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2.
Genome Med ; 11(1): 30, 2019 05 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31101064

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Exome sequencing (ES) has been successfully applied in clinical detection of single nucleotide variants (SNVs) and small indels. However, identification of copy number variants (CNVs) using ES data remains challenging. The purpose of this study is to understand the contribution of CNVs and copy neutral runs of homozygosity (ROH) in molecular diagnosis of patients referred for ES. METHODS: In a cohort of 11,020 consecutive ES patients, an Illumina SNP array analysis interrogating mostly coding SNPs was performed as a quality control (QC) measurement and for CNV/ROH detection. Among these patients, clinical chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA) was performed at Baylor Genetics (BG) on 3229 patients, either before, concurrently, or after ES. We retrospectively analyzed the findings from CMA and the QC array. RESULTS: The QC array can detect ~ 70% of pathogenic/likely pathogenic CNVs (PCNVs) detectable by CMA. Out of the 11,020 ES cases, the QC array identified PCNVs in 327 patients and uniparental disomy (UPD) disorder-related ROH in 10 patients. The overall PCNV/UPD detection rate was 5.9% in the 3229 ES patients who also had CMA at BG; PCNV/UPD detection rate was higher in concurrent ES and CMA than in ES with prior CMA (7.2% vs 4.6%). The PCNVs/UPD contributed to the molecular diagnoses in 17.4% (189/1089) of molecularly diagnosed ES cases with CMA and were estimated to contribute in 10.6% of all molecularly diagnosed ES cases. Dual diagnoses with both PCNVs and SNVs were detected in 38 patients. PCNVs affecting single recessive disorder genes in a compound heterozygous state with SNVs were detected in 4 patients, and homozygous deletions (mostly exonic deletions) were detected in 17 patients. A higher PCNV detection rate was observed for patients with syndromic phenotypes and/or cardiovascular abnormalities. CONCLUSIONS: Our clinical genomics study demonstrates that detection of PCNV/UPD through the QC array or CMA increases ES diagnostic rate, provides more precise molecular diagnosis for dominant as well as recessive traits, and enables more complete genetic diagnoses in patients with dual or multiple molecular diagnoses. Concurrent ES and CMA using an array with exonic coverage for disease genes enables most effective detection of both CNVs and SNVs and therefore is recommended especially in time-sensitive clinical situations.

7.
Nat Med ; 25(4): 701-702, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30787481

RESUMO

In the version of this article originally published, some cases that were presented in Fig. 3 should have been underlined but were not. The appropriate cases have now been underlined. The error has been corrected in the print, PDF and HTML versions of the article.

8.
Nat Med ; 25(3): 439-447, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30692697

RESUMO

Current non-invasive prenatal screening is targeted toward the detection of chromosomal abnormalities in the fetus1,2. However, screening for many dominant monogenic disorders associated with de novo mutations is not available, despite their relatively high incidence3. Here we report on the development and validation of, and early clinical experience with, a new approach for non-invasive prenatal sequencing for a panel of causative genes for frequent dominant monogenic diseases. Cell-free DNA (cfDNA) extracted from maternal plasma was barcoded, enriched, and then analyzed by next-generation sequencing (NGS) for targeted regions. Low-level fetal variants were identified by a statistical analysis adjusted for NGS read count and fetal fraction. Pathogenic or likely pathogenic variants were confirmed by a secondary amplicon-based test on cfDNA. Clinical tests were performed on 422 pregnancies with or without abnormal ultrasound findings or family history. Follow-up studies on cases with available outcome results confirmed 20 true-positive, 127 true-negative, zero false-positive, and zero-false negative results. The initial clinical study demonstrated that this non-invasive test can provide valuable molecular information for the detection of a wide spectrum of dominant monogenic diseases, complementing current screening for aneuploidies or carrier screening for recessive disorders.


Assuntos
Doenças Genéticas Inatas/diagnóstico , Anormalidades Múltiplas/diagnóstico por imagem , Anormalidades Múltiplas/genética , Acondroplasia/diagnóstico , Acondroplasia/genética , Acrocefalossindactilia/diagnóstico , Acrocefalossindactilia/genética , Adulto , Osso e Ossos/anormalidades , Ácidos Nucleicos Livres , Colágeno Tipo I/genética , Síndrome de Lange/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Lange/genética , Feminino , Doenças Genéticas Inatas/genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Hidropisia Fetal/diagnóstico por imagem , Hidropisia Fetal/genética , Linfangioma Cístico/diagnóstico por imagem , Linfangioma Cístico/genética , Medição da Translucência Nucal , Osteogênese Imperfeita/diagnóstico , Osteogênese Imperfeita/genética , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Gravidez , Diagnóstico Pré-Natal , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Displasia Tanatofórica/diagnóstico , Displasia Tanatofórica/genética , Ultrassonografia Pré-Natal
9.
Genome Med ; 10(1): 74, 2018 09 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30266093

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Exome sequencing is now being incorporated into clinical care for pediatric and adult populations, but its integration into prenatal diagnosis has been more limited. One reason for this is the paucity of information about the clinical utility of exome sequencing in the prenatal setting. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed indications, results, time to results (turnaround time, TAT), and impact of exome results for 146 consecutive "fetal exomes" performed in a clinical diagnostic laboratory between March 2012 and November 2017. We define a fetal exome as one performed on a sample obtained from a fetus or a product of conception with at least one structural anomaly detected by prenatal imaging or autopsy. Statistical comparisons were performed using Fisher's exact test. RESULTS: Prenatal exome yielded an overall molecular diagnostic rate of 32% (n = 46/146). Of the 46 molecular diagnoses, 50% were autosomal dominant disorders (n = 23/46), 41% were autosomal recessive disorders (n = 19/46), and 9% were X-linked disorders (n = 4/46). The molecular diagnostic rate was highest for fetuses with anomalies affecting multiple organ systems and for fetuses with craniofacial anomalies. Out of 146 cases, a prenatal trio exome option designed for ongoing pregnancies was performed on 62 fetal specimens, resulting in a diagnostic yield of 35% with an average TAT of 14 days for initial reporting (excluding tissue culture time). The molecular diagnoses led to refined recurrence risk estimates, altered medical management, and informed reproductive planning for families. CONCLUSION: Exome sequencing is a useful diagnostic tool when fetal structural anomalies suggest a genetic etiology, but other standard prenatal genetic tests did not provide a diagnosis.

10.
Mol Genet Metab ; 125(3): 281-291, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30177229

RESUMO

An increasing number of mitochondrial diseases are found to be caused by pathogenic variants in nuclear encoded mitochondrial aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases. FARS2 encodes mitochondrial phenylalanyl-tRNA synthetase (mtPheRS) which transfers phenylalanine to its cognate tRNA in mitochondria. Since the first case was reported in 2012, a total of 21 subjects with FARS2 deficiency have been reported to date with a spectrum of disease severity that falls between two phenotypes; early onset epileptic encephalopathy and a less severe phenotype characterized by spastic paraplegia. In this report, we present an additional 15 individuals from 12 families who are mostly Arabs homozygous for the pathogenic variant Y144C, which is associated with the more severe early onset phenotype. The total number of unique pathogenic FARS2 variants known to date is 21 including three different partial gene deletions reported in four individuals. Except for the large deletions, all variants but two (one in-frame deletion of one amino acid and one splice-site variant) are missense. All large deletions and the single splice-site variant are in trans with a missense variant. This suggests that complete loss of function may be incompatible with life. In this report, we also review structural, functional, and evolutionary significance of select FARS2 pathogenic variants reported here.

11.
Hum Mutat ; 39(4): 461-470, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29282788

RESUMO

Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) maintenance defects are a group of diseases caused by deficiency of proteins involved in mtDNA synthesis, mitochondrial nucleotide supply, or mitochondrial dynamics. One of the mtDNA maintenance proteins is MPV17, which is a mitochondrial inner membrane protein involved in importing deoxynucleotides into the mitochondria. In 2006, pathogenic variants in MPV17 were first reported to cause infantile-onset hepatocerebral mtDNA depletion syndrome and Navajo neurohepatopathy. To date, 75 individuals with MPV17-related mtDNA maintenance defect have been reported with 39 different MPV17 pathogenic variants. In this report, we present an additional 25 affected individuals with nine novel MPV17 pathogenic variants. We summarize the clinical features of all 100 affected individuals and review the total 48 MPV17 pathogenic variants. The vast majority of affected individuals presented with an early-onset encephalohepatopathic disease characterized by hepatic and neurological manifestations, failure to thrive, lactic acidemia, and mtDNA depletion detected mainly in liver tissue. Rarely, MPV17 deficiency can cause a late-onset neuromyopathic disease characterized by myopathy and peripheral neuropathy with no or minimal liver involvement. Approximately half of the MPV17 pathogenic variants are missense. A genotype with biallelic missense variants, in particular homozygous p.R50Q, p.P98L, and p.R41Q, can carry a relatively better prognosis.

12.
JAMA Pediatr ; 171(12): e173438, 2017 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28973083

RESUMO

Importance: While congenital malformations and genetic diseases are a leading cause of early infant death, to our knowledge, the contribution of single-gene disorders in this group is undetermined. Objective: To determine the diagnostic yield and use of clinical exome sequencing in critically ill infants. Design, Setting, and Participants: Clinical exome sequencing was performed for 278 unrelated infants within the first 100 days of life who were admitted to Texas Children's Hospital in Houston, Texas, during a 5-year period between December 2011 and January 2017. Exome sequencing types included proband exome, trio exome, and critical trio exome, a rapid genomic assay for seriously ill infants. Main Outcomes and Measures: Indications for testing, diagnostic yield of clinical exome sequencing, turnaround time, molecular findings, patient age at diagnosis, and effect on medical management among a group of critically ill infants who were suspected to have genetic disorders. Results: The mean (SEM) age for infants participating in the study was 28.5 (1.7) days; of these, the mean (SEM) age was 29.0 (2.2) days for infants undergoing proband exome sequencing, 31.5 (3.9) days for trio exome, and 22.7 (3.9) days for critical trio exome. Clinical indications for exome sequencing included a range of medical concerns. Overall, a molecular diagnosis was achieved in 102 infants (36.7%) by clinical exome sequencing, with relatively low yield for cardiovascular abnormalities. The diagnosis affected medical management for 53 infants (52.0%) and had a substantial effect on informed redirection of care, initiation of new subspecialist care, medication/dietary modifications, and furthering life-saving procedures in select patients. Critical trio exome sequencing revealed a molecular diagnosis in 32 of 63 infants (50.8%) at a mean (SEM) of 33.1 (5.6) days of life with a mean (SEM) turnaround time of 13.0 (0.4) days. Clinical care was altered by the diagnosis in 23 of 32 patients (71.9%). The diagnostic yield, patient age at diagnosis, and medical effect in the group that underwent critical trio exome sequencing were significantly different compared with the group who underwent regular exome testing. For deceased infants (n = 81), genetic disorders were molecularly diagnosed in 39 (48.1%) by exome sequencing, with implications for recurrence risk counseling. Conclusions and Relevance: Exome sequencing is a powerful tool for the diagnostic evaluation of critically ill infants with suspected monogenic disorders in the neonatal and pediatric intensive care units and its use has a notable effect on clinical decision making.


Assuntos
Doenças Genéticas Inatas/diagnóstico , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Pediátrica , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma/métodos , Adulto , Cuidados Críticos/métodos , Gerenciamento Clínico , Exoma , Aconselhamento Genético/métodos , Doenças Genéticas Inatas/genética , Doenças Genéticas Inatas/terapia , Humanos , Lactente , Cuidado do Lactente/métodos , Recém-Nascido , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Texas
13.
Hum Mutat ; 38(12): 1649-1659, 2017 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28940506

RESUMO

F-box and leucine-rich repeat protein 4 (FBXL4) is a mitochondrial protein whose exact function is not yet known. However, cellular studies have suggested that it plays significant roles in mitochondrial bioenergetics, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) maintenance, and mitochondrial dynamics. Biallelic pathogenic variants in FBXL4 are associated with an encephalopathic mtDNA maintenance defect syndrome that is a multisystem disease characterized by lactic acidemia, developmental delay, and hypotonia. Other features are feeding difficulties, growth failure, microcephaly, hyperammonemia, seizures, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, elevated liver transaminases, recurrent infections, variable distinctive facial features, white matter abnormalities and cerebral atrophy found in neuroimaging, combined deficiencies of multiple electron transport complexes, and mtDNA depletion. Since its initial description in 2013, 36 different pathogenic variants in FBXL4 were reported in 50 affected individuals. In this report, we present 37 additional affected individuals and 11 previously unreported pathogenic variants. We summarize the clinical features of all 87 individuals with FBXL4-related mtDNA maintenance defect, review FBXL4 structure and function, map the 47 pathogenic variants onto the gene structure to assess the variants distribution, and investigate the genotype-phenotype correlation. Finally, we provide future directions to understand the disease mechanism and identify treatment strategies.


Assuntos
DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Proteínas F-Box/genética , Estudos de Associação Genética , Encefalomiopatias Mitocondriais/genética , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/genética , Acidose Láctica/genética , Cardiomiopatia Hipertrófica/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Mitocôndrias/genética , Encefalomiopatias Mitocondriais/epidemiologia , Encefalomiopatias Mitocondriais/patologia , Proteínas Mitocondriais/genética , Hipotonia Muscular/genética , Mutação , Fosforilação Oxidativa , Proteoma/genética
14.
Cell Discov ; 3: 17038, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29387450

RESUMO

Imprinted genes are vulnerable to environmental influences during early embryonic development, thereby contributing to the onset of disease in adulthood. Monoallelic methylation at several germline imprints has been reported as DNMT1-dependent. However, which of these two epigenetic attributes, DNMT1-dependence or allelic methylation, renders imprinted genes susceptible to environmental stressors has not been determined. Herein, we developed a new approach, referred to as NORED, to identify 2468 DNMT1-dependent DNA methylation patterns in the mouse genome. We further developed an algorithm based on a genetic variation-independent approach (referred to as MethylMosaic) to detect 2487 regions with bimodal methylation patterns. Two approaches identified 207 regions, including known imprinted germline allele-specific methylation patterns (ASMs), that were both NORED and MethylMosaic regions. Examination of methylation in four independent mouse embryonic stem cell lines shows that two regions identified by both NORED and MethylMosaic (Hcn2 and Park7) did not display parent-of-origin-dependent allelic methylation. In these four F1 hybrid cell lines, genetic variation in Cast allele at Hcn2 locus introduces a transcription factor binding site for MTF-1 that may predispose Cast allelic hypomethylation in a reciprocal cross with either C57 or 129 strains. In contrast, each allele of Hcn2 ASM in J1 inbred cell line and Park7 ASM in four F1 hybrid cell lines seems to exhibit similar propensity to be either hypo- or hypermethylated, suggesting a 'random, switchable' ASM. Together with published results, our data on ASMs prompted us to propose a hypothesis of regional 'autosomal chromosome inactivation (ACI)' that may control a subset of autosomal genes. Therefore, our results open a new avenue to understand monoallelic methylation and provide a rich resource of candidate genes to examine in environmental and nutritional exposure models.

15.
J Mol Diagn ; 17(5): 545-53, 2015 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26320870

RESUMO

Germline mutations in the DNA mismatch repair gene PMS2 underlie the cancer susceptibility syndrome, Lynch syndrome. However, accurate molecular testing of PMS2 is complicated by a large number of highly homologous sequences. To establish a comprehensive approach for mutation detection of PMS2, we have designed a strategy combining targeted capture next-generation sequencing (NGS), multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification, and long-range PCR followed by NGS to simultaneously detect point mutations and copy number changes of PMS2. Exonic deletions (E2 to E9, E5 to E9, E8, E10, E14, and E1 to E15), duplications (E11 to E12), and a nonsense mutation, p.S22*, were identified. Traditional multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification and Sanger sequencing approaches cannot differentiate the origin of the exonic deletions in the 3' region when PMS2 and PMS2CL share identical sequences as a result of gene conversion. Our approach allows unambiguous identification of mutations in the active gene with a straightforward long-range-PCR/NGS method. Breakpoint analysis of multiple samples revealed that recurrent exon 14 deletions are mediated by homologous Alu sequences. Our comprehensive approach provides a reliable tool for accurate molecular analysis of genes containing multiple copies of highly homologous sequences and should improve PMS2 molecular analysis for patients with Lynch syndrome.


Assuntos
Adenosina Trifosfatases/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/genética , Análise Mutacional de DNA/métodos , Enzimas Reparadoras do DNA/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Multiplex/métodos , Adulto , Sequência de Bases , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Feminino , Dosagem de Genes , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Endonuclease PMS2 de Reparo de Erro de Pareamento , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/métodos
16.
Genome Biol ; 16: 115, 2015 Jun 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26032981

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: DNA methylation patterns are initiated by de novo DNA methyltransferases DNMT3a/3b adding methyl groups to CG dinucleotides in the hypomethylated genome of early embryos. These patterns are faithfully maintained by DNMT1 during DNA replication to ensure epigenetic inheritance across generations. However, this two-step model is based on limited data. RESULTS: We generated base-resolution DNA methylomes for a series of DNMT knockout embryonic stem cells, with deep coverage at highly repetitive elements. We show that DNMT1 and DNMT3a/3b activities work complementarily and simultaneously to establish symmetric CG methylation and CHH (H = A, T or C) methylation. DNMT3a/3b can add methyl groups to daughter strands after each cycle of DNA replication. We also observe an unexpected division of labor between DNMT1 and DNMT3a/3b in suppressing retrotransposon long terminal repeats and long interspersed elements, respectively. Our data suggest that mammalian cells use a specific CG density threshold to predetermine methylation levels in wild-type cells and the magnitude of methylation reduction in DNMT knockout cells. Only genes with low CG density can be induced or, surprisingly, suppressed in the hypomethylated genome. Lastly, we do not find any association between gene body methylation and transcriptional activity. CONCLUSIONS: We show the concerted actions of DNMT enzymes in the establishment and maintenance of methylation patterns. The finding of distinct roles of DNMT1-dependent and -independent methylation patterns in genome stability and regulation of transcription provides new insights for understanding germ cell development, neuronal diversity, and transgenerational epigenetic inheritance and will help to develop next-generation DNMT inhibitors.


Assuntos
DNA (Citosina-5-)-Metiltransferases/metabolismo , Metilação de DNA , Células-Tronco Embrionárias/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Animais , Composição de Bases , Células Cultivadas , DNA/química , DNA (Citosina-5-)-Metiltransferase 1 , DNA (Citosina-5-)-Metiltransferases/genética , Genoma , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Elementos Nucleotídeos Longos e Dispersos , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Proteínas/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Sequências Repetidas Terminais , Transcrição Genética
17.
Plant Cell Physiol ; 55(4): 823-33, 2014 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24492259

RESUMO

Transcriptional gene silencing (TGS) of transgenes by promoter-related RNAs has been known for more than a decade. However, the effectiveness and efficiency of silencing of endogenes by single-stranded and inverted repeat (IR) RNA/silencers remain unclear. Here, we demonstrated that a single-stranded antisense (AS) silencer targeting the promoter region can efficiently silence four Arabidopsis endogenes, with comparable efficiency to an IR silencer. In the case of Too Many Mouths (TMM), single-stranded silencers generated mainly 24 nt small RNAs (smRNAs), whereas IR silencers produced a higher proportion of 21-23 nt smRNAs. Heavy CG, CHG and CHH methylations were detected on the TMM promoter in silenced plant lines. We also demonstrated that the silencing and DNA methylation of the TMM promoter was dependent on the presence of the silencer. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays showed that DNA methylation was accompanied by formation of repressive chromatin structures. Our results suggest that single-stranded silencer transcripts are converted to double-stranded RNA to enter the RdRM (RNA-directed DNA methylation) pathway for TGS of endogenes.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis/genética , Inativação Gênica , Genes de Plantas , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , RNA de Plantas/genética , Transcrição Genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Cruzamentos Genéticos , Metilação de DNA/genética , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Histonas/metabolismo , Sequências Repetidas Invertidas/genética , Mutagênese Insercional/genética , Mutação/genética , Penetrância , Fenótipo , Processamento de Proteína Pós-Traducional , RNA de Plantas/metabolismo , Transformação Genética
18.
PLoS One ; 6(4): e18853, 2011 Apr 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21541324

RESUMO

Sphinx is a lineage-specific non-coding RNA gene involved in regulating courtship behavior in Drosophila melanogaster. The 5' flanking region of the gene is conserved across Drosophila species, with the proximal 300 bp being conserved out to D. virilis and a further 600 bp region being conserved amongst the melanogaster subgroup (D. melanogaster, D. simulans, D. sechellia, D. yakuba, and D. erecta). Using a green fluorescence protein transformation system, we demonstrated that a 253 bp region of the highly conserved segment was sufficient to drive sphinx expression in male accessory gland. GFP signals were also observed in brain, wing hairs and leg bristles. An additional ∼800 bp upstream region was able to enhance expression specifically in proboscis, suggesting the existence of enhancer elements. Using anti-GFP staining, we identified putative sphinx expression signal in the brain antennal lobe and inner antennocerebral tract, suggesting that sphinx might be involved in olfactory neuron mediated regulation of male courtship behavior. Whole genome expression profiling of the sphinx knockout mutation identified significant up-regulated gene categories related to accessory gland protein function and odor perception, suggesting sphinx might be a negative regulator of its target genes.


Assuntos
Corte , Drosophila melanogaster/genética , Especificidade de Órgãos/genética , RNA não Traduzido/genética , Comportamento Sexual Animal , Estruturas Animais/metabolismo , Animais , Pareamento de Bases/genética , Sequência de Bases , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Sequência Conservada/genética , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Genoma de Inseto/genética , Proteínas de Fluorescência Verde/metabolismo , Masculino , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Mutação/genética , Sistema Nervoso Periférico/metabolismo , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética , RNA não Traduzido/metabolismo , Transformação Genética
19.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 105(21): 7478-83, 2008 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18508971

RESUMO

New genes can originate by the combination of sequences from unrelated genes or their duplicates to form a chimeric structure. These chimeric genes often evolve rapidly, suggesting that they undergo adaptive evolution and may therefore be involved in novel phenotypes. Their functions, however, are rarely known. Here, we describe the phenotypic effects of a chimeric gene, sphinx, that has recently evolved in Drosophila melanogaster. We show that a knockout of this gene leads to increased male-male courtship in D. melanogaster, although it leaves other aspects of mating behavior unchanged. Comparative studies of courtship behavior in other closely related Drosophila species suggest that this mutant phenotype of male-male courtship is the ancestral condition because these related species show much higher levels of male-male courtship than D. melanogaster. D. melanogaster therefore seems to have evolved in its courtship behaviors by the recruitment of a new chimeric gene.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Corte , Drosophila melanogaster/genética , Drosophila melanogaster/fisiologia , Genes de Insetos/fisiologia , Comportamento Sexual Animal , Animais , Masculino , Mutação , Fenótipo , RNA Antissenso/genética , Transcrição Genética
20.
Gene ; 385: 96-102, 2006 Dec 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17101240

RESUMO

Recent genomic analyses in Drosophila and mammals of inter-chromosomal retroposition have revealed that during evolution the retroposed genes that show male-biased expression tend to leave the X chromosome and opt for autosomal positions. Such a phenomenon may be a process of general, genomic and evolutionary relevance. It contributed to the unexpected overrepresentation of male-biased genes on the autosomes recently observed in microarray expression experiments. In this paper, we report our genomic analysis of within-chromosomal retroposition in Drosophila melanogaster, and compare it with the previously identified pattern of the between-chromosomal retroposition. We find that a surfeit of autosomal retroposed genes originated from parental genes located on the same chromosome, in contrast to the X chromosome in which only few genes retroposed in cis. Such an autosomal proximity effect implicates a role of the mutation process for retroposition in determining chromosomal locations of autosome-derived retroposed genes. Furthermore, this phenomenon supports the hypothesis that natural selection favors the retroposition of genes out of the X chromosome. Analyses of a large expression database for D. melanogaster genes revealed that the vast majority of the X-derived autosomal retroposed genes had evolved testis expression functions, consistent with other previous genomic analyses.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Drosophila/genética , Genoma de Inseto , Animais , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Masculino , Modelos Genéticos , Retroelementos , Cromossomos Sexuais/genética
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