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3.
Vaccine ; 39(44): 6464-6469, 2021 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34598820

RESUMO

Among 6146 hospital employees, 118 subjects with severe allergic background were identified through a screening questionnaire and stratified into 3 groups (Low-risk (LR), Intermediate (IR) and High-risk (HR) group), based on their allergic anamnesis. Data reports on hypersensitivity reactions (HypR) have been collected in both allergic and non-allergic subjects. Seventeen patients (14%) in the allergic population had a HypR after the first, the second or both doses. Skin manifestations were the most frequent ones. Allergic events were more frequent in HR (35%) than IR (10%; p = 0.005) or LR (0%; p = 0.074) subjects. No patient had anaphylaxis. All patients completed the vaccination schedule. 13 HypR occurred in patients without severe allergic background (13/6028, 0,2%) including one (1/6148, 0.016% of total population) WAO grade-4 anaphylaxis. Our data suggest that BNT162b2 mRNA Covid-19 vaccine is relatively safe also in patients with severe allergic background; however, some precautions are required for high-risk patients.

5.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 17473, 2021 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34471195

RESUMO

As for all newly-emergent pathogens, SARS-CoV-2 presents with a relative paucity of clinical information and experimental models, a situation hampering both the development of new effective treatments and the prediction of future outbreaks. Here, we find that a simple virus-free model, based on publicly available transcriptional data from human cell lines, is surprisingly able to recapitulate several features of the clinically relevant infections. By segregating cell lines (n = 1305) from the CCLE project on the base of their sole angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) mRNA content, we found that overexpressing cells present with molecular features resembling those of at-risk patients, including senescence, impairment of antibody production, epigenetic regulation, DNA repair and apoptosis, neutralization of the interferon response, proneness to an overemphasized innate immune activity, hyperinflammation by IL-1, diabetes, hypercoagulation and hypogonadism. Likewise, several pathways were found to display a differential expression between sexes, with males being in the least advantageous position, thus suggesting that the model could reproduce even the sex-related disparities observed in the clinical outcome of patients with COVID-19. Overall, besides validating a new disease model, our data suggest that, in patients with severe COVID-19, a baseline ground could be already present and, as a consequence, the viral infection might simply exacerbate a variety of latent (or inherent) pre-existing conditions, representing therefore a tipping point at which they become clinically significant.


Assuntos
Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/genética , COVID-19/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Regulação para Cima , COVID-19/imunologia , Linhagem Celular , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Feminino , Humanos , Imunidade Inata , Masculino , Modelos Biológicos , Modelos Teóricos , Caracteres Sexuais
7.
Curr Pharm Des ; 2021 09 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34477509

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Covid-19 pandemic may have a deleterious impact on patients with autoimmune systemic diseases (ASD) due to their deep immune-system alterations. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence of symptomatic Covid-19 and its correlations with both organ involvement and ongoing treatments in a large series of Italian ASD patients during the first wave of pandemic. METHOD: Our multicenter telephone 6-week survey included 3,029 unselected ASD patients enrolled at 36 tertiary referral centers of northern, central, and southern Italian macro-areas with different diffusion of pandemic. Symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection was classified as definite Covid-19 (presence of symptoms plus positive oral/nasopharyngeal swabs) or highly suspected Covid-19 (highly suggestive symptoms, in absence of a swab testing). RESULTS: A significantly higher prevalence of definite plus highly suspected Covid-19 compared to Italian general population was detected in the whole ASD series (p=.000), as well as in patients from the three macro-areas (p=.000 in all). Statistically higher prevalence of Covid-19 was also found in connective tissue diseases compared to chronic arthritis subgroup (p=.000) and in ASD patients with pre-existing interstitial lung involvement (p=.000). Patients treated with either conventional disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs) and/or biological DMARDs showed a significantly lower prevalence of Covid-19 (p=.000 in both). Finally, scleroderma patients undergoing low-dose aspirin showed significantly lower rate of Covid-19 compared to those without (p=0.003). CONCLUSION: The higher prevalence of Covid-19 in ASD patients along with the significant correlations with important clinical features and therapeutic regimens suggests the need to develop targeted prevention/management strategies during the current pandemic wave.

8.
Nat Med ; 2021 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34480127

RESUMO

Early increase of soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) serum levels is indicative of increased risk of progression of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) to respiratory failure. The SAVE-MORE double-blind, randomized controlled trial evaluated the efficacy and safety of anakinra, an IL-1α/ß inhibitor, in 594 patients with COVID-19 at risk of progressing to respiratory failure as identified by plasma suPAR ≥6 ng ml-1, 85.9% (n = 510) of whom were receiving dexamethasone. At day 28, the adjusted proportional odds of having a worse clinical status (assessed by the 11-point World Health Organization Clinical Progression Scale (WHO-CPS)) with anakinra, as compared to placebo, was 0.36 (95% confidence interval 0.26-0.50). The median WHO-CPS decrease on day 28 from baseline in the placebo and anakinra groups was 3 and 4 points, respectively (odds ratio (OR) = 0.40, P < 0.0001); the respective median decrease of Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score on day 7 from baseline was 0 and 1 points (OR = 0.63, P = 0.004). Twenty-eight-day mortality decreased (hazard ratio = 0.45, P = 0.045), and hospital stay was shorter.

9.
Clin Immunol ; 231: 108845, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34478882

RESUMO

Little is known about the impact of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic to the care of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in the long-term. By crossing population data with the results of a web-based survey focused on the timeframes January-April and May-December 2020, we found that among 334/518 responders, 28 had COVID-19 in 2020. Seventeen cases occurred in May-December, in parallel with trends in the general population and loosening of containment policy strength. Age > 40 years (p = 0.026), prednisone escalation (p = 0.008) and infected relatives (p < 0.001) were most significantly associated with COVID-19. Weaker associations were found with asthma, lymphadenopathy and azathioprine or cyclosporine treatment. Only 31% of patients with infected relatives developed COVID-19. Healthcare service disruptions were not associated with rising hospitalisations. Vaccination prospects were generally welcomed. Our data suggest that COVID-19 has a moderate impact on patients with SLE, which might be significantly modulated by public health policies, including vaccination.

10.
J Crit Care ; 66: 14-19, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34392131

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To determine whether Macklin effect (a linear collection of air contiguous to the bronchovascular sheath) on baseline CT imaging is an accurate predictor for subsequent pneumomediastinum (PMD)/pneumothorax (PNX) development in invasively ventilated patients with COVID-19-related acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is an observational, case-control study. From a prospectively acquired database, all consecutive invasively ventilated COVID-19 ARDS patients who underwent at least one baseline chest CT scan during the study time period (February 25th, 2020-December 31st, 2020) were identified; those who had tracheal lesion or already had PMD/PNX at the time of the first available chest imaging were excluded. RESULTS: 37/173 (21.4%) patients enrolled had PMD/PNX; specifically, 20 (11.5%) had PMD, 10 (5.8%) PNX, 7 (4%) both. 33/37 patients with subsequent PMD/PNX had Macklin effect on baseline CT (89.2%, true positives) 8.5 days [range, 1-18] before the first actual radiological evidence of PMD/PNX. Conversely, 6/136 patients without PMD/PNX (4.4%, false positives) demonstrated Macklin effect (p < 0.001). Macklin effect yielded a sensitivity of 89.2% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 74.6-96.9), a specificity of 95.6% (95% CI: 90.6-98.4), a positive predictive value (PV) of 84.5% (95% CI: 71.3-92.3), a negative PV of 97.1% (95% CI: 74.6-96.9) and an accuracy of 94.2% (95% CI: 89.6-97.2) in predicting PMD/PNX (AUC:0.924). CONCLUSIONS: Macklin effect accurately predicts, 8.5 days in advance, PMD/PNX development in COVID-19 ARDS patients.

11.
Andrology ; 2021 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34409772

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Circulating testosterone levels have been found to be reduced in men with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection, COVID-19, with lower levels being associated with more severe clinical outcomes. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to assess total testosterone levels and the prevalence of total testosterone still suggesting for hypogonadism at 7-month follow-up in a cohort of 121 men who recovered from laboratory-confirmed COVID-19. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Demographic, clinical, and hormonal values were collected for all patients. Hypogonadism was defined as total testosterone ≤9.2 nmol/L. The Charlson Comorbidity Index was used to score health-significant comorbidities. Descriptive statistics and multivariable linear and logistic regression models tested the association between clinical and laboratory variables and total testosterone levels at follow-up assessment. RESULTS: Circulating total testosterone levels increased at 7-month follow-up compared to hospital admittance (p < 0.0001), while luteinizing hormone and 17ß-estradiol levels significantly decreased (all p ≤ 0.02). Overall, total testosterone levels increased in 106 (87.6%) patients, but further decreased in 12 (9.9%) patients at follow-up, where a total testosterone level suggestive for hypogonadism was still observed in 66 (55%) patients. Baseline Charlson Comorbidity Index score (OR 0.36; p = 0.03 [0.14, 0.89]) was independently associated with total testosterone levels at 7-month follow-up, after adjusting for age, BMI, and IL-6 at hospital admittance. CONCLUSIONS: Although total testosterone levels increased over time after COVID-19, more than 50% of men who recovered from the disease still had circulating testosterone levels suggestive for a condition of hypogonadism at 7-month follow-up. In as many as 10% of cases, testosterone levels even further decreased. Of clinical relevance, the higher the burden of comorbid conditions at presentation, the lower the probability of testosterone levels recovery over time.

12.
Lancet Rheumatol ; 2021 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34396156

RESUMO

Background: Anakinra might improve the prognosis of patients with moderate to severe COVID-19 (ie, patients requiring oxygen supplementation but not yet receiving organ support). We aimed to assess the effect of anakinra treatment on mortality in patients admitted to hospital with COVID-19. Methods: For this systematic review and individual patient-level meta-analysis, a systematic literature search was done on Dec 28, 2020, in Medline (PubMed), Cochrane, medRxiv, bioRxiv, and the ClinicalTrials.gov databases for randomised trials, comparative studies, and observational studies of patients admitted to hospital with COVID-19, comparing administration of anakinra with standard of care, or placebo, or both. The search was repeated on Jan 22, 2021. Individual patient-level data were requested from investigators and corresponding authors of eligible studies; if individual patient-level data were not available, published data were extracted from the original reports. The primary endpoint was mortality after 28 days and the secondary endpoint was safety (eg, the risk of secondary infections). This study is registered on PROSPERO (CRD42020221491). Findings: 209 articles were identified, of which 178 full-text articles fulfilled screening criteria and were assessed. Aggregate data on 1185 patients from nine studies were analysed, and individual patient-level data on 895 patients were provided from six of these studies. Eight studies were observational and one was a randomised controlled trial. Most studies used historical controls. In the individual patient-level meta-analysis, after adjusting for age, comorbidities, baseline ratio of the arterial partial oxygen pressure divided by the fraction of inspired oxygen (PaO2/FiO2), C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations, and lymphopenia, mortality was significantly lower in patients treated with anakinra (38 [11%] of 342) than in those receiving standard of care with or without placebo (137 [25%] of 553; adjusted odds ratio [OR] 0·32 [95% CI 0·20-0·51]). The mortality benefit was similar across subgroups regardless of comorbidities (ie, diabetes), ferritin concentrations, or the baseline PaO2/FiO2. In a subgroup analysis, anakinra was more effective in lowering mortality in patients with CRP concentrations higher than 100 mg/L (OR 0·28 [95% CI 0·17-0·47]). Anakinra showed a significant survival benefit when given without dexamethasone (OR 0·23 [95% CI 0·12-0·43]), but not with dexamethasone co-administration (0·72 [95% CI 0·37-1·41]). Anakinra was not associated with a significantly increased risk of secondary infections when compared with standard of care (OR 1·35 [95% CI 0·59-3·10]). Interpretation: Anakinra could be a safe, anti-inflammatory treatment option to reduce the mortality risk in patients admitted to hospital with moderate to severe COVID-19 pneumonia, especially in the presence of signs of hyperinflammation such as CRP concentrations higher than 100 mg/L. Funding: Sobi.

13.
Arthritis Rheumatol ; 2021 Aug 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34347947

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Mepolizumab proved efficacious for eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA, former Churg-Strauss) at the dosage of 300mg/4 weeks in the randomized controlled MIRRA trial. Few successful real-life experiences with the dosage approved for severe eosinophilic asthma (100mg/4 weeks) were recently reported. We retrospectively assessed the effectiveness and safety of mepolizumab 100 and 300mg/4 weeks in a large European EGPA cohort. METHODS: We included all EGPA patients treated with mepolizumab at the recruiting centres in 2015-2020. Treatment response was evaluated from month 3 through 24 (T3-T24) after mepolizumab starting. Complete response (CR) was defined as no disease activity (Birmingham Vasculitis Activity Score, BVAS=0) and a prednisone dose ≤4mg/day. Respiratory outcomes included asthma and ear-nose-throat (ENT) exacerbations. RESULTS: We included 203 patients, of whom 191 at stable dosage (158 mepolizumab 100mg/4 weeks, 33 300mg/4 weeks). At T3, 25 patients (12.3%) had a CR. CR rates increased to 30.4% and 35.7% at T12 and T24 and were comparable between mepolizumab 100 and 300mg/4 weeks. Mepolizumab led to a significant reduction in BVAS, prednisone dose, eosinophil counts from T3 through T24, with no significant differences between 100 and 300 mg/4weeks. Eighty-two patients (40.4%) experienced asthma exacerbations [57/158 (36%) on 100mg/4 weeks; 17/33 (52%) on 300mg/4 weeks]. Thirty-one (15.3%) experienced ENT exacerbations. Forty-four patients (21.7%) experienced adverse events, most being non-serious (38/44). CONCLUSION: Mepolizumab both at 100 and 300mg/4 weeks is effective for EGPA. The two dosages should be compared in the setting of a controlled trial.

14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34363461

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess safety and efficacy of TNF-α antagonists and tocilizumab in patients with Takayasu arteritis (TAK). METHODS AND RESULTS: Two-hundred nine patients with TAK [median age of 29 years [7-62], and 186 (89%) females] were included. They received either TNF-α antagonists [n = 132 (63%) with 172 lines; infliximab (n = 109), adalimumab (n = 45), golimumab (n = 8), certolizumab (n = 6) and etanercept (n = 5)], or tocilizumab [n = 77 (37%) with 121 lines; intravenous and subcutaneous in 95 and 26 cases, respectively]. A complete response at 6 months was evidenced in 101/152 (66%) on TNF-α antagonists and 75/107 (70%) on tocilizumab, respectively. Age ≥ 30 years [OR = 2.09 [1.09; 3.99]] was associated with complete response, whereas vascular signs [0.26 [0.1; 0.65]], baseline prednisone ≥ 20 mg/day [0.51 [0.28; 0.93]] were negatively associated with the complete response to TNF-α antagonists or tocilizumab. During a median follow-up of 36 months, 103 relapses were noted. Supra-aortic branches and thoracic aorta involvements [HR 2.44 (1.06; 5.65) and 3.66 (1.18; 11.4), respectively], and systemic signs at baseline [HR 2.01 (1.30; 3.11)] were significantly associated with relapse. The cumulative incidence of treatment discontinuation and relapse were similar in TNFα antagonists and tocilizumab. Fifty-eight (20%) adverse effects occurred on biological-targeted therapies of whom 37 (21%) and 21 (17%), (p= 0.4) on TNF-α antagonists and tocilizumab, respectively. CONCLUSION: This large multicentre study shows high efficacy of biological-targeted treatments in refractory TAK. Efficacy, relapse and drug retention rate were equivalent with TNF-α antagonists and tocilizumab.

16.
Eur J Intern Med ; 2021 08 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34391591

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Research is moving towards a more personalized management of immune-related adverse events (irAEs) due to immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI). Our objective was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of tocilizumab in the treatment of these clinical manifestations. METHODS: A systematic literature review was performed to retrieve data about the use of tocilizumab in the treatment of irAEs. Additionally, data from cancer patients referred to our Immune-related Adverse Event Clinic and treated with tocilizumab were collected. RESULTS: Our literature review identified 20 articles and 11 meeting abstracts. Data about 91 cancer patients who received tocilizumab for the treatment of irAEs were collected. In 85% of cases, this therapy was associated with clinical benefit and no case of disease progression was reported. ICI therapy was continued following irAE onset and biologic therapy initiation in only three patients. Five patients developed irAEs upon ICI initiation and were subsequently treated with tocilizumab at our Centre. At a median follow-up of eight months, tocilizumab was safely continued along with ICI in three out of five patients, and an adequate control of irAE was obtained in all cases. No significant adverse reactions to tocilizumab were reported. Only one patient experienced a disease progression 18 months after ICI discontinuation. CONCLUSION: Both our systematic literature review and case series highlight the efficacy and safety of tocilizumab in the treatment of irAEs. Furthermore, they both support the possibility of a combined approach with tocilizumab and ICI, to guarantee an effective irAEs management without losing the oncologic response.

17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34320649

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To identify the main computed tomography (CT) features that may help distinguishing a progression of interstitial lung disease (ILD) secondary to Systemic sclerosis (SSc) from COVID-19 pneumonia. METHODS: This multicentric study included 22 international readers divided in the radiologist group (RAD) and non-radiologist group (nRAD). A total of 99 patients, 52 with COVID-19 and 47 with SSc-ILD, were included in the study. RESULTS: Fibrosis inside focal ground glass opacities (GGO) in the upper lobes; fibrosis in the lower lobe GGO; reticulations in lower lobes (especially if bilateral and symmetrical or associated with signs of fibrosis) were the CT features most frequently associated with SSc-ILD. The CT features most frequently associated with COVID- 19 pneumonia were: consolidation (CONS) in the lower lobes, CONS with peripheral (both central/peripheral or patchy distributions), anterior and posterior CONS and rounded-shaped GGOs in the lower lobes. After multivariate analysis, the presence of CONS in the lower lobes (p < 0.0001) and signs of fibrosis in GGO in the lower lobes (p < 0.0001) remained independently associated with COVID-19 pneumonia or SSc-ILD, respectively. A predictive score was created which resulted positively associated with the COVID-19 diagnosis (96.1% sensitivity and 83.3% specificity). CONCLUSION: The CT differential diagnosis between COVID-19 pneumonia and SSc-ILD is possible through the combination the proposed score and the radiologic expertise. The presence of consolidation in the lower lobes may suggest a COVID-19 pneumonia while the presence of fibrosis inside GGO may indicate a SSc-ILD.

18.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4559, 2021 07 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34315896

RESUMO

Activating mutations in the BRAF-MAPK pathway have been reported in histiocytoses, hematological inflammatory neoplasms characterized by multi-organ dissemination of pro-inflammatory myeloid cells. Here, we generate a humanized mouse model of transplantation of human hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) expressing the activated form of BRAF (BRAFV600E). All mice transplanted with BRAFV600E-expressing HSPCs succumb to bone marrow failure, displaying myeloid-restricted hematopoiesis and multi-organ dissemination of aberrant mononuclear phagocytes. At the basis of this aggressive phenotype, we uncover the engagement of a senescence program, characterized by DNA damage response activation and a senescence-associated secretory phenotype, which affects also non-mutated bystander cells. Mechanistically, we identify TNFα as a key determinant of paracrine senescence and myeloid-restricted hematopoiesis and show that its inhibition dampens inflammation, delays disease onset and rescues hematopoietic defects in bystander cells. Our work establishes that senescence in the human hematopoietic system links oncogene-activation to the systemic inflammation observed in histiocytic neoplasms.


Assuntos
Senescência Celular , Hematopoese/genética , Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/metabolismo , Histiocitose/patologia , Inflamação/patologia , Células Mieloides/patologia , Oncogenes , Animais , Medula Óssea/patologia , Pontos de Checagem do Ciclo Celular/genética , Senescência Celular/genética , Doença Crônica , Inibidor p16 de Quinase Dependente de Ciclina/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Proteínas de Fluorescência Verde/metabolismo , Histiocitose/complicações , Humanos , Inflamação/complicações , Lentivirus/genética , Camundongos , Mutação/genética , Comunicação Parácrina , Análise de Componente Principal , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/genética , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/antagonistas & inibidores , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
19.
Pancreatology ; 2021 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34244040

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Type I autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) and IgG4-related sclerosing cholangitis (IgG4-SC) belong to the IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) spectrum. Both entities respond to glucocorticoids, but iatrogenic toxicity associated with prolonged steroid therapy and relapse represent relevant clinical concerns in the long-term. Rituximab is increasingly used as an effective alternative strategy to induce remission but data regarding the safety and efficacy of B-cell depletion therapy for pancreato-biliary involvement of IgG4-RD are limited. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to estimate the rate of remission, flare, and adverse events (AEs) occurring in pancreato-biliary IgG4-RD following rituximab treatment. METHODS: The MEDLINE, SCOPUS, and EMBASE databases were searched from inception to December 2020 to identify studies reporting the outcomes of IgG4-related pancreato-biliary disease after treatment with rituximab. Studies involving ≥2 patients were selected. In case of duplicated studies, the most recent or the one with the biggest N were chosen. The study was conducted in accordance with Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. Pooled effects were calculated using a random-effect model and expressed in terms of pooled remission, relapse, and AEs rates. RESULTS: Seven cohort studies met inclusion criteria and 101 patients were included. Reasons for rituximab administration were new disease onset (18.5%), disease flare after glucocorticoids (63.5%), and glucocorticoids intolerance (17.9%). The median follow-up time was 19 months. The pooled rate of complete response at 6 months was 88.9% (95%CI 80.5-93.9) with no heterogeneity (I2 = 0%). The pooled estimate of relapse rate was 21% (95%CI 10.5-40.3) with moderate heterogeneity (I2 = 51%). A higher rate of relapse (35.9%, 95%CI 17.3-60.1) was reported in studies including patients with multiorgan involvement (OOI). The median time to relapse was 10 months. The pooled estimate of rituximab-related AEs was 25% (95%CI 8.8-53) with substantial heterogeneity (I2 = 73.6%). No publication bias was observed. CONCLUSION: Treatment of IgG4-related pancreato-biliary disease with rituximab is associated with high remission rate, a higher relapse rate in the presence of OOI, and limited AEs. Randomized controlled trials with adequate power are needed to confirm these findings.

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