows wide divergence of clinical practice in the area of surgical management of kidney transplantation candidates with hyperparathyroidism. We suggest that medical/surgical societies involved in the transplantation care spectrum convene a multidisciplinary group of experts to create a new section in the kidney transplantation guidelines addressing the collaborative management of parathyroid disease in transplantation candidates. Abbreviations: AACE = American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists; AAES = American Association of Endocrine Surgeons; AHNS = American Head and Neck Society; CKD = chronic kidney disease; CKD-MBD = chronic kidney disease-mineral and bone disorder; ESRD = end-stage renal disease; HPT = hyperparathyroidism; KDIGO = Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes; KT = kidney transplantation; KTC = kidney transplant candidate; PTH = parathyroid hormone; PTX = parathyroidectomy; US = ultrasonography.


Assuntos
Hiperparatireoidismo Secundário , Transplante de Rim , Consenso , Humanos , Hiperparatireoidismo Secundário/cirurgia , Falência Renal Crônica , Hormônio Paratireóideo , Paratireoidectomia
20.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 5521, 2019 12 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31797927

RESUMO

The origin of most bacterial infections in the urinary tract is often presumed to be the gut. Herein, we investigate the relationship between the gut microbiota and future development of bacteriuria and urinary tract infection (UTI). We perform gut microbial profiling using 16S rRNA gene deep sequencing on 510 fecal specimens from 168 kidney transplant recipients and metagenomic sequencing on a subset of fecal specimens and urine supernatant specimens. We report that a 1% relative gut abundance of Escherichia is an independent risk factor for Escherichia bacteriuria and UTI and a 1% relative gut abundance of Enterococcus is an independent risk factor for Enterococcus bacteriuria. Strain analysis establishes a close strain level alignment between species found in the gut and in the urine in the same subjects. Our results support a gut microbiota-UTI axis, suggesting that modulating the gut microbiota may be a potential novel strategy to prevent UTIs.


Assuntos
Bactérias/genética , Infecções Bacterianas/microbiologia , DNA Bacteriano/genética , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Infecções Urinárias/microbiologia , Bactérias/classificação , Bacteriúria/etiologia , Bacteriúria/microbiologia , Bacteriúria/urina , DNA Bacteriano/análise , Infecções por Escherichia coli/etiologia , Infecções por Escherichia coli/microbiologia , Fezes/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Humanos , Transplante de Rim/efeitos adversos , Transplante de Rim/métodos , Fatores de Risco , Infecções Urinárias/etiologia , Infecções Urinárias/urina
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