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Int J Infect Dis ; 97: 278-282, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32502664


OBJECTIVES: Although COVID-19 is known to be caused by human-to-human transmission, it remains largely unclear whether ambient air pollutants and meteorological parameters could promote its transmission. METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted to study whether air quality index (AQI), four ambient air pollutants (PM2.5, PM10, NO2 and CO) and five meteorological variables (daily temperature, highest temperature, lowest temperature, temperature difference and sunshine duration) could increase COVID-19 incidence in Wuhan and XiaoGan between Jan 26th to Feb 29th in 2020. RESULTS: First, a significant correlation was found between COVID-19 incidence and AQI in both Wuhan (R2=0.13, p<0.05) and XiaoGan (R2=0.223, p<0.01). Specifically, among four pollutants, COVID-19 incidence was prominently correlated with PM2.5 and NO2 in both cities. In Wuhan, the tightest correlation was observed between NO2 and COVID-19 incidence (R2=0.329, p<0.01). In XiaoGan, in addition to the PM2.5 (R2=0.117, p<0.01) and NO2 (R2=0.015, p<0.05), a notable correlation was also observed between the PM10 and COVID-19 incidence (R2=0.105, p<0.05). Moreover, temperature is the only meteorological parameter that constantly correlated well with COVID-19 incidence in both Wuhan and XiaoGan, but in an inverse correlation (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: AQI, PM2.5, NO2, and temperature are four variables that could promote the sustained transmission of COVID-19.

Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Temperatura , Betacoronavirus , Monóxido de Carbono/efeitos adversos , China/epidemiologia , Cidades , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Humanos , Incidência , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/efeitos adversos , Pandemias , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Estudos Retrospectivos
PLoS One ; 14(1): e0207258, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30615626


BACKGROUND: It has been widely understood that well-trained doctors are crucial for a high-quality public health system and safe patient care. Thus, in 2011, China initiated its first national residency training program, called the China Standardized Training for Resident Doctor (C-STRD), for medical graduates to prepare qualified doctors for the medical care system with increasing demands. So far, no studies have specifically address the prevalence of stress and its determinants among residents enrolled in the C-STRD. PARTICIPANTS AND METHODS: The research is performed in two stages. In stage I, the authors conducted a pilot study and met 112 C-STRD residents in person. Based on the preliminary data, a revised questionnaire was adopted in stage II, during which the authors conducted a multi-institutional, cross-sectional survey of 340 participants from 11 hospitals in Shanghai in a self-administered manner. RESULTS: The results showed that C-STRD residents were overall under severe stress as their mean PSS score was 27.5 ± 4.9, which was higher than the threshold of high stress (PSS = 20). Specifically, the PSS score for the residents with Bachelor (MB), Master (MM) and Doctoral of Medicine (MD) educational degree were 26.6 ± 4.1, 27.8 ± 3.5 and 27.1 ± 5.2, respectively (P>0.05). Their stress was mainly associated with their financial income status and workload, as these two factors caused more severe burden than other listed stressors (P<0.05). Specially, the residents indicated that their montly payroll amout were as low as $590.2 ± 127 while no benefit package and allowance were given. Surprisingly, wage arrears up to 5.3 month were reported by 36 (10%) participants. Workload survey showed the residents has high work intensity and inadequate rest. Since no stress management program was provided, the majority of residents tended to cope their stress with unhealthy strategies, such as mesmerizing in TV/computer (88.2%) and overeating (59.7%). CONCLUSION: The C-STRD residents are at high risk of perceived stress. Although there was a difference in perception of stress for workload and career future among different educational degree owners, low financial income is the major stressor among all C-STRD residents. Unhealthy stress management strategies were adopted by all residents due to lack of appropriate stress-relieving intervention.

Neurol Sci ; 35(4): 531-6, 2014 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24057116


The objective of the study was to investigate the role of neuregulin-ErbB signaling in neuropathic pain in different types of injury. Neuregulin-1(NRG-1) was injected into animals with either formalin-induced pain model or spared nerve injury (SNI) model. Formalin tests or paw withdrawal tests were performed to study the role of NRG-1 in neuropathic pain. siRNA specific to different erbB receptors were then introduced to test which specific signaling pathway was required for NRG-1 signaling in the different pain models. NRG-1 inhibits neuropathic pain after SNI in a dose-dependent manner, while NRG-1 aggravates formalin-induced neuropathic pain. ErbB2 and erbB4 receptors were activated after neuregulin administration. Knockdown of ErbB2 relieves the aggravation of NRG-1 on formalin-induced neuropathic pain, and knockdown of ErbB4 could relieve the inhibition of NRG-1 on neuropathic pain in the SNI model. NRG-1 has two distinct functions depending on the different receptor activation in different models of neuropathic pain. These novel findings may provide new therapeutic approaches for the treatment of neuropathic pain in different injury types.

Neuralgia/metabolismo , Neuregulina-1/fisiologia , Receptor ErbB-2/metabolismo , Animais , Formaldeído , Hiperalgesia/complicações , Hiperalgesia/metabolismo , Masculino , Neuralgia/induzido quimicamente , Neuralgia/complicações , Neuregulina-1/farmacologia , Ratos
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 86(13): 906-10, 2006 Apr 04.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16759517


OBJECTIVE: To examined the effect of local mild hypothermia on the expression of aquaporin-4 (AQP-4) following intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) in rats and clarified the mechanism of hypothermia on brain edema formation following ICH. METHODS: Two hundreds and forty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into two groups: the intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) group, in which autologous arterial blood were stereotaxically injected into right caudate nucleus; the local mild hypothermia (ICH + H) group, in which the rats were given 4 h local mild hypothermia after the injection of blood. Each group was divided into 6 subgroups: control, 6 h, 24 h, 72 h, 5 d and 7 d after operation; Brain water content was determined by dry-wet weight method and the permeability of BBB was measured by Evans-Blue extravasation. RT-PCR and Western blot were respectively used to evaluate AQP-4 mRNA and protein expression. RESULTS: In ICH group, compared with control, ICH significantly increased BWC, the permeability of BBB and the expression of AQP-4 mRNA, all began at 6 h and peaked at 72 h (P < 0.01), the increased protein expression of AQP-4 began at 24 h and also peaked at 72 h (P < 0.01). AQP-4 expression positively correlated, both at the mRNA and the protein level, with the permeability of BBB (r = 0.78 and r = 0.76 respectively). In ICH + H group, compared with ICH group, the elevation of BWC, BBB permeability and AQP-4 protein expression were strongly attenuated at all time point by hypothermia treatment (P < 0.01), while AQP-4 mRNA levels demonstrated a modest attenuation from 48 h. At 72 h, AQP-4 mRNA optical density (A) decreased from 1.25 +/- 0.03 (ICH group) to 1.04 +/- 0.02 (P < 0.01), AQP-4 protein expression (A) decreased from 0.77 +/- 0.08 (ICH group) to 0.25 +/- 0.04 (P < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: This study indicates that BBB breakdown can increase the expression of AQP-4; local mild hypothermia can significantly reduce brain edema formation after ICH by suppressing the elevation of AQP-4 protein expression; Inhibition of BBB breakdown and the elevation of AQP-4 protein expression with local mild hypothermia appear to contribute to brain protection in this model.

Aquaporina 4/genética , Hemorragia Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Hipotermia Induzida , Animais , Aquaporina 4/metabolismo , Barreira Hematoencefálica/fisiopatologia , Western Blotting , Masculino , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Distribuição Aleatória , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa