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1.
Environ Epidemiol ; 5(5): e166, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34934888

RESUMO

Early life stages are vulnerable to environmental hazards and present important windows of opportunity for lifelong disease prevention. This makes early life a relevant starting point for exposome studies. The Advancing Tools for Human Early Lifecourse Exposome Research and Translation (ATHLETE) project aims to develop a toolbox of exposome tools and a Europe-wide exposome cohort that will be used to systematically quantify the effects of a wide range of community- and individual-level environmental risk factors on mental, cardiometabolic, and respiratory health outcomes and associated biological pathways, longitudinally from early pregnancy through to adolescence. Exposome tool and data development include as follows: (1) a findable, accessible, interoperable, reusable (FAIR) data infrastructure for early life exposome cohort data, including 16 prospective birth cohorts in 11 European countries; (2) targeted and nontargeted approaches to measure a wide range of environmental exposures (urban, chemical, physical, behavioral, social); (3) advanced statistical and toxicological strategies to analyze complex multidimensional exposome data; (4) estimation of associations between the exposome and early organ development, health trajectories, and biological (metagenomic, metabolomic, epigenetic, aging, and stress) pathways; (5) intervention strategies to improve early life urban and chemical exposomes, co-produced with local communities; and (6) child health impacts and associated costs related to the exposome. Data, tools, and results will be assembled in an openly accessible toolbox, which will provide great opportunities for researchers, policymakers, and other stakeholders, beyond the duration of the project. ATHLETE's results will help to better understand and prevent health damage from environmental exposures and their mixtures from the earliest parts of the life course onward.

2.
Environ Health Perspect ; 129(11): 117003, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34787480

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Emerging evidence links ambient air pollution with coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) disease, an association that is methodologically challenging to investigate. OBJECTIVES: We examined the association between long-term exposure to air pollution with SARS-CoV-2 infection measured through antibody response, level of antibody response among those infected, and COVID-19 disease. METHODS: We contacted 9,605 adult participants from a population-based cohort study in Catalonia between June and November 2020; most participants were between 40 and 65 years of age. We drew blood samples from 4,103 participants and measured immunoglobulin M (IgM), IgA, and IgG antibodies against five viral target antigens to establish infection to the virus and levels of antibody response among those infected. We defined COVID-19 disease using self-reported hospital admission, prior positive diagnostic test, or more than three self-reported COVID-19 symptoms after contact with a COVID-19 case. We estimated prepandemic (2018-2019) exposure to fine particulate matter [PM with an aerodynamic diameter of ≤2.5µm (PM2.5)], nitrogen dioxide (NO2), black carbon (BC), and ozone (O3) at the residential address using hybrid land-use regression models. We calculated log-binomial risk ratios (RRs), adjusting for individual- and area-level covariates. RESULTS: Among those tested for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies, 743 (18.1%) were seropositive. Air pollution levels were not statistically significantly associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection: Adjusted RRs per interquartile range were 1.07 (95% CI: 0.97, 1.18) for NO2, 1.04 (95% CI: 0.94, 1.14) for PM2.5, 1.00 (95% CI: 0.92, 1.09) for BC, and 0.97 (95% CI: 0.89, 1.06) for O3. Among infected participants, exposure to NO2 and PM2.5 were positively associated with IgG levels for all viral target antigens. Among all participants, 481 (5.0%) had COVID-19 disease. Air pollution levels were associated with COVID-19 disease: adjusted RRs=1.14 (95% CI: 1.00, 1.29) for NO2 and 1.17 (95% CI: 1.03, 1.32) for PM2.5. Exposure to O3 was associated with a slightly decreased risk (RR=0.92; 95% CI: 0.83, 1.03). Associations of air pollution with COVID-19 disease were more pronounced for severe COVID-19, with RRs=1.26 (95% CI: 0.89, 1.79) for NO2 and 1.51 (95% CI: 1.06, 2.16) for PM2.5. DISCUSSION: Exposure to air pollution was associated with a higher risk of COVID-19 disease and level of antibody response among infected but not with SARS-CoV-2 infection. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP9726.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , COVID-19 , Adulto , Idoso , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Formação de Anticorpos , Estudos de Coortes , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/análise , SARS-CoV-2 , Espanha/epidemiologia
3.
Environ Int ; 158: 106975, 2021 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34781209

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The premenstrual syndrome (PMS) causes clinically relevant psychological and physical symptoms in up to 20% of women of reproductive age. To date, no studies have investigated the relationship between PMS and residential surrounding greenspace, although a green living environment has been reported to have beneficial associations with overall and reproductive health. OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether lifelong exposure to residential surrounding greenspace is associated with PMS and whether such an association is mediated by BMI, air pollution or physical activity. METHODS: This study used data collected in 2013-2015 from 1069 Scandinavian women aged 18-49 years, participating in RHINESSA, a European multi-centre and population-based cohort. Satellite-derived Normalised Difference Vegetation Index was used as a proxy of greenspace. Presence of eight common PMS symptoms and their sum (PMS symptom count) were used as outcomes. The associations were assessed by adjusted multilevel logistic and negative binomial regressions. Subsequently we carried out mediation analyses for physical activity, BMI and air pollution exposure. RESULTS: Higher exposure to residential surrounding greenspace was associated with "Anxiety or tension" (Odds Ratio 0.82, 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 0.70 - 0.95), "Depression or hopelessness" (0.84, 0.73 - 0.98), "Difficulty with sleeping" (0.82, 0.68 - 1.00) and "Breast tenderness and abdominal bloating" (0.84, 0.71 - 0.99) before or around the start of the menstrual period. There was also an association with a lower PMS symptom count (Risk Ratio: 0.94, 95% CI: 0.91 - 0.99). These associations were robust to sensitivity analyses and were not mediated by BMI, physical activity or air pollution. CONCLUSIONS: Living in greener areas may be beneficial against PMS symptoms. Further studies are needed to confirm these novel findings and to explore the underlying biological mechanisms.

4.
Maturitas ; 153: 41-47, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34654527

RESUMO

RATIONALE: The naturally occurring age-dependent decline in lung function accelerates after menopause, likely due to the change of the endocrine balance. Although increasing evidence shows suboptimal lung health in early life can increase adult  susceptibility to insults, the potential effect of poor childhood lung function on menopause-dependent lung function decline has not yet been investigated. OBJECTIVES: To study whether menopause-dependent lung function decline, assessed as forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), is determined by childhood lung function. METHODS: The Tasmanian Longitudinal Health Study, a cohort born in 1961, underwent spirometry at age seven.  At ages 45 and 50 serum samples, spirometry and questionnaire data were collected (N = 506). We measured follicle stimulating and luteinizing hormones to determine menopausal status using latent profile analysis. The menopause-dependent lung function decline was investigated using linear mixed models, adjusted for anthropometrics, occupational level, smoking, asthma, asthma medication and study year, for the whole study population and stratified by tertiles of childhood lung function. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: The overall menopause-dependent lung function decline was 19.3 mL/y (95%CI 2.2 to 36.3) for FVC and 9.1 mL/y (-2.8 to 21.0) for FEV1. This was most pronounced (pinteraction=0.03) among women within the lowest tertile of childhood lung function [FVC 22.2 mL/y (1.1 to 43.4); FEV1 13.9 mL/y (-1.5 to 29.4)]. CONCLUSIONS: Lung function declines especially rapidly in postmenopausal women who had poor low lung function in childhood. This provides novel insights into respiratory health during reproductive aging and emphasizes the need for holistic public health strategies covering the whole lifespan.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Menopausa , História Reprodutiva , Capacidade Vital/fisiologia , Austrália , Feminino , Volume Expiratório Forçado , Humanos , Testes de Função Respiratória , Fatores de Risco , Espirometria
5.
Environ Int ; 155: 106683, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34144479

RESUMO

The early-life exposome influences future health and accelerated biological aging has been proposed as one of the underlying biological mechanisms. We investigated the association between more than 100 exposures assessed during pregnancy and in childhood (including indoor and outdoor air pollutants, built environment, green environments, tobacco smoking, lifestyle exposures, and biomarkers of chemical pollutants), and epigenetic age acceleration in 1,173 children aged 7 years old from the Human Early-Life Exposome project. Age acceleration was calculated based on Horvath's Skin and Blood clock using child blood DNA methylation measured by Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChips. We performed an exposure-wide association study between prenatal and childhood exposome and age acceleration. Maternal tobacco smoking during pregnancy was nominally associated with increased age acceleration. For childhood exposures, indoor particulate matter absorbance (PMabs) and parental smoking were nominally associated with an increase in age acceleration. Exposure to the organic pesticide dimethyl dithiophosphate and the persistent pollutant polychlorinated biphenyl-138 (inversely associated with child body mass index) were protective for age acceleration. None of the associations remained significant after multiple-testing correction. Pregnancy and childhood exposure to tobacco smoke and childhood exposure to indoor PMabs may accelerate epigenetic aging from an early age.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Expossoma , Aceleração , Criança , Metilação de DNA , Exposição Ambiental , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Epigênese Genética , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez
6.
Lancet Public Health ; 6(6): e396-e407, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34051163

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Observational studies have identified a link between unfavourable neighbourhood characteristics and increased risk of morbidity, but it is unclear whether changes in neighbourhoods affect future disease risk. We used a data-driven approach to assess the impact of neighbourhood modification on 79 health outcomes. METHODS: In this prospective cohort study, we used pooled, individual-level data from two Finnish cohort studies: the Health and Social Support study and the Finnish Public Sector study. Neighbourhood characteristics (mean educational level, median income, and employment rate of residents, and neighbourhood green space) and individual lifestyle factors of community-dwelling individuals were assessed at baseline (at different waves starting between 1998 and 2013). We repeated assessment of neighbourhood characteristics and lifestyle factors approximately 5 years from each baseline assessment, after which follow-up began for health conditions diagnosed according to the WHO International Classification of Diseases for 79 common health conditions using linkage to electronic health records. We used Cox proportional hazard regression models to compute adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) of incident disease associated with neighbourhood characteristics and changes in neighbourhood characteristics over time and logistic regression analysis to compute adjusted odds of association between changes in neighbourhood characteristics and individual lifestyle factors. FINDINGS: 114 786 individuals (87 012 [75·8%] women; mean age 44·4 years [SD 11·1]) had complete data and were included in this cohort study. During 1·17 million person-years at risk, we recorded 164 368 new-onset health conditions and 3438 deaths. Favourable changes in neighbourhood characteristics were associated with reduced risk of all-cause mortality and incidence of 19 specific health conditions. Unfavourable changes were correspondingly associated with increased risk of mortality and 27 specific health conditions. Among participants who did not move residence during the observation period, relative to individuals who continually lived in disadvantaged neighbourhoods, those who experienced favourable modifications in neighbourhood characteristics had a lower risk of future diabetes (HR 0·84, 95% CI 0·75-0·93), stroke (0·49, 0·29-0·83), skin disease (0·72, 0·53-0·97), and osteoarthritis (0·87, 0·77-0·99). Living in a neighbourhood with improving characteristics was also associated with improvements in individual-level health-related lifestyle factors. Among participants who lived in advantaged residential environments at baseline, unfavourable changes in neighbourhood characteristics were associated with an increased risk of diabetes, stroke, skin disease, and osteoarthritis compared with individuals who lived in advantaged neighbourhoods throughout the study period. INTERPRETATION: Favourable modifications to residential neighbourhoods showed robust, longitudinal associations with a range of improvements in health outcomes, including improved health behaviours and reduced risk of cardiometabolic, infectious, and orthopaedic conditions. FUNDING: UK Medical Research Council, US National Institute on Aging, NordForsk, and Academy of Finland.


Assuntos
Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Estilo de Vida , Características de Residência , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Finlândia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Morbidade , Mortalidade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos
7.
Sci Total Environ ; 787: 147553, 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33989869

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Greenspace exposure has been suggested to be associated with a range of health outcomes. The available evidence on the association of this exposure with cancer is still very scarce and inconsistent. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to study the association between greenspace exposure and all-site and site-specific (prostate, breast, colorectal, bladder, lung, and malignant melanoma of skin) cancer incidence in the GAZEL cohort. METHODS: This study was based on over 27 years of follow-up (1989-2016) of 19,408 participants across France. We assessed the residential greenspace exposure within several buffers as well as residential proximity to green spaces (agricultural, urban, and forests) in each follow-up. We used time-dependent Cox models, controlling for time-varying personal and area-level variables, with different lags between exposure and outcome. Additional analysis was conducted according to the urban-rural residence of the participants' over follow-up. RESULTS: Over the 294,645 person-years of follow-up, we registered 4075 incident cases of cancer. We found an increase in the risk for all-sites cancer with an inter-quartile range increase of Normalized Difference in Vegetation Index across different buffers (hazard ratio (HR) of 1.08; 95% CI: 1.02, 1.14 for the 100 m buffer). We found a positive association of all-sites cancer with proximity to agricultural lands (HR: 1.03; 95% CI: 1.00, 1.05), and forests (HR:1.04; 95% CI: 1.00, 1.07), but not with urban green spaces. The cancer site-specific analyses suggested a protective role of greenspace for breast, lung, and colorectal cancers (e.g. breast cancer HR at 100 m buffer: 0.82; 95% CI: 0.69, 0.99). Non-significant associations were observed for prostate, bladder, and skin cancer. Stratified analyses based on urban, semi-urban, and rural classification did not suggest any differential pattern. CONCLUSION: We identified an increased risk of all-site cancer with increased greenspace and proximity to agricultural lands and forests; whereas potential protective role of greenspace for breast cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias , Parques Recreativos , Estudos de Coortes , Seguimentos , França/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Neoplasias/induzido quimicamente , Neoplasias/epidemiologia
8.
Environ Res ; 197: 110990, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33766569

RESUMO

There is mounting scientific evidence that greenness is associated with improved cardiovascular health. However, few studies have distinguished between vegetation type, measured perceived green space access, or investigated heterogeneity of associations across categories of neighborhood sociodemographic and racial/ethnic composition. We conducted an ecologic spatial analysis of associations of three objective measures of greenness (percent vegetation cover, percent tree canopy cover, and greenness density), and one measure of perceived access to green spaces with census tract level percentages of the adult population who were obese, ever had a high blood pressure diagnosis, and ever had a diabetes diagnosis, in the city of Philadelphia, PA, year 2013. We explored effect modification by census-tract level percent living in poverty and percent non-Hispanic Black categories. We used data from the Southeastern Pennsylvania Household Health Survey (SEPAHH) linked with high-resolution landcover, remotely sensed, and American Community Survey data and estimated associations using spatial lag models. We observed modest protective associations between percent of the adult population reporting perceived access to green spaces and percent with the cardiovascular risk factors, particularly in moderate and high poverty census tracts. Percent tree canopy cover was also protective against the cardiovascular risk factors, particularly in census tracts with low percentages of the population living in poverty and with low percent non-Hispanic Black populations. These results suggest that perceived access to green spaces and objectively measured high tree canopy cover, may protect against cardiovascular disease, but associations may vary across neighborhood sociodemographic categories.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Adulto , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Cidades , Fatores de Risco de Doenças Cardíacas , Humanos , Philadelphia/epidemiologia , Características de Residência , Fatores de Risco , Análise Espacial
10.
Maturitas ; 145: 49-55, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33541562

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) affects the body through pathways that exhibit positive as well as negative health effects such as immunoregulation and vitamin D production. Different vitamin D metabolites are associated with higher or lower concentrations of estrogens and may thus alter the female sex hormone balance. OBJECTIVE: To study whether exposure to UVR, as a modifiable lifestyle factor, is associated with levels of sex hormones (17ß-estradiol, estrone, estrone 3-sulfate, testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate), gonadotropins (follicle stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone) as well as sex hormone binding globulin in postmenopausal women, and thus investigate whether managing UVR exposure can influence the hormone balance, with potential benefits for the biological aging process. METHODS: The study included 580 postmenopausal women from six European countries, participating in the European Community Respiratory Health Survey (2010-2014). Average UVR exposure during the month before blood sampling was estimated based on personal sun behavior and ambient levels. Hormone concentrations were measured in serum using state-of-the-art methods. Subsequently we applied linear mixed-effects models, including center as random intercept, hormone concentrations (one at a time) as outcome and UVR, age, skin type, body mass index, vitamin D from dietary sources, smoking, age at completed full-time education and season of blood sampling as fixed-effect predictors. RESULTS: One interquartile range increase in UVR exposure was associated with decreased levels of 17ß-estradiol (-15.6 pmol/L, 95 % Confidence Interval (CI): -27.69, -3.51) and estrone (-13.36 pmol/L, 95 % CI: -26.04, -0.68) and increased levels of follicle stimulating hormone (9.34IU/L, 95 % CI: 2.91, 15.77) and luteinizing hormone (13.86 IU/daL, 95 % CI: 2.48, 25.25). CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to UVR is associated with decreased estrogens and increased gonadotropins in postmenopausal women, a status associated with osteoporosis, lung function decline and other adverse health effects. This study indicates that managing UVR exposure has potential to influence the hormone balance and counteract adverse health conditions after menopause.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental , Hormônios/sangue , Pós-Menopausa/sangue , Globulina de Ligação a Hormônio Sexual/análise , Raios Ultravioleta , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
12.
Environ Int ; 147: 106332, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33388564

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pro-inflammatory conditions such as air pollution might induce biological ageing. However, the available evidence on such an impact in children is still very scarce. We studied in primary schoolchildren the association of ambient residential air pollution exposure with telomere length (TL) and mitochondrial DNA content (mtDNAc), two important targets of the core axis of ageing. METHODS: Between 2012 and 2014, buccal TL and mtDNAc were repeatedly assessed using qPCR in 197 Belgian primary schoolchildren (mean age 10.3 years) as part of the COGNAC study. At the child's residence, recent (week), sub-chronic (month) and chronic (year) exposure to nitrogen dioxide (NO2), particulate matter ≤ 2.5 µm (PM2.5) and black carbon (BC) were estimated using a high resolution spatiotemporal model. A mixed-effects model with school and subject as random effect was used while adjusting for a priori chosen covariates. RESULTS: An interquartile range (IQR) increment (1.9 µg/m3) in chronic PM2.5 exposure was associated with a 8.9% (95% CI: -15.4 to -1.9%) shorter TL. In contrast to PM2.5, chronic exposure to BC and NO2 was not associated with TL but recent exposure to BC and NO2 showed significant inverse associations with TL: an IQR increment in recent exposure to BC (0.9 µg/m3) and NO2 (10.2 µg/m3) was associated with a 6.2% (95% CI: -10.6 to -1.6%) and 6.4% (95% CI: -11.8 to -0.7%) shorter TL, respectively. Finally, an IQR increment in chronic PM2.5 exposure was associated with a 12.7% (95% CI: -21.7 to -2.6%) lower mtDNAc. However, no significant associations were seen for NO2 and BC or for other exposure windows. CONCLUSION: Chronic exposure to PM2.5 below the EU threshold was associated with child's shorter buccal TL and lower mtDNAc, while traffic-related pollutants (BC and NO2) showed recent effects on telomere biology. Our data add to the literature on air pollution-induced effects of TL and mtDNAc, two measures part of the core axis of cellular ageing, from early life onwards.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Criança , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Humanos , Material Particulado/análise , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Telômero
13.
Environ Pollut ; 271: 116393, 2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33388678

RESUMO

The quality characteristics of urban green spaces (UGS) have been suggested to play a critical role in their use and their potentials to exert health effects. However, epidemiological studies evaluating such a role are scarce. These studies have generally focused on a limited number of quality dimensions. We studied the association between 10 UGS quality dimensions, assessed through a comprehensive multidimensional tool, and physical activity, overweight/obesity, and UGS use. Our study was based on 2053 adults participating in the Barcelona Health Survey (2016) and the quality of 149 UGS located in Barcelona, Spain. For each participant, we abstracted the average and maximum quality score separately for each of the 10 quality dimensions and an overall quality score for the UGS within 300 m of the participant's residential address. Data on the study outcomes were obtained through face-to-face interviews. We developed logistic regression and negative binomial models to assess our evaluated associations and conducted mediation analyses between the different outcomes. We observed that the overall quality of UGS was associated with higher likelihood of engaging in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (OR:1.13; 95% CI:1.00-1.27), lower risk of overweight/obesity (OR: 0.88; 95% CI: 0.79-0.98), and increased use of UGS (exponentiated regression coefficient: 1.08; 95% CI:1.01-1.15). For the quality dimensions, we observed different patterns of associations depending on the outcome; however, bird biodiversity and amenities seem to be relevant to all of our evaluated outcomes. The mediation analysis suggested that UGS use mediate the association between quality and physical activity, while physical activity mediates the association between quality and overweight/obesity. The novel results from this study will allow decision-makers better design UGS and directly pinpoint relevant quality dimensions to promote physical activity, reduce the risk of overweight/obesity and boost the use of UGS amongst citizens.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico , Parques Recreativos , Adulto , Humanos , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Espanha
14.
Environ Res ; 195: 110757, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33493537

RESUMO

Exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) has been associated with shorter telomere length (TL), a marker of ageing at cellular level. However, the available evidence on this association among children is still scarce. We therefore aimed to assess, the relationship between urinary 1-hydroxipayrene (1-OHP), a marker of exposure to PAHs, and relative leukocyte TL (LTL) in children at preschool age. Our study was based on 200 children enrolled from 27 randomly-selected kindergartens in the city of Sabzevar, Iran (2017). 1-OHP levels in the participants' urine samples were measured using solid phase extraction (SPE) method and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Moreover, real-time PCR was used to measure the LTL in the participants' blood samples. Linear mixed effects models, controlled for relevant covariates, were applied to investigate the association of 1-OHP concentration and LTL. The median (interquartile range (IQR)) of relative LTL and urinary 1-OHP were 0.83 (0.7) and 257 (375.5) ng/L, respectively. In the fully adjusted model, an IQR increase in urinary 1-OHP was related to -0.05 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.09, -0.01, P-value = 0.02) decrease in relative LTL. This association was similar among boys and girls; however, we observed indications for a stronger association for those children whose parents had university education. Our study suggested an inverse relationship between urinary 1-OHP and LTL in children at preschool age. However, further longitudinal research with repeated measures of PAHs and LTL are needed to confirm these findings.


Assuntos
Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico) , Masculino , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Telômero
15.
Environ Int ; 146: 106236, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33161201

RESUMO

Goals and pathways to achieve sustainable urban development have multiple interlinkages with human health and wellbeing. However, these interlinkages have not been examined in depth in recent discussions on urban sustainability and global urban science. This paper fills that gap by elaborating in detail the multiple links between urban sustainability and human health and by mapping research gaps at the interface of health and urban sustainability sciences. As researchers from a broad range of disciplines, we aimed to: 1) define the process of urbanization, highlighting distinctions from related concepts to support improved conceptual rigour in health research; 2) review the evidence linking health with urbanization, urbanicity, and cities and identify cross-cutting issues; and 3) highlight new research approaches needed to study complex urban systems and their links with health. This novel, comprehensive knowledge synthesis addresses issue of interest across multiple disciplines. Our review of concepts of urban development should be of particular value to researchers and practitioners in the health sciences, while our review of the links between urban environments and health should be of particular interest to those outside of public health. We identify specific actions to promote health through sustainable urban development that leaves no one behind, including: integrated planning; evidence-informed policy-making; and monitoring the implementation of policies. We also highlight the critical role of effective governance and equity-driven planning in progress towards sustainable, healthy, and just urban development.


Assuntos
Crescimento Sustentável , Reforma Urbana , Cidades , Humanos , Desenvolvimento Sustentável , Saúde da População Urbana , Urbanização
16.
Environ Pollut ; 297: 118765, 2021 Dec 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34973383

RESUMO

The airway macrophages carbon loading (AMCL) has been suggested to be a biomarker of the long-term exposure to air pollution; however, to date no study has characterized AMCL for the pregnancy period. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the determinants of AMCL during pregnancy in Iran, a middle-income country. This study was based on a sample of 234 pregnant women with term and normal vaginal delivery who were residing in Sabzevar, Iran (2019). We characterized 35 potential determinants of personal exposure to air pollution for each participant, including six personal, nine indoor, and 20 home-outdoor factors. We applied Deletion/Substitution/Addition algorithm to identify the most relevant determinants that could predict AMCL levels. The median (IQR) of AMCL level was 0.12 (0.30) µm2 with a successful sputum induction in 82.9% (194) of participants. Ambient residential PM2.5 levels were positively associated with higher AMCL levels. On the other hand, increased residential distance to the traffic lights, squares and ring-roads, the duration of opening window per day, and opening window during cooking were inversely associated with AMCL levels. Our findings provide novel insights on the different personal, indoor, and outdoor determinants of personal exposure to air pollution during pregnancy in a middle-income country.

17.
J Environ Public Health ; 2020: 8886241, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33381194

RESUMO

Evidence favoring a beneficial association between greenness and blood pressure (BP) in adults is accumulating. However, children and adolescents have been understudied accordingly. Methodologically, the data on "exposure" to residential green spaces are commonly satellite-derived, including rare existing studies on the relationship between proximity to green spaces and BP in children. Despite perfectly obliterating subjective biases, remote sensing methods of greenness data collection fail to address pragmatic interaction with such settings. This study aimed to assess the relationship between subjective proximity to green spaces and average/elevated BP in children. Through our study, systolic and diastolic BPs of 12,340 schoolchildren living in CASPIAN-V study areas were examined and recorded. We performed surveys to obtain the data on their proximity to green spaces, defined as having access to such spaces within a 15-minute walk from their homes. Linear mixed-effects models with BP as the outcome variable and the measure of exposure to green spaces as fixed-effect predictor were applied. The analysis was adjusted for several covariates. We found that perceived residential proximity to green spaces was associated with -0.08 mmHg (95% confidence intervals (CIs): -0.58, 0.41; p value = 0.72) reduction in systolic BP and -0.09 (95% CIs: -0.49, 0.31; p value = 0.66) reduction in diastolic BP. We also observed statistically nonsignificant odds ratio of 1.03 (95% CIs: 0.76, 1.39), 0.96 (95% CIs: 0.80, 1.16), and 0.98 (95% CIs: 0.82, 1.16) for isolated systolic/diastolic hypertension and hypertension, respectively. Our observations remained consistent after adjustment for height, parental employment, low birth weight, parental obesity, single parent, and breastfeeding. In conclusion, subjective proximity to green spaces might not be associated with a lower mean BP in children. Well-designed studies applying both subjective and objective data should be performed to elaborate on the relationship further.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Parques Recreativos , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Medição de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários
18.
Curr Hypertens Rep ; 22(10): 81, 2020 09 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32880755

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To summarize the current knowledge of the pathophysiological implications and the clinical role of urban-related environmental exposures in pregnancy. RECENT FINDINGS: The ongoing urbanization worldwide is leading to an increasing number of pregnant women being exposed to higher levels of urban-related environmental hazards such as air pollution and noise and, at the same time, having less contact with natural environments. Pregnancy represents a particular and vulnerable life period both for women and their children. Extensive physiological and metabolic changes, as well as changes to the cardiovascular and respiratory systems during pregnancy, could result in increased sensitivity to damage by environmental factors. Exposure to air pollution and noise is associated with placental dysfunction and damage, which, in turn, could lead to maternal complications such as preeclampsia. In contrast, more contact with greenspace during pregnancy seems to mitigate these adverse impacts. These findings open up new challenges for our understanding of the potential effect of urban living on placental function and preeclampsia, and offer new clinical and research opportunities.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Hipertensão , Pré-Eclâmpsia , Criança , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Placentação , Pré-Eclâmpsia/etiologia , Gravidez
19.
Environ Pollut ; 266(Pt 1): 115228, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32763773

RESUMO

Exposure to greenspace has been associated with a wide range of health benefits; however, the available evidence on the association of this exposure with telomere length (TL), an early marker of ageing, is still scarce. We investigated the association of greenspace exposure with TL in a sample of 200 preschool children (aged 5-7 years) residing in Sabzevar, Iran (2017). We comprehensively characterized different aspects of greenspace exposure encompassing residential, kindergarten, and total (including both residential and kindergarten) surrounding greenspace (using satellite-derived Normalized Difference Vegetation Index), residential and kindergarten distance to green spaces, time spent in private gardens and public green spaces, and the number of plant pots at home. Relative leukocyte TL (LTL) in blood samples of the study participants was measured using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). We applied mixed effects linear regression models with kindergarten and qPCR plate as random effects, to estimate the association of indicators of greenspace exposure (one at a time) with LTL, controlled for relevant covariates. We observed an inverse association between distance from home and kindergarten to green spaces larger than 5000 m2 and LTL. Moreover, higher total surrounding greenspace at 300m and 500m buffers and higher surrounding greenspace at 300m buffer around kindergarten and home were associated with longer LTL. Furthermore, longer time spent (h/week) in the public green spaces was associated with longer LTL. Our findings for residential and kindergarten distance to any green space (regardless of the size), residential surrounding greenspace at 100m and 500m buffers, kindergarten surrounding greenspace at 100m buffer, time spent in private gardens (h/week) and the number of plant pots at home were not conclusive. Our findings were generally suggestive for a positive association between greenspace exposure and LTL in preschool children. More studies are needed to confirm these findings in other settings with different climates and populations.


Assuntos
Meio Ambiente , Telômero , Envelhecimento , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico) , Leucócitos
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32764502

RESUMO

Exposure to greenspace has been related to improved mental health, but the available evidence is limited and findings are heterogeneous across different areas. We aimed to evaluate the associations between residential exposure to greenspace and specific psychopathological and psychosomatic symptoms related to mental health among mothers from a Spanish birth cohort. Our study was based on data from 1171 women participating in two follow-ups of a population-based cohort in Valencia, Sabadell, and Gipuzkoa (2004-2012). For each participant, residential surrounding greenspace was estimated as the average of the satellite-based Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) across different buffers around the residential address at the time of delivery and at the 4-year follow-up. The Symptom Checklist 90 Revised (SCL-90-R) was applied to characterize mental health at the 4-year follow-up. We developed mixed-effects logistic regression models controlled for relevant covariates to evaluate the associations. Higher residential surrounding greenspace was associated with a lower risk of somatization and anxiety symptoms. For General Severity Index (GSI), obsessive-compulsive, interpersonal sensitivity, depression, hostility, phobic anxiety, paranoid ideation, and psychoticism symptoms, we generally observed protective associations, but none attained statistical significance. Findings from this study suggested a potential positive impactof greenspace on mental health.


Assuntos
Ansiedade , Meio Ambiente , Saúde Mental , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos
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