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1.
Environ Res ; 179(Pt A): 108774, 2019 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31606619

RESUMO

An emerging body of evidence has associated natural environments with improved brain development in children; however, these studies have mainly focused on cognition and available evidence for motor development is still scarce. This study aimed to evaluate the protective association of neighbourhood greenspace with motor development deficits in children. We obtained data on motor development deficits (separately for fine and gross motor developments) at sub-district level from routine medical check-up of children prior to enrolment into primary schools in the city of Berlin (2015-2016). Neighbourhood natural environments across the sub-districts were measured with three different metrics: the average of satellite-based normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), the share of public green spaces, and the share of both public blue and green spaces (composite nature) across the sub-district. We applied negative binominal models to estimate the association between neighbourhood natural environments and fine and gross motor development deficits (one at a time), controlled for relevant sociodemographic indicators. Higher neighbourhood public green space and composite nature were significantly associated with lower risk of motor development deficits; however, the association were not statistically significant when using NDVI. Our findings, if confirmed by future studies, could provide evidence for implementing targeted interventions to enhance motor development in urban children.

2.
Environ Res ; 179(Pt A): 108725, 2019 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31539843

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: A number of environmental risk factors of acute ischemic stroke have been identified, but few studies have evaluated the influence of the outdoor environment on stroke severity. We assessed the association of residential ambient fine particulate matter air pollution (PM2.5), noise, and surrounding greenspace with initial stroke severity. METHODS: We obtained data on patients hospitalized with acute ischemic stroke from a hospital-based prospective stroke register (2005-2014) in Barcelona. We estimated residential PM2.5 based on an established land use regression model, greenspace as the average satellite-based Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) within a 300 m buffer of the residence, and daily (Lday), evening (Levening), night (Lnight) and average noise (Lden) level at the street nearest to the residential address using municipal noise models. Stroke severity was assessed at the time of hospital presentation using the National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS).We used logistic regression and binomial models to evaluate the associations of PM2.5, greenspace, and noise with initial stroke severity adjusting for potential confounders. RESULTS: Among 2761 patients, higher residential surrounding greenspace was associated with lower risk of severe stroke (OR for NIHSS>5, 0.75; 95% CI: 0.60-0.95), while, living in areas with higher Lden was associated with a higher risk of severe stroke (OR, 1.30; 95% CI: 1.02-1.65). PM2.5 was not associated with initial stroke severity. CONCLUSIONS: In an urban setting, surrounding greenspace and traffic noise at home are associated with initial stroke severity, suggesting an important influence of the built environment on the global burden of ischemic stroke.

3.
Health Place ; 59: 102198, 2019 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31525616

RESUMO

We conducted a systematic review of quality assessment tools for urban green spaces to evaluate their replicability, comparability and validity. We assessed the characteristics of 15 published, multi-dimensional, direct observation tools regarding: publication, development, features and included dimensions. Even though all tools show acceptable inter-rater variability, there is a notable variability in their characteristics, from required time to conduct the assessment to the number of included items. Additionally, some specific dimensions are underrepresented, and the study units' definitions are feeble. We showcased the need for new tools that are more comprehensive and include more consistent reporting measures.

4.
Environ Pollut ; 255(Pt 2): 113231, 2019 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31561037

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Metabolic syndrome is an important risk factor for non-communicable diseases, particularly type 2 diabetes, coronary heart disease, and stroke. Long-term exposure to greenspace could be protective of metabolic syndrome, but evidence for such an association is lacking. Accordingly, we investigated the association between long-term exposure to greenspace and risk of metabolic syndrome. METHODS: The present longitudinal study was based on data from four clinical examinations between 1997 and 2013 in 6076 participants of the Whitehall II study, UK (aged 45-69 years at baseline). Long-term exposure to greenspace was assessed by satellite-based indices of greenspace including Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Vegetation Continuous Field (VCF) averaged across buffers of 500 and 1000 m surrounding the participants' residential location at each follow-up. The ascertainment of metabolic syndrome was based on the World Health Organization (WHO) definition. Hazard ratios for metabolic syndrome were estimated using Cox proportional hazards regression models, controlling for age, sex, ethnicity, lifestyle factors, and socioeconomic status. RESULTS: Higher residential surrounding greenspace was associated with lower risk of metabolic syndrome. An interquartile range increase in NDVI and VCF in the 500 m buffer was associated with 13% (95% confidence interval (CI): 1%, 23%) and 14% (95% CI: 5%, 22%) lower risk of metabolic syndrome, respectively. Greater exposure to greenspace was also associated with each individual component of metabolic syndrome, including a lower risk of high levels of fasting glucose, large waist circumference, high triglyceride levels, low HDL cholesterol, and hypertension. The association between residential surrounding greenspace and metabolic syndrome may have been mediated by physical activity and exposure to air pollution. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of the present study suggest that middle-aged and older adults living in greener neighbourhoods are at lower risk of metabolic syndrome than those living in neighbourhoods with less greenspace.

5.
Environ Int ; 132: 105088, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31437647

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Menopause is associated with a number of adverse health effects and its timing has been reported to be influenced by several lifestyle factors. Whether greenspace exposure is associated with age at menopause has not yet been investigated. OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether residential surrounding greenspace is associated with age at menopause and thus reproductive aging. METHODS: This longitudinal study was based on the 20-year follow-up of 1955 aging women from a large, population-based European cohort (ECRHS). Residential surrounding greenspace was abstracted as the average of satellite-based Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) across a circular buffer of 300 m around the residential addresses of each participant during the course of the study. We applied mixed effects Cox models with centre as random effect, menopause as the survival object, age as time indicator and residential surrounding greenspace as time-varying predictor. All models were adjusted for smoking habit, body mass index, parity, age at menarche, ever-use of contraception and age at completed full-time education as socio-economic proxy. RESULTS: An increase of one interquartile range of residential surrounding greenspace was associated with a 13% lower risk of being menopausal (Hazard Ratio: 0.87, 95% Confidence Interval: 0.79-0.95). Correspondingly the predicted median age at menopause was 1.4 years older in the highest compared to the lowest NDVI quartile. Results remained stable after additional adjustment for air pollution and traffic related noise amongst others. CONCLUSIONS: Living in greener neighbourhoods is associated with older age at menopause and might slow reproductive aging. These are novel findings with broad implications. Further studies are needed to see whether our findings can be replicated in different populations and to explore the potential mechanisms underlying this association.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31121806

RESUMO

Exposure to natural outdoor environments (NOE) is associated with health benefits; however, evidence on the impact of NOE exposure during childhood on mental health (MH) and vitality in adulthood is scarce. This study was based on questionnaire data collected from 3585 participants, aged 18-75, in the PHENOTYPE project (2013) in four European cities. Mixed models were used to investigate associations between childhood NOE exposure and (i) MH; (ii) vitality (perceived level of energy and fatigue); and (iii) potential mediation by perceived amount, use, satisfaction, importance of NOE, and residential surrounding greenness, using pooled and city-level data. Adults with low levels of childhood NOE exposure had, when compared to adults with high levels of childhood NOE exposure, significantly worse mental health (coef. -4.13; 95% CI -5.52, -2.74). Childhood NOE exposure was not associated with vitality. Low levels of childhood NOE exposure were associated with lower importance of NOE (OR 0.81; 95% CI 0.66, 0.98) in adulthood. The association with perceived amount of NOE differed between cities. We found no evidence for mediation. Childhood NOE exposure might be associated with mental well-being in adulthood. Further studies are needed to confirm these findings and to identify mechanisms underlying long-term benefits of childhood NOE exposure.


Assuntos
Meio Ambiente , Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Cidades , Estudos Transversais , Inglaterra , Feminino , Humanos , Lituânia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Teóricos , Países Baixos , Espanha , Adulto Jovem
7.
Environ Health Perspect ; 127(5): 57002, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31070940

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although previous studies have reported negative associations between exposure to air pollution and cognition, studies of the effects of prenatal and postnatal exposures in early childhood have been limited. OBJECTIVES: We sought to assess the role exposure to fine particulate matter ([Formula: see text]) during different prenatal and postnatal windows may play in children's cognitive development at school age. METHODS: Within the Brain Development and Air Pollution Ultrafine Particles in School Children (BREATHE) Project, we estimated residential [Formula: see text] exposures by land use regression for the prenatal period and first seven postnatal years of 2,221 children from Barcelona, Spain. The participants ([Formula: see text]) completed computerized tests assessing working memory, attentiveness, and conflict network during four visits in 2012­2013. We used linear mixed effects and distributed lag models to assess the period of exposure to [Formula: see text] in association with cognitive development. RESULTS: Inverse associations were identified between [Formula: see text] exposure during the fifth and sixth postnatal years and working memory, with boys showing much higher vulnerability. Regarding attention functions, exposure to higher [Formula: see text] levels during the prenatal period and from the fourth postnatal year were associated with a reduction in conflict network performance, though we found no association with attentiveness. The overall estimated cumulative effect of a [Formula: see text] increase in [Formula: see text] resulted in a reduction in the working memory [Formula: see text] score of [Formula: see text] [95% confidence interval (CI): [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text]] points and an increase in the conflict attentional network of 11.31 (95% CI: 6.05, 16.57) milliseconds, indicating a poorer performance. CONCLUSIONS: Early life exposure to [Formula: see text] was associated with a reduction in fundamental cognitive abilities, including working memory and conflict attentional network. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP3169.

8.
Environ Health Perspect ; 127(4): 47007, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31009264

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The exposome is defined as the totality of environmental exposures from conception onwards. It calls for providing a holistic view of environmental exposures and their effects on human health by evaluating multiple environmental exposures simultaneously during critical periods of life. OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the association of the urban exposome with birth weight. METHODS: We estimated exposure to the urban exposome, including the built environment, air pollution, road traffic noise, meteorology, natural space, and road traffic (corresponding to 24 environmental indicators and 60 exposures) for nearly 32,000 pregnant women from six European birth cohorts. To evaluate associations with either continuous birth weight or term low birth weight (TLBW) risk, we primarily relied on the Deletion-Substitution-Addition (DSA) algorithm, which is an extension of the stepwise variable selection method. Second, we used an exposure-by-exposure exposome-wide association studies (ExWAS) method accounting for multiple hypotheses testing to report associations not adjusted for coexposures. RESULTS: The most consistent statistically significant associations were observed between increasing green space exposure estimated as Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and increased birth weight and decreased TLBW risk. Furthermore, we observed statistically significant associations among presence of public bus line, land use Shannon's Evenness Index, and traffic density and birth weight in our DSA analysis. CONCLUSION: This investigation is the first large urban exposome study of birth weight that tests many environmental urban exposures. It confirmed previously reported associations for NDVI and generated new hypotheses for a number of built-environment exposures. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP3971.

9.
J Pediatr ; 209: 204-211.e4, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30929929

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether higher omega-6:omega-3 (n-6:n-3) long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid ratio in cord plasma is associated with more symptoms of attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) at 4 and 7 years of age. STUDY DESIGN: This study was based on a population-based birth cohort in Spain. N-6 arachidonic acid and n-3 eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid concentrations were measured in cord plasma. At 4 years old, ADHD symptoms were reported by teachers through the ADHD Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th ed checklist (n = 580). At 7 years old, ADHD symptoms were reported by parents through the Conners' Rating Scale-Revised (short form; n = 642). The ADHD variable was treated as continuous (score) and as dichotomous (symptom diagnostic criteria). Child and family general characteristics were prospectively collected through questionnaires. We applied pooled zero-inflated negative binomial and logistic regressions adjusted for covariates. RESULTS: A higher omega-6:omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid ratio in cord plasma was associated with a higher ADHD index (incidence rate ratio, 1.13; 95% CI, 1.03, 1.23) at 7 years old. The association was not observed at 4 years old (incidence rate ratio, 1.04; 95% CI, 0.92-1.18). No associations were found using ADHD symptom diagnostic criteria. CONCLUSIONS: High prenatal omega-6:omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid ratio preceded the appearance of subclinical ADHD symptoms during mid-childhood. Our findings suggest that maternal diet during pregnancy may modulate the risk to develop long-term ADHD symptoms in the offspring.

10.
Chemosphere ; 226: 447-453, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30951939

RESUMO

Exposure to air pollution has been associated with a wide range of adverse health outcomes. However, the available evidence on the impact of air pollution exposures on liver enzymes is still scarce. The aim of the present study was to assess the relationship between exposure to ambient PM1, PM2.5 and PM10 during pregnancy and serum level of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) in cord blood samples of newborns. Moreover, the association between total street length in different buffers and distance to major roads at the maternal residential address and liver enzymes were investigated. This cross-sectional study was based on data from a sample of 150 newborns, from Sabzevar, Iran. Land use regression models were used to estimate concentrations of air pollutants at home during pregnancy. Multiple linear regression was developed to estimate association of AST, ALT, ALP and GGT with air pollution controlled for relevant covariates. In fully adjusted models, increase in PM1 and PM2.5 as well as PM10 were associated with higher levels of AST, ALT and GGT. Moreover, there was a significant association between total street length in a 100 m buffer at residential address with AST, ALT and GGT. Each meter increase in distance to major roads was associated with -0.017 (95% confidence interval (CI): -0.028, -0.006) decrease in AST. Overall, our findings were supportive for association between PMs exposure during pregnancy and increase in liver enzymes in newborns. Further studies are needed to confirm these findings in other settings and populations.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Fígado/patologia , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Poluição do Ar/análise , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Gravidez
11.
Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol ; 125 Suppl 3: 81-88, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30884144

RESUMO

Air pollution is the main urban-related environmental hazard and one of the major contributors to the global burden of disease based on its cardiovascular-respiratory impacts. In children, exposure to urban air pollution is associated, among others, with decelerated neurodevelopment early in life and increased risk of neurodevelopmental problems such as attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, autism spectrum disorders, academic failure and the start of Alzheimer's pathogenesis. However, the evidence of the effects of air pollution on brain development is still inadequate, mainly due to the limitations in (a) characterizing brain development (most studies were based on subjective tools such as questionnaires or neuropsychological tests) and (b) air pollution exposure (most studies only used residential levels based on geographical modelling and also overlooking the variation in the mixture of air pollutants as well as the composition and hence toxicity of particulate pollutants in different settings), (c) the lack of studies during the most vulnerable stages of brain development (foetal and early life (first two years post-natally)) and (d) the lack of structural and functional imaging data underlying these effects. In mice, in utero exposure to fine particles was linked to structural brain changes and there is a need to establish the generalizability of these findings in human beings. Though scarce, current evidence in children supports the importance of the pre-natal period as a susceptible window of exposure. Two studies in schoolchildren found that pre-natal air pollution exposure might damage brain structure while exposure during childhood was not linked to any structural alteration. Another study showed that children with higher traffic-related air pollution at school had lower functional integration in key brain networks, but no changes in brain structure, possibly partly because of the time window of air pollution exposure (in utero versus childhood exposure). A key development is to discover the windows of greatest sensitivity of structural brain changes to air pollution exposure by incorporating the recent advances in non-invasive imaging to characterize natal and post-natal brain development and exploring whether and to what extend placental dysfunction could mediate such an association. Studying pre-natal life is important because effects at this time are of a potentially irreversible nature and because the largest preventive opportunities occur during these periods.

12.
Environ Int ; 126: 162-170, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30798197

RESUMO

Satellite data is increasingly used to characterize green space for health outcome studies. Literature suggests that green space within 500 m of home is often used to represent neighborhood suitable for walking, air pollution and noise reduction, and natural healing. In this paper, we used satellite data of different spatial resolutions to derive normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), an indicator of surface greenness, at buffer distances of 50, 100, 250 and 500 m. Data included those of 2 m spatial resolution from WorldView2, 5 m resolution from RapidEye and 30 m resolution from Landsat. We found that, after radiometric calibrations, the RapidEye and WorldView2 sensors had similar NDVI values, while Landsat imagery tended to have greater NDVI; however, these sensors showed similar vegetation distribution: locations high in vegetation cover being high in NDVI, and vice versa. We linked the green space estimates to a health survey, and identified that higher NDVI values were significantly associated with better health outcomes. We further investigated the impacts of buffer size and sensor spatial resolution on identified associations between NDVI and health outcomes. Overall, the identified health outcomes were similar across sensors of different spatial resolutions, but a mean trend was identified in bigger buffer size being associated with greater health outcome.


Assuntos
Tecnologia de Sensoriamento Remoto , Características de Residência , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Meio Ambiente , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Saúde Pública , Adulto Jovem
13.
Environ Int ; 125: 58-64, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30703612

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ambient air pollution may increase the risk of overweight and obesity in children. However, available evidence is still scarce and has mainly focused on ambient air pollution exposure occurring at home without considering the school environment. The aim of this study is to assess whether exposure to ambient air pollution at home and school is associated with overweight and obesity in primary school children. METHODS: We studied 2660 children aged 7-10 years during 2012 in Barcelona. Child weight and height were measured and age- and sex-specific z-scores for body mass index (zBMI) were calculated using the WHO growth reference 2007. Overweight and obesity were defined using the same reference. Land use regression models were used to estimate levels of nitrogen dioxide (NO2), particulate matter <2.5 µm (PM2.5), <10 µm (PM10) and coarse (PMcoarse) at home. Outdoor levels of NO2, PM2.5, elemental carbon (EC), and ultrafine particles (UFP) were measured in the schoolyard. Multilevel mixed linear and ordered logistic models were used to assess the association between ambient air pollution (continuous per interquartile range (IQR) increase and categorical with tertile cutoffs) and zBMI (continuous and ordinal: normal, overweight, obese), after adjusting for socio-demographic characteristics. RESULTS: An IQR increase in PM10-home (5.6 µg/m3) was associated with a 10% increase in the odds of being overweight or obese (odds ratio (OR) = 1.10; 95% CI = 1.00, 1.22). Children exposed to the highest tertile of UFP-school (>27,346 particles/cm3) had a 30% higher odds of being overweight or obese (OR = 1.30; 95%CI = 1.03, 1.64) compared to the lowest tertile of UFP exposure. We also observed that exposure to NO2, PM2.5 or EC at schools was associated with higher odds of overweight or obese at medium compared to low levels of exposure. Home and school exposures did not show any significant associations with zBMI (except PM2.5-school comparing tertile 2 vs tertile 1) but were similar in direction. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that exposure to ambient air pollution, especially at school, is associated with childhood risk for overweight and obesity. A cautious interpretation is warranted because associations were not always linear and because school and home air pollution measurements were not directly comparable.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/análise , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Carbono/análise , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Material Particulado/análise , Fatores de Risco , Instituições Acadêmicas , Espanha/epidemiologia
14.
Environ Res ; 168: 171-177, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30316102

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A growing body of evidence has associated contact with green spaces with improved mental health and wellbeing in adults. Social contacts has been postulated as a potential mechanism underlying such effects. However, the available evidence on the association between green spaces and self-satisfaction and also the mediatory role of social contacts in health benefits of green spaces in adolescents is still very scarce. We aimed to evaluate the association of time spent in different types of green spaces with self-satisfaction and social contacts in adolescents. We also investigated the mediatory role of social contacts in the association of green space use and self-satisfaction. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was based on a population-representative sample of 10,856 adolescents (10-18 years old) living in urban and rural districts across 30 provinces of Iran (2015). Data on the time spent in green spaces (separately for parks, forests and private gardens), self-satisfaction, social contacts (number of friends and time spent with friends), and socio-demographic characteristics were obtained through questionnaires from parents and children. Logistic mixed effects models with recruitment centre as the random effect were developed to estimate associations adjusted for relevant covariates. RESULTS: More time spent in green spaces was associated with improved self-satisfaction and social contacts. While for the self-satisfaction, there was no indication for effect modification by sex, socioeconomic status (SES), and urbanity, we observed stronger associations for older adolescents (> 14 years old). For social contacts, we found indications for stronger associations for boys, older adolescents, those residing in rural areas, and those from lowest and highest SES groups. Social contacts could explain more than half of the association between green spaces use and self-satisfaction. CONCLUSIONS: Our observed enhanced self-satisfaction and social contacts associated with more time spent in green spaces could provide policymakers with measures to improve mental wellbeing of adolescents. Further studies are required to replicate our findings in other populations with different climates, cultures and lifestyles.


Assuntos
Florestas , Amigos , Jardins , Saúde Mental , Parques Recreativos , Autoimagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Amigos/psicologia , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico) , Masculino , Satisfação Pessoal , Classe Social
15.
Environ Pollut ; 244: 636-647, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30384069

RESUMO

Telomere length (TL) has been suggested to be a surrogate for cellular ageing, and a record of cumulative inflammation and oxidative stress over life. An emerging body of evidence has associated exposure to air pollution to changes in TL. To date there is no available systematic review of literature on this association. We aimed to systematically review and conduct meta-analysis of published studies on the relationship between air pollution and TL in adults. Electronic databases were systematically searched for available English language studies on the association between air pollution and TL published up to 1 July 2018. Meta-analyses were conducted following MOOSE guidelines. The heterogeneity in the reported associations was assessed using Cochran's Q test and quantified as I2 index. Publication bias was assessed using Egger's regression. Our search identified 19 eligible studies including 11 retrospective and eight prospective studies of which, four had excellent quality, ten had good quality and five had fair quality. Meta-analysis result of two studies on long-term exposure to PM2.5 showed an inverse association between these exposures and TL (for 5 µg/m3 PM2.5-0.03 95% CI; -0.05, -0.01). Meta-analysis of short-term exposure to PM2.5 with three studies and Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) with two studies revealed a direct association between these exposures and TL (0.03 95% CI; 0.02, 0.04 and 0.10 95% CI; 0.06, 0.15 respectively). No statistically significant relationship between exposure to PM10 and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) exposure and TL were observed. We observed suggestive evidence for associations between air pollution and TL with potentially different direction of associations for short- and long-term exposures.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Homeostase do Telômero/fisiologia , Telômero/fisiologia , Adulto , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos
16.
Environ Int ; 2018 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30503316

RESUMO

There is increasing evidence of the health benefits of exposure to natural environments, including green and blue spaces. The association with physical functioning and its decline at older age remains to be explored. The aim of the present study was to investigate the longitudinal association between the natural environment and the decline in physical functioning in older adults. We based our analyses on three follow-ups (2002-2013) of the Whitehall II study, including 5759 participants (aged 50 to 74 years at baseline) in the UK. Exposure to natural environments was assessed at each follow-up as (1) residential surrounding greenness across buffers of 500 and 1000 m around the participants' address using satellite-based indices of greenness (Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI)) and (2) the distance from home to the nearest natural environment, separately for green and blue spaces, using a land cover map. Physical functioning was characterized by walking speed, measured three times, and grip strength, measured twice. Linear mixed effects models were used to quantify the impact of green and blue space on physical functioning trajectories, controlled for relevant covariates. We found higher residential surrounding greenness (EVI and NDVI) to be associated with slower 10-year decline in walking speed. Furthermore, proximity to natural environments (green and blue spaces combined) was associated with slower decline in walking speed and grip strength. We observed stronger associations between distance to natural environments and decline in physical functioning in areas with higher compared to lower area-level deprivation. However, no association was observed with distance to green or blue spaces separately. The associations with decline in physical functioning were partially mediated by social functioning and mental health. Our results suggest that higher residential surrounding greenness and living closer to natural environments contribute to better physical functioning at older ages.

17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30380717

RESUMO

Introduction: Cities often experience high air pollution and noise levels and lack of natural outdoor environments, which may be detrimental to health. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of air pollution, noise, and blue and green space on premature all-cause mortality in Barcelona using a mega cohort approach. Methods: Both men and women of 18 years and above registered on 1 January 2010 by the Sistema d'Informació pel Desenvolupament de la Investigació en Atenció Primària (SIDIAP) and living in the city of Barcelona were included in the cohort and followed up until 31 December 2014 or until death (n = 2,939,067 person years). The exposure assessment was conducted at the census tract level (n = 1061). We assigned exposure to long term ambient levels of nitrogen dioxides (NO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 µm (PM2.5), between 2.5 µm and 10 µm (PM2.5⁻10, i.e., coarse particulate matter), less than 10 µm (PM10) and PM2.5 light absorption (hereafter referred to as PM2.5 absorbance) based on land use regressions models. Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) was assigned based on remote sensing data, percentage green space and blue space were calculated based on land use maps and modelled road traffic noise was available through the strategic noise map for Barcelona. Results: In this large prospective study (n = 792,649) in an urban area, we found a decreased risk of all-cause mortality with an increase in green space measured as NDVI (hazard ratio (HR) = 0.92, 95% CI 0.89⁻0.97 per 0.1) and increased risks of mortality with an increase in exposure to blue space (HR = 1.04, 95% CI 1.01⁻1.06 per 1%), NO2 (HR = 1.01, 95% CI 1.00⁻1.02 per 5 ug/m³) but no risk with noise (HR = 1.00, 95% CI 0.98⁻1.02 per 5 dB(A)). The increased risks appeared to be more pronounced in the more deprived areas. Results for NDVI, and to a lesser extent NO2, remained most consistent after mutual adjustment for other exposures. The NDVI estimate was a little attenuated when NO2 was included in the model. The study had some limitations including e.g., the assessment of air pollution, noise, green space and socioeconomic status (SES) on census tract level rather than individual level and residual confounding. Conclusion: This large study provides new insights on the relationship between green and blue space, noise and air pollution and premature all-cause mortality.

18.
Chemosphere ; 217: 680-685, 2018 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30447615

RESUMO

Biomarkers are promising indicators to evaluate human exposure to air pollutants and to predict the health outcomes. Area of Airway macrophages that is occupied by Black Carbon could be used as a biomarker of personal long term exposure to traffic related air pollution. Association of airway macrophages carbon load with weighted average distance and environmental and subject-specific behavior are considered in this study. Sputum samples were taken from 160 healthy adult women and airway macrophages carbon load (AMCL) were determined in 93 subjects, which represent a success rate of 62% in sputum induction. Nearest distance of the subjects to major roads and average weighted distance were calculated for each subject. A questionnaire was field according to general and behavioral characteristics of the participants. There was not any significant difference (P-value >0.05) between induced and non-induced subjects. Subjects with indoor kitchen without separation wall, passive smokers and those with longer presence time in high traffic streets showed higher carbon area. Weighted average distance had a better association (ß = -0.186, 95%CI: -0.139, -0.230, P-value = 0.00) with AMCL than nearest distance to major roads (ß = -0.155, 95%CI: -0.109, -0.201, P-value = 0.19). Association of Weighted average distance with AMCL was interrupted in subjects with a garage connected to house environment, those with IK kitchen, those with a hood above the stove and passive smokers. The findings indicated that more generation and distribution of indoor air pollutants can completely enhance the internal exposure and indoor pollution has the same importance as outdoor pollution.

19.
Environ Pollut ; 243(Pt B): 1134-1140, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30261453

RESUMO

A limited but emerging body of evidence is suggestive for a beneficial association between contact with green spaces and glucose homeostasis in adults; however, such an evidence for children is scarce. We evaluated the association between time spent in green spaces and fasting blood glucose (FBG) levels and impaired fasting glucose (IFG, FBG≥110 mg/dL) in a population-based multicentric sample of 3844 Iranian schoolchildren aged 7-18 years (2015). Participants were instructed to report the average hours per week spent in green spaces separately during each season and in each type of green space (parks, woods/other natural green spaces, and private gardens/agricultural field) for a 12-month period preceding the interview. We developed linear and logistic mixed effects models with centre as random effect to evaluate the association of time spent in green spaces (separately for each type as well as all types together) with FBG and IFG, respectively, controlled for a wide range of covariates including household indicators of socioeconomic status. We observed inverse associations between time spent in green spaces, especially in natural green spaces, and FBG levels. Specifically, 1.83 h increase in the total time spent in green spaces was associated with -0.5 mg/dl (95% confidence intervals: -0.9, -0.1) change in FBG levels. We also observed reduced risk of IFG associated with time spent in green spaces; however, the association was statistically significant only for the time spent in natural green spaces. There were suggestions for stronger associations for those residing in urban areas and those from lower socioeconomic status groups; however, the interaction terms for socioeconomic status and urbanity were not statistically significant. Further longitudinal studies are required to replicate our findings in other settings with different climates and population susceptibilities.

20.
Environ Health Perspect ; 126(8): 087001, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30073950

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Traffic-related air pollution is emerging as a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD) and impaired brain development. Individual differences in vulnerability to air pollution may involve the ε4 allele of Apolipoprotein E (APOE) gene, the primary genetic risk factor for AD. OBJECTIVE: We analyzed whether the association between traffic air pollution and neurodevelopmental outcomes is modified by APOEε4 status in children. METHODS: Data on parent-reported behavior problems (total difficulties scores, Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire), teacher-reported attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptom scores, cognitive performance trajectories (computerized tests of inattentiveness and working memory repeated 2-4 times during January 2012-March 2013), and APOE genotypes were obtained for 1,667 children age 7-11 y attending 39 schools in or near Barcelona. Basal ganglia volume (putamen, caudate, and globus pallidum) was measured in 163 of the children by MRI (October 2012-April 2014.) Average annual outdoor polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), elemental carbon (EC), and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) concentrations were estimated based on measurements at each school (two 1-wk campaigns conducted 6 months apart in 2012). RESULTS: APOEε4 allele carriers had significantly higher behavior problem scores than noncarriers, and adverse associations with PAHs and NO2 were stronger or limited to ε4 carriers for behavior problem scores (P-interaction 0.03 and 0.04), caudate volume (P-interaction 0.04 and 0.03), and inattentiveness trajectories (P-interaction 0.15 and 0.08, respectively). Patterns of associations with the same outcomes were similar for EC. CONCLUSION: PAHs, EC, and NO2 were associated with higher behavior problem scores, smaller reductions in inattentiveness over time, and smaller caudate volume in APOEε4 allele carriers in our study population, and corresponding associations were weak or absent among ε4 noncarriers. These findings support a potential role of APOE in biological mechanisms that may contribute to associations between air pollution and neurobehavioral outcomes in children. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP2246.

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