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1.
Radiat Res ; 185(2): 109-23, 2016 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26829612

RESUMO

The risk of a large-scale event leading to acute radiation exposure necessitates the development of high-throughput methods for providing rapid individual dose estimates. Our work addresses three goals, which align with the directive of the European Union's Realizing the European Network of Biodosimetry project (EU-RENB): 1. To examine the suitability of different gene expression platforms for biodosimetry purposes; 2. To perform this examination using blood samples collected from prostate cancer patients (in vivo) and from healthy donors (in vitro); and 3. To compare radiation-induced gene expression changes of the in vivo with in vitro blood samples. For the in vitro part of this study, EDTA-treated whole blood was irradiated immediately after venipuncture using single X-ray doses (1 Gy/min(-1) dose rate, 100 keV). Blood samples used to generate calibration curves as well as 10 coded (blinded) samples (0-4 Gy dose range) were incubated for 24 h in vitro, lysed and shipped on wet ice. For the in vivo part of the study PAXgene tubes were used and peripheral blood (2.5 ml) was collected from prostate cancer patients before and 24 h after the first fractionated 2 Gy dose of localized radiotherapy to the pelvis [linear accelerator (LINAC), 580 MU/min, exposure 1-1.5 min]. Assays were run in each laboratory according to locally established protocols using either microarray platforms (2 laboratories) or qRT-PCR (2 laboratories). Report times on dose estimates were documented. The mean absolute difference of estimated doses relative to the true doses (Gy) were calculated. Doses were also merged into binary categories reflecting aspects of clinical/diagnostic relevance. For the in vitro part of the study, the earliest report time on dose estimates was 7 h for qRT-PCR and 35 h for microarrays. Methodological variance of gene expression measurements (CV ≤10% for technical replicates) and interindividual variance (≤twofold for all genes) were low. Dose estimates based on one gene, ferredoxin reductase (FDXR), using qRT-PCR were as precise as dose estimates based on multiple genes using microarrays, but the precision decreased at doses ≥2 Gy. Binary dose categories comprising, for example, unexposed compared with exposed samples, could be completely discriminated with most of our methods. Exposed prostate cancer blood samples (n = 4) could be completely discriminated from unexposed blood samples (n = 4, P < 0.03, two-sided Fisher's exact test) without individual controls. This could be performed by introducing an in vitro-to-in vivo correction factor of FDXR, which varied among the laboratories. After that the in vitro-constructed calibration curves could be used for dose estimation of the in vivo exposed prostate cancer blood samples within an accuracy window of ±0.5 Gy in both contributing qRT-PCR laboratories. In conclusion, early and precise dose estimates can be performed, in particular at doses ≤2 Gy in vitro. Blood samples of prostate cancer patients exposed to 0.09-0.017 Gy could be completely discriminated from pre-exposure blood samples with the doses successfully estimated using adjusted in vitro-constructed calibration curves.


Assuntos
Absorção de Radiação/fisiologia , Bioensaio/métodos , Proteínas Sanguíneas/análise , Sangue/metabolismo , Sangue/efeitos da radiação , Neoplasias da Próstata/sangue , Adulto , Relação Dose-Resposta à Radiação , União Europeia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doses de Radiação , Monitoramento de Radiação , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
2.
Water Sci Technol ; 71(9): 1354-60, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25945852

RESUMO

As a result of their mode of filter feeding, zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha Pall.) have been observed to purify natural water bodies and in vitro. Therefore, the possibility of using zebra mussels for water purification was investigated in a slightly brackish water body of a large lagoon. In this study, water samples were taken above, near and at distance from zebra mussel beds (MB) in the Odra Lagoon in North East Germany. Near typical bacterial species like Aeromonas spp. pathogenic bacteria with potential relation to hospital wastewater pollution (Burkholderia cepacia, Staphylococcus aureus, Weeksella spp.) were detected. There were no correlations found between either total bacteria or pathogens and distance to MB and no antimicrobial effect of the mussels could be deduced. For bioremediation in larger water bodies like lagoons, natural zebra MB do not seem to play a major antimicrobial role and the effect of artificial mussel grids especially against hospital pathogens should be investigated.


Assuntos
Dreissena/fisiologia , Microbiologia da Água , Animais , Bivalves , Filtração , Staphylococcus aureus/isolamento & purificação , Purificação da Água
3.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 58(1): 39-44, 2009 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18954880

RESUMO

The amphipod crustacean Talitrus saltator is an established, easily accessible, biomonitor of trace metal bioavailabilities in coastal waters. We have carried out a geographically widespread collection of T. saltator from European shores, stretching from the north-west Atlantic through the Baltic to the Mediterranean. A primary aim of the work was to establish a database of accumulated trace metal concentrations (Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn) in this biomonitor. Statistical analysis has shown significant geographical differences in the bioavailabilities of all the metals, the most distinct being copper, iron and manganese. It has proved possible to identify unusually high accumulated concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn in this biomonitor, indicative of high metal bioavailability at a particular site. These may serve as reference points for future biomonitoring programmes seeking to identify metal contamination in coastal waters.


Assuntos
Anfípodes/metabolismo , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Metais Pesados/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Animais , Europa (Continente) , Oceanos e Mares , Água do Mar/química
4.
Phys Rev Lett ; 93(21): 218302, 2004 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15601067

RESUMO

Synchrotron x-ray and surface-tension studies of a strong polyelectrolyte (PE) in the semidilute regime (approximately 0.1 M monomer charges) with varying surfactant concentrations show that minute surfactant concentrations induce the formation of a PE-surfactant complex at the gas-solution interface. X-ray reflectivity and grazing angle x-ray diffraction show the complex PE-surfactant resides at the interface and the alkyl chains of the surfactant form a two-dimensional liquidlike monolayer. With the addition of salt (NaCl), columnar crystals with distorted-hexagonal symmetry are formed.


Assuntos
Eletrólitos/química , Tensoativos/química , Cristalização , Gases , Dodecilsulfato de Sódio/química , Tensão Superficial , Síncrotrons , Água/química , Difração de Raios X
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