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1.
Braz Dent J ; 30(4): 404-409, 2019 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31340232

RESUMO

Crossover studies continue to be published in spite of warnings about their inherent risks in relation to behavioral outcomes. This study took the opportunity of access to secondary data analysis in order to demonstrate the impact of a crossover design on the outcomes of randomized clinical trials aimed at the behavior of children during dental treatment. We evaluated the effect of the sequence of sedative administration, the sedative and the participant's age on the behavior of children undergoing two sequential dental visits. Eighteen uncooperative healthy young children were equally randomly assigned to: (G1) 1.0 mg/kg oral midazolam (first session) and oral placebo (second session); (G2) oral placebo (first) and 1.0 mg/kg oral midazolam (second). One trained observer assessed children's behavior. Data were analyzed by three-way mixed ANOVA. Both midazolam [mean(SD); 71.7%(16.5)] and placebo [48.6%(33.1)] produced more struggling behavior when they were administered in the first session compared to the second one (p=0.001). For the placebo, children aged 2-3 years exhibited more struggling behavior [G1 54.9%(36.2); G2 80.5%(8.3)] than those aged 4-5 years (p=0.04). Also, the reduction of percentage of struggling behavior was higher in G1 for older children (76.2%) and in G2 for younger children (32.9%). There were significant interactions between drug and sequence of administration, and between drug and age. The results of our study confirm the conventional wisdom that crossover study design is inappropriate to evaluate children's behavior/anxiety related-dental treatment under sedation and the results of crossover studies of dental sedation should be treated with extreme caution.

2.
Braz. dent. j ; 30(4): 404-409, July-Aug. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1011571

RESUMO

Abstract Crossover studies continue to be published in spite of warnings about their inherent risks in relation to behavioral outcomes. This study took the opportunity of access to secondary data analysis in order to demonstrate the impact of a crossover design on the outcomes of randomized clinical trials aimed at the behavior of children during dental treatment. We evaluated the effect of the sequence of sedative administration, the sedative and the participant's age on the behavior of children undergoing two sequential dental visits. Eighteen uncooperative healthy young children were equally randomly assigned to: (G1) 1.0 mg/kg oral midazolam (first session) and oral placebo (second session); (G2) oral placebo (first) and 1.0 mg/kg oral midazolam (second). One trained observer assessed children's behavior. Data were analyzed by three-way mixed ANOVA. Both midazolam [mean(SD); 71.7%(16.5)] and placebo [48.6%(33.1)] produced more struggling behavior when they were administered in the first session compared to the second one (p=0.001). For the placebo, children aged 2-3 years exhibited more struggling behavior [G1 54.9%(36.2); G2 80.5%(8.3)] than those aged 4-5 years (p=0.04). Also, the reduction of percentage of struggling behavior was higher in G1 for older children (76.2%) and in G2 for younger children (32.9%). There were significant interactions between drug and sequence of administration, and between drug and age. The results of our study confirm the conventional wisdom that crossover study design is inappropriate to evaluate children's behavior/anxiety related-dental treatment under sedation and the results of crossover studies of dental sedation should be treated with extreme caution.


Resumo Pouco se sabe sobre o impacto de um delineamento cruzado nos desfechos de ensaios clínicos randomizados voltados ao comportamento de crianças durante tratamento odontológico. Este estudo objetivou avaliar o efeito da sequência de administração do sedativo, da droga em si e da idade dos participantes no comportamento de crianças que receberam duas consultas odontológicas consecutivas. Dezoito crianças saudáveis não colaboradoras, 2-5 anos de idade, foram randomizadas em dois grupos: G1 - 1,0 mg/kg midazolam oral (primeira sessão) e placebo oral (segunda sessão); G2 - placebo (primeira) e 1,0 mg/kg midazolam oral (segunda). Um observador treinado avaliou o comportamento infantil. Os dados foram analisados por ANOVA de três fatores (alfa=0,05). Midazolam [média(DP); 71,7%(16,5)] e placebo [48,6%(33,1)] resultaram em mais comportamento não cooperativo quando administrados na primeira sessão comparado com a segunda (p=0,001). Com o uso do placebo, crianças de 2-3 anos de idade exibiram mais comportamento não cooperativo [G1 54,9%(36,2); G2 80,5%(8,3)] que as de 4-5 anos de idade (p=0,04). Além disso, a porcentagem de redução do comportamento não cooperativo foi maior em crianças mais velhas em G1 (76,2%) e em crianças mais novas em G2 (32,9%). Considerando a avaliação do comportamento infantil sob sedação, a primeira sessão odontológica influenciou a segunda visita. Os resultados deste estudo confirmam a especulação de que o delineamento cruzado é inadequado para avaliar o comportamento odontológico relacionado à ansiedade/comportamento infantil; os resultados dos ensaios cruzados de sedação odontológica devem ser tratados com extrema cautela.

3.
Int J Paediatr Dent ; 2018 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30450741

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidence of time trends in early childhood caries in low and middle-income countries in the second decade of the years 2000 is scarce AIM: To assess trends in early childhood caries prevalence and severity in 2- to 5 year-old children over a 22 years period (1993-2015) in Goiânia, Midwest Brazil. Additionally, we aimed to investigate changes regarding affected dental arches and teeth DESIGN: A time-lag analysis of trends in caries was carried out using data from three cross-sectional studies based on the World Health Organization diagnostic criteria, in 1993 (N=1362), 2001 (N=1620) and 2015 (N=548) RESULTS: Caries prevalence declined from 45.1% in 1993 to 29.0% in 2015. Prevalence of severe caries (dmft>6) in 2015 was nearly one third of that found in 1993, and the SiC index (mean dmft of the highest tertile) decreased from 4.55 to 3.32. Decline was higher in the 1993-2001 than in the 2001-2015 time-lag. Posterior teeth and second molars had the greatest reductions. High proportions of untreated caries were found in all ages and survey years CONCLUSIONS: There were significant changes in caries prevalence and severity, marked by striking decline from 1993 to 2001, followed by less prominent decrease up to 2015, and high levels of untreated caries. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

4.
Qual Life Res ; 27(12): 3191-3198, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30097914

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Untreated dental caries is a persistent oral problem among preschool children. Although there is vast evidence regarding the impact of dental caries on oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) in this age group, evidence on the impact of untreated caries severity is scarce. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of untreated caries severity on the OHRQoL of preschool children and their families. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted with 563 individuals in the city of Goiania, Brazil. Data were collected through interviews with parents/caregivers and clinical examinations of their children. The OHRQoL was measured by the Brazilian version of the Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale. Untreated dental caries severity was assessed using validated indices. Other independent variables were socioeconomic, toothache prevalence, and the questionnaire respondent. Statistical analysis involved bivariate comparisons and Poisson regression analyses. RESULTS: A higher prevalence of impact on OHRQoL was found among preschool children with untreated dental caries with clinical consequences (PR 1.31; 95% CI 1.01-1.70) compared to those without caries; those aged 5 years (PR 1.47; 95% CI 1.18-1.82), compared to those aged two; and those with a toothache (PR 1.54; 95% CI 1.34-1.76), compared to those without toothache. Moreover, fathers (PR 0.71; 95% CI 0.55-0.92) and other respondents (PR 0.70; 95% CI 0.52-0.96) perceived less impact on the OHRQoL in comparison to mothers. CONCLUSIONS: Severe untreated dental caries with clinical consequences had a negative impact on the children's OHRQoL, regardless of toothache and socioeconomic factors.

5.
PLoS One ; 12(7): e0180248, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28686702

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Studies have suggested that benzodiazepines are amnestic drug par excellence, but when taken together, what level of evidence do they generate? Are other sedatives as amnestic as benzodiazepines? The aim of this study was to assess the level of scientific evidence for the amnestic effect of sedatives in pediatric patients who undergo health procedures. METHODS: The literature was searched to identify randomized controlled trials that evaluated anterograde and retrograde amnesia in 1-19-year-olds who received sedative drugs during health procedures. Electronic databases, including PubMed, Scopus and Cochrane Library besides clinical trial registries and grey literature were searched. Two independent reviewers performed data extraction and risk of bias assessment using the Cochrane Collaboration's Tool. The meta-analyses were performed by calculating relative risk (RR) to 95% confidence intervals (CI). The quality of the evidence was assessed using Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation approach. RESULTS: Fifty-four studies were included (4,168 participants). A higher occurrence of anterograde amnesia was observed when benzodiazepines, the most well-studied sedatives (n = 47), were used than when placebo was used (n = 12) (RR = 3.10; 95% CI: 2.30-4.19, P<0.001; I2 = 14%), with a moderate level of evidence. Higher doses of alpha2-adrenergic agonists (clonidine/dexmedetomidine) produced more anterograde amnesia than lower doses (n = 2) (RR = 1.83; 95% CI: 1.03-3.25; P = 0.038; I2 = 0%), with a low level of evidence; benzodiazepines' amnestic effects were not dose-dependent (n = 3) (RR = 1.54; 95% CI: 0.96-2.49; P = 0.07; I2 = 12%) but the evidence was low. A qualitative analysis showed that retrograde amnesia did not occur in 8 out of 10 studies. CONCLUSIONS: In children, moderate evidence support that benzodiazepines induce anterograde amnesia, whereas the evidence for other sedatives is weak and based on isolated and small studies. Further clinical trials focused on the amnesia associated with non-benzodiazepine sedatives are therefore needed. TRIAL REGISTRATION: PROSPERO CRD42015017559.


Assuntos
Amnésia Anterógrada/diagnóstico , Amnésia Retrógrada/diagnóstico , Benzodiazepinas/efeitos adversos , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Amnésia Anterógrada/induzido quimicamente , Amnésia Retrógrada/induzido quimicamente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Clonidina/efeitos adversos , Dexmedetomidina/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Adulto Jovem
6.
Trials ; 18(1): 172, 2017 04 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28399933

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Uncooperative children may need to receive dental treatment under sedation, which is indicated when nonpharmacological behavior guidance is unsuccessful. There are randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing different sedative protocols for dental procedures; however, the evidence for superiority of one form over another is weak. The primary aim of this study is to investigate the efficacy of intranasally administered ketamine plus midazolam for the dental treatment of children. METHODS: We have designed a three-armed, parallel RCT to assess intranasal sedation using ketamine/midazolam in terms of the following measures: efficacy, safety, and cost-effectiveness. Two- to 6-year-old healthy children, referred for dental treatment in a dental sedation center in Brazil due to uncooperative behavior and requiring restorative dental procedures, will be recruited. Each child will be randomly assigned to one of the three groups: A - Intranasal administration of ketamine (4.0 mg/kg, maximum 100 mg) and midazolam (0.2 mg/kg, maximum 5.0 mg); B - Oral administration of ketamine (4.0 mg/kg, maximum 100 mg) and midazolam (0.5 mg/kg, maximum 20 mg); and C - Oral administration of midazolam (1.0 mg/kg, maximum 20 mg). The primary outcome is the child's behavior assessed through an observational scale using digital videos of the restorative dental treatment under sedation. The secondary outcomes are as follows: acceptance of sedative administration; memory of intraoperative events; the child's stress; adverse events; the child's pain during the procedure; the parent's, dentists', and child's perceptions of sedation; and economic analysis. Measures will be taken at baseline and drug administration and during and after the dental procedure. The necessary sample size was estimated to be 84 children after a blinded interim analysis of the first 30 cases. DISCUSSION: This study will provide data that can substantially add to science and pediatric dentistry as it examines the effect of sedative regimes from different perspectives (outcomes). TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, identifier: NCT02447289 . Registered on 11 May 2015, named "Midazolam and Ketamine Effect Administered Through the Nose for Sedation of Children for Dental Treatment (NASO)."


Assuntos
Sedação Consciente/métodos , Restauração Dentária Permanente/métodos , Ketamina/administração & dosagem , Midazolam/administração & dosagem , Administração Intranasal , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Ketamina/efeitos adversos , Midazolam/efeitos adversos , Avaliação de Resultados (Cuidados de Saúde) , Tamanho da Amostra
7.
Rev. odontol. UNESP (Online) ; 45(5): 297-301, Sept.-Oct. 2016. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: lil-798165

RESUMO

Abstract Introduction Little is known about the factors associated with the pain of children in dental treatment under conscious sedation. Objective To investigate the association between preoperative characteristics and pain during pediatric dental treatment under sedation. Material and method This exploratory study was conducted with 27 children in restorative treatment under sedation. Information on age, sex and experience of the children with previous dental treatment was obtained through interviews with parents. Oral health status, determined from the presence of dental caries, was verified using the dmf-t index. Pain was assessed by analyzing videos of the dental treatments by two previously calibrated examiners, using the items “legs”, “activity” and “crying” of the observational scale “face, legs, activity, consolability and crying” (FLACC). Data were analyzed using bivariate tests. Result Most of the children (n=14, 51.8%) had no pain during dental treatment under sedation. Among the other children, lower or moderate pain scores (median 1.1; minimum 0 to 3.8) were observed. The FLACC scores did not vary according to sex (P=0.38), previous experience with dental treatment (P=0.32) and history with local anesthesia (P=0.96). The FLACC scores did not correlate significantly with age (Spearman rho= -0.08, P=0.67) and dmf-t (Spearman rho= -0.04, P=0.84). Conclusion In this group of children, pain during dental treatment under sedation was of low frequency and intensity and did not associate with age, sex, oral condition and previous dental experience.


Resumo Introdução Pouco se sabe sobre os fatores associados à dor das crianças no tratamento odontológico sob sedação consciente. Objetivo Verificar a associação entre as características pré-operatórias e a dor durante o tratamento odontopediátrico sob sedação. Material e método Este estudo exploratório foi realizado com 27 crianças submetidas a tratamento restaurador sob sedação. As informações sobre idade, sexo e experiência de tratamento odontológico prévio da criança foram obtidas por meio de entrevista aos pais. A condição bucal, determinada a partir da presença de cárie dentária, foi verificada por meio do índice ceo-d. A dor foi avaliada por análise dos vídeos dos tratamentos, por dois examinadores previamente calibrados, utilizando-se os itens “pernas”, “atividade” e “choro” da escala observacional “Face, pernas, atividade, consolabilidade e choro” (FLACC). Os dados foram analisados por meio de testes bivariados. Resultado A maioria das crianças (n=14; 51,8%) não teve dor durante o tratamento odontológico sob sedação. Entre as demais crianças, observaram-se escores de dor baixos ou moderados (mediana 1,1; mínimo 0-3,8). Os escores FLACC não diferiram conforme sexo (P=0,38), experiência prévia de tratamento odontológico (P=0,32) e história de anestesia local (P=0,96). Os escores FLACC não se correlacionaram significativamente com idade (Spearman rho= -0,08; P=0,67) e ceo-d (Spearman rho= -0,04, P=0,84). Conclusão: Neste grupo de crianças, a dor durante tratamento odontológico sob sedação foi pouco observada, de baixa intensidade e não se associou a idade, sexo, condição bucal e experiência odontológica anterior.

8.
Syst Rev ; 5: 34, 2016 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26892743

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Some sedatives used in children and adolescents can affect memory function. Memory impairment of traumatic experience can minimize the chance of future psychological trauma. Knowledge about the potential of different sedatives to produce amnesia can help in the decision-making process of choosing a sedative regimen. The aim of this systematic review is to evaluate the effect of different sedatives on memory of perioperative events in children and adolescents. METHODS/DESIGN: Electronic databases and other sources, such as trial registers, gray literature, and conference abstracts will be searched. Randomized controlled trials will be included that assess memory of perioperative events in children and adolescents 2-19 years old receiving sedative drugs as premedication or as agents for procedural sedation in a medical or dental settings. The outcomes will be loss of memory after and before sedative administration (anterograde and retrograde amnesia). Two independent reviewers will perform screening, study selection, and data extraction. Disagreement at all levels will be resolved by consensus or by involving a third reviewer. Assessment of the risk of bias of included studies will be performed according to "Cochrane Collaboration's Tool for Assessing Risk of Bias in Randomized Trials." Clinical and methodological heterogeneity across studies will be evaluated to determine if it is possible to combine or not combine study results in a meta-analysis. DISCUSSION: To the best of our knowledge, there is no systematic review that specifically addresses this question. Findings from the review will be useful in the decision-making process about the best sedative for minimizing recall of the medical/dental event and possible psychological trauma. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO CRD42015017559.


Assuntos
Amnésia/induzido quimicamente , Sedação Consciente/métodos , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Humanos , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/uso terapêutico , Revisão Sistemática como Assunto , Adulto Jovem
9.
Community Dent Oral Epidemiol ; 43(4): 298-307, 2015 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25656813

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The Dental Discomfort Questionnaire (DDQ), which is an observational instrument that assesses dental pain in preschool children, has not been extensively tested for its ability to identify dental treatment needs in this population. This study aimed to explore the accuracy of the Brazilian version of the DDQ (DDQ-B) to identify preschool children needing dental treatment. METHODS: The participants were 326 children (57.7% boys), aged 15-72 months [mean 49.8, standard deviation (SD) 14.8], who were examined to assess their dental treatment needs at the same time that their parents filled out the DDQ-B. The DDQ-B median score (outcome variable) was compared to the median index of dental treatment needs or categories (nonparametric tests). The area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC) and diagnostic tests were performed to test the DDQ-B accuracy for identifying preschoolers with untreated teeth needing dental treatment. The data were analysed using SPSS 19.0, and the significance level was set at 5%. RESULTS: Overall, 326 questionnaires were completed and considered for analyses. Additionally, 63.5% of children had untreated teeth needing dental care. The median DDQ-B score, 2.0 (first-third quartile 1.0-5.0), was positively associated with the median index for needing dental care, 3.0 (0.0-5.0) (ρ = 0.49, P < 0.001). Children with more invasive intervention needs, such as pulp therapy, 5.0 (2.0-7.0), and extraction, 6.0 (4.0-8.5), had the highest DDQ-B scores (P < 0.001). The DDQ-B could identify children with more invasive dental care needs [AUC 0.86, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.80-0.91, P < 0.001]. A score of 5 or higher was a reliable cut-off point to confirm that children who were screened with caries-related toothache by the DDQ-B do, in fact, have untreated teeth needing dental treatment, especially for pulpal care and extraction. CONCLUSIONS: The DDQ-B is an accurate observational tool for identifying preschool children with dental treatment needs; children who scored 5 or higher require dental care for more invasive procedures.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária/epidemiologia , Dente Decíduo , Odontalgia/epidemiologia , Brasil/epidemiologia , Pré-Escolar , Assistência Odontológica para Crianças/estatística & dados numéricos , Cárie Dentária/complicações , Cárie Dentária/diagnóstico , Feminino , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Inquéritos e Questionários , Odontalgia/diagnóstico , Odontalgia/etiologia
10.
Int J Paediatr Dent ; 25(1): 51-60, 2015 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24612101

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Children dental pain recognition is pointed as a priority in paediatric dentistry, but little is known about dentists' perception of pre-schoolers' dental pain. AIM: To understand paediatric dentists' viewpoint on dental pain (toothache) in pre-schoolers and to identify the associated factors. DESIGN: Mixed-methods with two phases: (i) preliminary qualitative study (focus group of paediatric dentists), with responses analysed by content analysis and (ii) quantitative survey (self-administered questionnaire answered by 223 paediatric dentists), with the main outcome 'perception' assessed as 'feel or not prepared' to identify a pre-schooler with dental pain. Triangulation was used to discuss the results of each approach. RESULTS: (i) Paediatric dentists can observe dental pain in pre-schoolers when there are normative signs; this pain is related to the changes in a child's behaviour and in dental planning. (ii) Participants were 40.1 ± 8.4 years old, 17.1 ± 8.3years since graduation, 65.9% did not feel prepared to identify a pre-schooler with dental pain. This feeling of unpreparedness was associated with younger specialists (P = 0.01) and less time since graduation (P < 0.01). Triangulation showed a convergence of the qualitative and quantitative approaches. CONCLUSION: Noticing dental pain in pre-schoolers was associated with specialists' experience and the need for visible signs; dentists do not always feel completely prepared to recognise pain in pre-schoolers.


Assuntos
Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Relações Dentista-Paciente , Odontólogos/psicologia , Manejo da Dor , Medição da Dor , Odontalgia , Adulto , Pré-Escolar , Assistência Odontológica para Crianças , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Humanos , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários
11.
Pesqui. bras. odontopediatria clín. integr ; 15(1): 205-215, 2015. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-796365

RESUMO

To investigate the two-year survival rate of primary molars treated with non-instrumentation endodontic treatment with mixed antibiotic paste containing chloramphenicol, tetracycline, zinc oxide and eugenol (CTZ pulpotomy), and compare it to the conventional root canal treatment with calcium hydroxide paste. Material and Methods:Thirty-six children, mean age 6.2 years old (standard deviation, SD=1.5), presenting at least one primary molar with irreversible pulpitis or necrotic pulp, were included in this prospective clinical study. Teeth were assigned to CTZ pulpotomy (Group I) or calcium hydroxide pulpectomy (Group II) and assessed clinically and radiographically for up to 26 months. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, Chi-square test, Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and Log-rank test. Results:Fifty-three primary molars were treated in Group I (n=37) or Group II (n=16). Children were followed up for 1 to 26 months (mean=12.0; SD=7.1). Treatment failure rates were 73.0% in Group I and 31.3% in Group II. Overall, mean survival time was 15.2 months (95% confidence interval, CI 12.6û17.9); Group I (mean 13.2; 95% CI 10.2-16.3) had a lower survival rate than Group II (mean 18.9; 95% CI 14.5-23.2) (p=0.02). Necrotic pulp treatments had significantly lower survival rates (p=0.01) than pulpitis treatments. Conclusion:Non-instrumentation endodontic treatment of primary molars with CTZ paste resulted in a low survival rate in a two-year follow-up; its radiographic ineffectiveness discourages its use instead of conventional root canal endodontic treatment...


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pré-Escolar , Criança , Cavidade Pulpar , Endodontia/métodos , Hidróxido de Cálcio/química , Dente Molar , Pulpotomia/métodos , Brasil , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , Radiografia Dentária/instrumentação , Análise de Sobrevida
12.
BMC Res Notes ; 7: 897, 2014 Dec 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25494713

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A rigorous cross-cultural adaptation process of an existing instrument could be the best option for measuring health in different cultures, instead of developing a new tool, and prior to psychometric and validation testing. The Dental Discomfort Questionnaire (DDQ), a validated instrument for assessing toothache in young children, has not been cross-culturally adapted so far. This study aimed to explore the detailed phases of the cross-cultural adaptation process of a pain assessment tool, presenting the example of the DDQ Brazilian-Portuguese adapted version. METHODS: The study design was based on the universalist approach, which consists of a sequential analysis to assess the relevant phases of a cross-cultural process before testing the measures of the instrument: conceptual, item, semantic, and operational equivalences. Systematic information was gathered from the literature, expert discussions, translations, and pre-testing through cognitive interviews with Brazilian population. RESULTS: Detailed description of the three major phases for a cross-cultural adaptation process was given. Notes of the changes done in the structure of the presented instrument (DDQ) were specifically pointed out at each phase. Conceptual and item analyses showed that there are similarities in the DDQ construct between the original and Brazilian cultures that require minor modifications. Translations and back-translations allowed the development of the preliminary Brazilian-Portuguese version of the DDQ, which was tested and underwent other minor changes to improve its comprehensibility. CONCLUSIONS: Describing the phases was important to show how changes are made in a cross-cultural adaptation process of an instrument. This also could help researchers in adapting similar pediatric pain assessment tools to different cultures. A Brazilian-Portuguese version of the DDQ was presented.


Assuntos
Comparação Transcultural , Medição da Dor/métodos , Odontalgia/diagnóstico , Brasil , Criança , Humanos
13.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 11(8): 8058-68, 2014 Aug 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25111875

RESUMO

Many parents rely on emergency services to deal with their children's dental problems, mostly pain and infection associated with dental caries. This cross-sectional study analyzed the factors associated with not doing an oral procedure in preschoolers with toothache attending public dental emergency services. Data were obtained from the clinical files of preschoolers treated at all nine dental emergency centers in Goiania, Brazil, in 2011. Data were children's age and sex, involved teeth, oral procedures, radiography request, medications prescribed and referrals. A total of 531 files of children under 6 years old with toothache out of 1,108 examined were selected. Children's mean age was 4.1 (SD 1.0) years (range 1-5 years) and 51.6% were girls. No oral procedures were performed in 49.2% of cases; in the other 50.8%, most of the oral procedures reported were endodontic intervention and temporary restorations. Primary molars were involved in 48.4% of cases. With the exception of "sex", the independent variables tested in the regression analysis significantly associated with non-performance of oral procedures: age (OR 0.7; 95% CI 0.5-0.8), radiography request (OR 3.8; 95% CI 1.7-8.2), medication prescribed (OR 7.5; 95% CI 4.9-11.5) and patient referred to another service (OR 5.7; 3.0-10.9). Many children with toothache received no oral procedure for pain relief.


Assuntos
Assistência Ambulatorial , Assistência Odontológica para Crianças , Serviços Médicos de Emergência , Odontalgia/epidemiologia , Assistência Ambulatorial/estatística & dados numéricos , Brasil/epidemiologia , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Assistência Odontológica para Crianças/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviços Médicos de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Odontalgia/etiologia
14.
Health Qual Life Outcomes ; 12: 30, 2014 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24593691

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Dental Discomfort Questionnaire (DDQ) is an observational instrument intended to measure dental discomfort and/or pain in children under 5 years of age. This study aimed to validate a previously cross-culturally adapted version of DDQ in a Brazilian children sample. METHODS: Participants included 263 children (58.6% boys, mean age 43.5 months) that underwent a dental examination to assess dental caries, and their parent that filled out the cross-culturally adapted DDQ on their behalf. Exploratory factor analysis (principal component analysis form) and psychometric tests were done to assess instrument's dimensionality and reliability. RESULTS: Exploratory factor analysis revealed a multidimensional instrument with 3 domains: 'eating and sleeping problems' (Cronbach's alpha 0.81), 'earache problems' (alpha 0.75), and 'problems with brushing teeth' (alpha 0.78). The assessment had excellent stability (weighted-kappa varying from 0.68 to 0.97). Based on the factor analysis, the model with all 7 items included only in the first domain (named DDQ-B) was further explored. The items and total median score of the DDQ-B were related to parent-reported toothache and the number of decayed teeth, demonstrating good construct and discriminant validities. CONCLUSIONS: DDQ-B was proven a reliable pain assessment tool to screen this group of Brazilian children for caries-related toothache, with good psychometric properties.


Assuntos
Programas de Rastreamento , Medição da Dor/métodos , Dor/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas , Odontalgia/psicologia , Brasil , Pré-Escolar , Comparação Transcultural , Assistência Odontológica para Crianças , Cárie Dentária/diagnóstico , Análise Fatorial , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Dor/etnologia , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Odontalgia/complicações
15.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 10(3): 867-78, 2013 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23462435

RESUMO

The relationship between early childhood caries (ECC) and obesity is controversial. This cross-sectional survey investigated this association in children from low-income families in Goiania, Goias, Brazil and considered the role of several social determinants. A questionnaire examining the characteristics of the children and their families was administered to the primary caregiver during home visits. In addition, children (approximately 6 years of age) had their height, weight, and tooth condition assessed. The primary ECC outcome was categorized as one of the following: caries experience (decayed, missing, filled tooth: "dmft" index > 0), active ECC (decayed teeth > 0), or active severe ECC (decayed teeth ≥ 6). Descriptive, bivariate and logistic regression analyses were conducted. The participants in the current study consisted of 269 caregiver-child dyads, 88.5% of whom were included in the Family Health Program. Caregivers were mostly mothers (67.7%), were 35.3 ± 10.0 years old on average and had 9.8 ± 3.1 years of formal education. The mean family income was 2.3 ± 1.5 times greater than the Brazilian minimum wage. On average, the children in the current study were 68.7 ± 3.8 months old. Of these, 51.7% were boys, 23.4% were overweight or obese, 45.0% had active ECC, and 17.1% had severe ECC. The average body mass index (BMI) of the children was 15.9 ± 2.2, and their dmft index was 2.5 ± 3.2. BMI was not associated with any of the three categories of dental caries (p > 0.05). In contrast, higher family incomes were significantly associated with the lack of caries experience in children (OR 1.22, 95%CI 1.01-1.50), but the mother's level of education was not significantly associated with ECC.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Cárie Dentária/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Pobreza/estatística & dados numéricos , Brasil/epidemiologia , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários
16.
J Dent Educ ; 76(9): 1218-25, 2012 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22942418

RESUMO

Community-based educational activities have been introduced into health education programs across the world. However, research on students' perceptions of their experiences in these settings has been limited. The objectives of this study were to assess a group of Brazilian dental students' views of their experiences in a service-learning program focusing on pediatric dental care and to explore changes in their perceptions over the course of the program. Data were collected from fifty-five fourth-year dental students, who submitted a total of 185 reports at four points in time. The students spent sixteen of the 128 hours of their pediatric dentistry course in community-based education developing activities linked to pediatric dental care. Two professors rated each report as a positive or negative experience (Kappa 0.7) and recorded whether the students' reports reflected one or more of five types of response. The response types concerned dental treatment practice, multidisciplinary activities, observation of infant/toddler consultations, commitment of the outreach health team, and change of plans due to technical problems. The data showed that the students had a positive first impression after a short stay in a community-service program, but there was a decrease in the students' positive experiences over time (p<0.001). The students' perceptions of the outreach health team as "being not committed" (OR 6.82, 95 percent CI 2.12-21.90) and experiences of a "no change of plans due to technical problems" (OR 0.09, 95 percent CI 0.04-0.20) associated with negative student experiences.


Assuntos
Odontologia Comunitária/educação , Educação em Odontologia/métodos , Odontopediatria/educação , Estudantes de Odontologia/psicologia , Adulto , Brasil , Relações Comunidade-Instituição , Currículo , Feminino , Humanos , Funções Verossimilhança , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Satisfação Pessoal , Estudos Retrospectivos , Faculdades de Odontologia , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Adulto Jovem
17.
BMC Oral Health ; 12: 21, 2012 Jul 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22808942

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Relative analgesia (RA), defined as the use of inhalation sedation with nitrous oxide and oxygen, is one of the most common pharmacological behavior management techniques used to provide sedation and analgesia for dental patients. This study aimed to assess RA licensed Brazilian dentists' practices and opinions about nitrous oxide/oxygen sedation in the dental setting. METHODS: A cross sectional national survey was conducted with 281 dentists who were certified to perform RA, using an electronically mailed self-administered questionnaire containing closed questions about their practices and opinions regarding RA. Practice and opinion were individually analyzed by descriptive statistics. Non-parametric tests assessed the relationships between RA practice and independent variables. To test the interplay between practices and opinions, a k-means clusters analysis was used to divide the group for statistical comparisons. RESULTS: The response rate was 45.2%. Women made up 64.6% of the respondents, the mean age was 39.1 years (SD = 9.8), and the mean time since graduation in dentistry was 16 years (SD = 9.7). Seventy-seven percent of respondents reported the use of RA in clinical practice, most of them 'sometimes' (53.5%), and focusing more on adult patients. Patients with certain physical or mental deficiencies were indications associated with RA practice. 'Equipment acquisition' (p < 0.001) and 'living in Southeast and South regions' (p < 0.02) were also associated with RA practice. The scores for dentists' opinions ranged from 15 to 41 points (mean 29.2, SD = 5.6), based on nine items scored from 1 to 5. Two clusters representing more favorable (n = 65) and less favorable (n = 55) opinions were established. Dentists who were women (p = 0.04), practiced RA in dental settings (p < 0.01) or practiced it frequently (p < 0.001), had more favorable opinions about RA. CONCLUSION: Most of the RA licensed Brazilian dentists interviewed currently use RA. Current practice of RA and frequency of use determined the degree of favorable opinion about this inhalation sedation among this group of respondents.


Assuntos
Anestesia Dentária/estatística & dados numéricos , Anestésicos Inalatórios/administração & dosagem , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Sedação Consciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Odontólogos/psicologia , Óxido Nitroso/administração & dosagem , Oxigênio/administração & dosagem , Padrões de Prática Odontológica/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Anestesia Dentária/instrumentação , Anestesiologia/educação , Brasil , Análise por Conglomerados , Sedação Consciente/instrumentação , Estudos Transversais , Ansiedade ao Tratamento Odontológico/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Licenciamento em Odontologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Área de Atuação Profissional , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
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