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1.
Biomater Sci ; 2022 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34985056

RESUMO

Poor tendon repair remains a clinical problem due to the difficulties in replicating the complex multiscale hierarchical structure of native tendons. In this work, a bioinspired fibrous scaffold with bimodal micro-nanofibers and a teno-inductive aligned topography was developed to replicate microscale collagen fibers and nanoscale collagen fibrils that compose native tendons. The results showed indicated that the combination of micro- and nanofibers enhanced the mechanical properties. Furthermore, their biological performance was assessed using tendon stem/progenitor cells (TSPCs). Micro-nanofibers induced a higher cell aspect ratio and enhanced the tenogenic differentiation of TSPCs compared to micro- and nanocontrols. Interestingly, it was observed that scaffold nanotopography and microstructures promoted tenogenesis via activating the TGF-ß/Smad2/3-mediated signaling pathway. The in situ implantation study confirmed that micro-nanofibrous scaffolds promoted the structural and mechanical properties of the regenerated Achilles tendon. Overall, our study shows that the bimodal micro-nanofibrous scaffold developed here presents a promising potential to improve the outcomes of tendon tissue engineering.

2.
Biomater Sci ; 2022 Jan 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35044381

RESUMO

Numerous studies have indicated that microgravity induces various changes in the cellular functions of neural stem cells (NSCs), and the use of microgravity to culture tissue engineered seed cells for the treatment of nervous system diseases has drawn increasing attention. The goal of this study was to verify the efficacy of collagen sponge-based 3-dimensional (3D) NSCs cultured in a rotary cell culture system (RCCS) in treating spinal cord injury (SCI). The Basso-Beattie-Bresnahan score, inclined plane test, and electrophysiology results all indicated that 3D cultured NSCs cultured in a RCCS had better therapeutic effects than those cultured in a traditional cell culture environment, suggesting that the microgravity provided by the RCCS could enhance the therapeutic effect of 3D cultured NSCs. Our study indicates the feasibility of combining the RCCS with collagen sponge-based 3D cell culture for producing tissue engineered seed cells for the treatment of SCI. This novel and effective method shows promise for application in cell-based therapy for SCI in the future.

3.
Food Chem ; 370: 131026, 2022 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34509938

RESUMO

Cyclodextrins are garnering increasing attention because they offer several benefits. For instance, cyclodextrins can form several complexes and supramolecular structures not only for food packaging but also for applications in other fields of science. In this review, we discussed the physical and chemical properties of cyclodextrins and the mechanism of their inclusion complex formation. The use of cyclodextrins in various types of food packaging is elaborated upon. We also explain the effects of cyclodextrins on the packaging of fruits, vegetables, meat, fish, and processed foods. Furthermore, some feasible suggestions for future applications are provided. In addition to the positive attributes of cyclodextrins, there are some limitations and drawbacks, which are discussed briefly in this review. In summary, this review can serve as a guide for researchers exploring cyclodextrins for the development of various packaging films.


Assuntos
Ciclodextrinas , Animais , Embalagem de Alimentos
4.
Food Chem ; 370: 131082, 2022 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34537435

RESUMO

In this study, chitosan (CH), mulberry anthocyanin (MA), and lemongrass essential oils (LEO) were used as an interlayer using a 3D printer. Further, cassava starch (CS) was used as a protective layer to form indicator films. The indicator films containing LEO showed significant antioxidant and antibacterial properties, and the release rate of LEO increased with a rise in pH. When chilled pork spoiled, the color of the indicator films changed from red to gray-blue, and the RGB values could be automatically analyzed by a smartphone application to determine pork freshness. These films hold implications as easy-to-use indicators of meat freshness, with great potential for monitoring food spoilage, as part of an intelligent packaging system.


Assuntos
Quitosana , Cymbopogon , Óleos Voláteis , Carne de Porco , Carne Vermelha , Animais , Antocianinas , Embalagem de Alimentos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Impressão Tridimensional , Carne Vermelha/análise , Suínos
5.
Biomed Mater ; 2021 Dec 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34937000

RESUMO

Severe microenvironmental changes after spinal cord injury (SCI) present serious challenges in neural regeneration and tissue repair. Gelatin (GL)- and hyaluronic acid (HA)-based hydrogels are attractive scaffolds because they are major components of the extracellular matrix and can provide a favorable adjustable microenvironment for neurogenesis and motor function recovery. In this study, three-dimensional hybrid GL/HA hydrogel scaffolds were prepared and optimized. The hybrid hydrogels could undergo in-situ gelation and fit the defects perfectly via visible light- induced crosslinking in the complete SCI rats. We found that the transplantation of the hybrid hydrogel scaffold significantly reduced the inflammatory responses and suppressed glial scar formation in an HA concentration-dependent manner. Moreover, the hybrid hydrogel with GL/HA ratios less than 8/2 effectively promoted endogenous neural stem cell migration and neurogenesis, as well as improved neuron maturation and axonal regeneration. The results showed locomotor function improved 60 days after transplantation, thus suggesting that GL/HA hydrogels can be considered as a promising scaffold for complete SCI repair.

6.
Front Pharmacol ; 12: 747223, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34938180

RESUMO

Pulmonary fibrosis (PF) is a severe respiratory disease caused by lung microenvironment changes. TGF-ß/Smad3 signaling pathway plays a critical role in the fibrotic process. MicroRNA-29 (miR-29) has proved to alleviate the occurrence of PF by downregulating TGF-ß/Smad3 signaling pathway. The miRNA application encounters obstacles due to its low stability in body and no targeting to lesions. Exosomes can be used for therapeutic delivery of miRNA due to their favorable delivery properties. However, low efficiency of separation and production impedes the therapeutic application of exosomes. In this study, we developed a liquid natural extracellular matrix (ECM) enriched with miR-29-loaded exosomes for PF treatment. The collagen-binding domain (CBD)-fused Lamp2b (CBD-Lamp2b) and miR-29 were overexpressed in human foreskin fibroblast (HFF) host cells for the entrapment of miR-29-loaded exosomes in ECM of the cells. The repeated freeze-thaw method was performed to prepare the liquid ECM enriched with exosomes without destroying the exosomal membrane. In summary, this study developed a novel functional ECM biomaterial for therapy of PF, and also provided a promising gene therapy platform for different diseases by treatment with liquid ECM that is, enriched with exosomes loaded with different functional miRNAs.

7.
ACS Nano ; 2021 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34842412

RESUMO

Aligned fibrous hydrogels capable of recruiting endogenous neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs) show great promise in spinal cord injury (SCI) repair. However, the hydrogels suffer from severe issues in close contact with the transected nerve stumps and harnessing the NSPC fate in the lesion microenvironment. Herein, we report aligned collagen-fibrin (Col-FB) fibrous hydrogels with stretchable property, adhesive behavior, and stromal cell-derived factor-1α (SDF1α)/paclitaxel (PTX) spatiotemporal delivery capability. The resultant Col-FB fibrous hydrogels exhibited 1.98 times longer elongation at break (230%), 2.55 times lower Young's modulus (17.93 ± 1.16 KPa), and 2.21 times greater adhesive strength (3.45 ± 0.48 KPa) than collagen (Col) fibrous hydrogels. The soft aligned fibrous hydrogels simulate the oriented microstructure and soft tissue feature of a natural spinal cord and provide elasticity and adhesivity to ensure a persistent close contact with host stumps. The repair of complete transection SCI in rats demonstrates that "middle-to-bilateral" SDF1α gradient release induced endogenous NSPC migration to the lesion site in 10 days, and SDF1α/PTX sequential release promoted neuronal differentiation of the recruited NSPCs over 8 weeks, leading to hind limb locomotion recovery. The presented strategy was proved to be efficient for harnessing endogenous NSPCs, which facilitate SCI repair significantly.

8.
Biomaterials ; 280: 121279, 2021 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34847433

RESUMO

Spinal cord injury (SCI) creates an inflammatory microenvironment characterized by damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) and immune cell activation that exacerbate secondary damage and impair neurological recovery. Here we develop an immunoregulatory hydrogel scaffold for treating SCI that scavenges DAMPs and slowly releases the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-10 (IL-10). We created this dual-functional scaffold by modifying a photocrosslinked gelatin hydrogel with the cationic, DAMP-binding polymer poly (amidoamine) and with IL-10, and compared the therapeutic activity of this scaffold with that of gelatin-only, gelatin + poly (amidoamine), and gelatin + IL-10 scaffolds in vitro and in vivo. In vitro, the dual-functional scaffold scavenged anionic DAMPs and exhibited sustained release of IL-10, reduced the proinflammatory responses of macrophages and microglia, and enhanced the neurogenic differentiation of neural stem cells. In a complete transection SCI mouse model, the injected dual-functional scaffold suppressed proinflammatory cytokine production, promoted the M2 macrophage/microglia phenotype, and led to neural regeneration and axon growth without scar formation to a greater extent than the single-function or control scaffolds. This DAMP-scavenging, IL-10-releasing scaffold provides a new strategy for promoting neural regeneration and motor function recovery following severe SCI.

9.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 193(Pt B): 1050-1058, 2021 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34798184

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to prepare sodium alginate (SA)/pectin (PE) hydrogel microspheres using the extrusion method to encapsulate Lactobacillus bulgaricus. Microscopic observation showed that the beads were spherical with a smooth and uniform surface. For microspheres with a diameter range of 140-156 µm, the encapsulation efficiency reached 85.67%. After simulating saliva, gastric juice, and intestinal juice, the activity of the microcapsules was estimated to be 5.78 × 104 log colony forming unit (CFU)/mL. These data show that the use of SA and PE encapsulated probiotics exhibit enhanced viability. In addition, double-layer beads containing probiotic microspheres and yogurt were prepared, and physical and chemical analysis was performed using scanning electron microscopy, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, and differential scanning calorimetry. Texture and sensory property analysis revealed that the beads had good elasticity, chewiness, and high commercial value. Collectively, these findings indicate that SA and PE can be used for the encapsulation, protection, and gastrointestinal delivery of probiotics. Moreover, these microcapsules exhibit good stability in vitro and improve yogurt characteristics by increasing the survival rate of encapsulated probiotics, thus demonstrating their commercial application potential.

10.
Stem Cells Transl Med ; 10 Suppl 2: S85-S95, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34724717

RESUMO

Stem cells, which could be developed as starting or raw materials for cell therapy, hold tremendous promise for regenerative medicine. However, despite multiple fundamental and clinical studies, clinical translation of stem cells remains in the early stages. In contrast to traditional chemical drugs, cellular products are complex, and efficacy can be altered by culture conditions, suboptimal cell culture techniques, and prolonged passage such that translation of stem cells from bench to bedside involves not only scientific exploration but also normative issues. Establishing an integrated system of standards to support stem cell applications has great significance in efficient clinical translation. In recent years, regulators and the scientific community have recognized gaps in standardization and have begun to develop standards to support stem cell research and clinical translation. Here, we discuss the development of these standards, which support the translation of stem cell products into clinical therapy, and explore ongoing work to define current stem cell guidelines and standards. We also introduce general aspects of stem cell therapy and current international consensus on human pluripotent stem cells, discuss standardization of clinical-grade stem cells, and propose a framework for establishing stem cell standards. Finally, we review ongoing development of international and Chinese standards supporting stem cell therapy.

11.
EMBO Rep ; 22(11): e52728, 2021 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34605607

RESUMO

During central nervous system development, neurogenesis and gliogenesis occur in an orderly manner to create precise neural circuitry. However, no systematic dataset of neural lineage development that covers both neurogenesis and gliogenesis for the human spinal cord is available. We here perform single-cell RNA sequencing of human spinal cord cells during embryonic and fetal stages that cover neuron generation as well as astrocytes and oligodendrocyte differentiation. We also map the timeline of sensory neurogenesis and gliogenesis in the spinal cord. We further identify a group of EGFR-expressing transitional glial cells with radial morphology at the onset of gliogenesis, which progressively acquires differentiated glial cell characteristics. These EGFR-expressing transitional glial cells exhibited a unique position-specific feature during spinal cord development. Cell crosstalk analysis using CellPhoneDB indicated that EGFR glial cells can persistently interact with other neural cells during development through Delta-Notch and EGFR signaling. Together, our results reveal stage-specific profiles and dynamics of neural cells during human spinal cord development.

12.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 5502740, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34692831

RESUMO

Objectives: Urethral tissue reconstruction for hypospadias is challenging for urologists. In this study, bovine acellular dermal matrix (ADM) patch loading with collagen-binding vascular endothelial growth factor (CBD-VEGF) was used to repair the urethral injury in beagles. Methods: The safety and effectiveness of the scaffold implantation were carefully evaluated by comparing among the urethral injury control group, ADM implantation group, and ADM modified with CBD-VEGF implantation group during 6 months. Urodynamic examination, urethral angiography, and pathological examination were performed to evaluate the recovery of urethral tissue. Results: Stricture, urethral diverticulum, and increased urethral closure pressure were observed in the control group. Fistula was observed in one animal in the ADM group. By contrast, no related complications or other adverse situations were observed in animals treated with ADM patch modified with CBD-VEGF. The average urethra diameter was significantly smaller in the control animals than in scaffold implantation groups. Pathological examination revealed more distribution of proliferative blood vessels in the animals treated with ADM modified with CBD-VEGF. Conclusions: Overall, ADM patches modified with CBD-VEGF demonstrated an optimized tissue repair performance in a way to increase tissue angiogenesis and maintain urethral function without inducing severe inflammation and scar formation.

13.
Biomed Mater ; 17(1)2021 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34706346

RESUMO

Objective. We aimed to investigate the clinical efficacy of collagen membrane with umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells in the endoscopic repair of nasal septal perforation.Methods.We performed a prospective clinical trial between March 2017 and October 2019. Nasal septal perforations were repaired by the endoscopic sandwich technique with the collagen membrane and umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells. These patients were followed up postoperatively. Their outcomes were comprehensively evaluated by assessing the healing process of the perforations, the visual analog scale (VAS) for nasal discomfort, and the nasal mucociliary transit time (MTT) for the regenerated nasal mucosa.Results. Our study included a total of eight patients with nasal septal perforation (six males and two females, age 36.6 ± 12.8 years, diameter of perforation 1.0 ± 0.2 cm). Seven patients successfully underwent surgical repair. These patients had significantly improved VAS scores 1 month after the operations (1.1 ± 0.4) compared with the preoperative period (5.9 ± 0.7) (P< 0.05). Although the nasal MTT in the nasal septum and the inferior turbinate surface were within the normal limits before the operation and at 1 month after the operation, the postoperative transit time (11.1 ± 2.0 m) was significantly shorter than the preoperative transit time (12.1 ± 2.4 m) (P< 0.05). There were no recurrences of perforation, scab formations, or epistaxis after the operation.Conclusions. The application of the collagen membrane with umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells is a simple and feasible endoscopic procedure to repair perforated nasal septa and restore satisfactory functional mucosa.

14.
Front Cell Neurosci ; 15: 730348, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34512270

RESUMO

Spinal cord injury (SCI) usually results in permanent functional impairment and is considered a worldwide medical problem. However, both motor and sensory functions can spontaneously recover to varying extents in humans and animals with incomplete SCI. This study observed a significant spontaneous hindlimb locomotor recovery in Sprague-Dawley rats at four weeks after post-right-side spinal cord hemisection at thoracic 8 (T8). To verify whether the above spontaneous recovery derives from the ipsilateral axonal or neuronal regeneration to reconnect the lesion site, we resected either the scar tissue or right side T7 spinal cord at five weeks post-T8 hemisected injury. The results showed that the spontaneously achieved right hindlimb locomotor function had little change after resection. Furthermore, when T7 left hemisection was performed five weeks after the initial injury, the spontaneously achieved right hindlimb locomotor function was dramatically abolished. A similar result could also be observed when T7 transection was performed after the initial hemisection. The results indicated that it might be the contralateral axonal remolding rather than the ipsilateral axonal or neuronal regeneration beyond the lesion site responsible for the spontaneous hindlimb locomotor recovery. The immunostaining analyses and corticospinal tracts (CSTs) tracing results confirmed this hypothesis. We detected no substantial neuronal and CST regeneration throughout the lesion site; however, significantly more CST fibers were observed to sprout from the contralateral side at the lumbar 4 (L4) spinal cord in the hemisection model rats than in intact ones. In conclusion, this study verified that contralateral CST sprouting, but not ipsilateral CST or neuronal regeneration, is primarily responsible for the spontaneous locomotor recovery in hemisection SCI rats.

15.
Biomed Mater ; 16(6)2021 09 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34507313

RESUMO

Cartilage damage is one of the main causes of disability, and 3D bioprinting technology can produce complex structures that are particularly suitable for constructing a customized and irregular tissue engineering scaffold for cartilage repair. Alginate is an attractive biomaterial for bioinks because of its good biological safety profile and fast ionic gelation. However, ionically crosslinked alginate hydrogels are recognized as lacking enough mechanical property and long-term stability due to ion exchange. Here, we developed a double crosslinked alginate (DC-Alg) hydrogel for 3D bioprinting, and human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (huMSCs) could differentiate into chondrocytes on its printed 3D scaffold after 4 weeks' culture. We performed sequential modification of alginate with L-cysteine and 5-norbornene-2-methylamine, and the DC-Alg hydrogels were obtained in the presence of CaCl2and ultraviolet light with stronger mechanical properties than those of the single ionic crosslinked alginate hydrogels, which was similar to natural cartilage. They also had better stability and could be maintained in DMEM medium for over 1 month, as well good viability for huMSCs. Moreover, the DC-Alg as 3D printing inks demonstrated a better printing accuracy (∼200 µm). After 4 weeks culture of huMSCs in the 3D printed DC-Alg scaffolds, the expressions of chondrogenic genes such asaggrecan (agg), collagen II (col II), and SRY-box transcription factor9(sox-9) were obviously observed, indicating the differentiation of huMSCs into cartilage. Immumohistochemical staining analysis further exhibited cartilage tissue developed well in the 3D printed scaffolds. Our study is the first demonstration of DC-Alg in 3D printing for MSC differentiation into cartilage, which shows a potential application in cartilage defect repair.

16.
Ultrason Sonochem ; 77: 105693, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34343823

RESUMO

This paper presents a means to modify the attributes of okara fiber using ultrasonic and high-speed shearing treatment. The results of scanning electron microscopy and differential scanning calorimetry reveal that the modified okara fiber demonstrates small particle size and high thermal stability. When the 500 W-15,000 rpm combination is used for okara-fiber treatment, the latter exhibits excellent swelling (SC) as well as water- and oil-holding capacities. When 6% of modified okara fiber is added to the dough, the resulting cookies demonstrate the best printing performance. Subsequently, the printing parameters can be optimized to obtain the best filling rate of 30%. The corresponding nozzle diameter and printing speed equal 0.8 mm and 50 mm/s, respectively. Finally, the 3D-printed cookies containing okara fiber are compared against those commonly available in the market via sensory evaluation. As observed, the 3D-printed cookies were more acceptable to people. Therefore, the addition of the okara dietary fiber to the cookie dough not only improves the okara utilization rate but also increases the dietary-fiber content in the cookie, thereby alleviating the occurrence of obesity in modern society.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Químicos , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Impressão Tridimensional , Ondas Ultrassônicas , Farinha/análise , Manipulação de Alimentos
17.
Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr ; : 1-17, 2021 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34382866

RESUMO

Over a few decades, anthocyanin (ACN)-based colorimetric indicators in intelligent packaging systems have been widely used to monitor the freshness or spoilage of perishable food products. Most of the perishable food products are highly susceptible to enzymatic/microbial spoilage and produce several volatile or nonvolatile organic acid and nitrogenous compounds. As a result, the natural pH of fresh foods significantly changes. Fabrication of CAN-based colorimetric indicators in intelligent packaging systems is an advanced technique that monitors the freshness or spoilage of perishable foods based on the display of color variations at varying pH values. This study focuses on the advancement of pH-sensitive indicators and extraction of colorimetric indicators from commercially available natural sources. Moreover, the fabrication techniques and widespread industrial applications of such indicators have also been discussed. In addition, readers will get information about the color-changing and antioxidant mechanisms of ACN-based indicator films in food packaging.

18.
Sci China Life Sci ; 2021 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34406569

RESUMO

Spinal cord injury (SCI) often results in an inhibitory environment at the injury site. In our previous studies, transplantation of a scaffold combined with stem cells was proven to induce neural regeneration in animal models of complete SCI. Based on these preclinical studies, collagen scaffolds loaded with the patients' own bone marrow mononuclear cells or human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells were transplanted into SCI patients. Fifteen patients with acute complete SCI and 51 patients with chronic complete SCI were enrolled and followed up for 2 to 5 years. No serious adverse events related to functional scaffold transplantation were observed. Among the patients with acute SCI, five patients achieved expansion of their sensory positions and six patients recovered sensation in the bowel or bladder. Additionally, four patients regained voluntary walking ability accompanied by reconnection of neural signal transduction. Among patients with chronic SCI, 16 patients achieved expansion of their sensation level and 30 patients experienced enhanced reflexive defecation sensation or increased skin sweating below the injury site. Nearly half of the patients with chronic cervical SCI developed enhanced finger activity. These long-term follow-up results suggest that functional scaffold transplantation may represent a feasible treatment for patients with complete SCI.

19.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 224: 112694, 2021 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34454355

RESUMO

The physiological and toxicological evaluation of nano-silicon dioxide (nano-SiO2) particles in food is important for ensuring food safety. In this study, nano-SiO2 particles isolated from five brands of instant coffee, were structurally characterized using transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering, and zeta potential analyses. Their toxicity was assessed by measuring cell viability, membrane integrity, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in model gastrointestinal cells (GES-1 and Caco-2). Additionally, mortality, deformity rate, heart rate and death of whole zebra fish embryos were measured. The five types of nano-SiO2 samples comprised amorphous particles with a purity of approximately 99%, which met the food additive standard. Considering that the original particle size ranged from 10 to 50 nm, the samples were classified as nano-SiO2 food additives. Nano-SiO2 did not significantly impact the activity of GES-1 or Caco-2 cells, and no significant cell membrane damage was observed (Caco-2 cells exhibited mild micro damage); however, a slight increase in intracellular RPS levels was detected. Moreover, nano-SiO2 was found to cause head deformity, pericardial edema, yolk sac edema and tail bending. Collectively, the results show that nano-SiO2 time- and dose-dependently affects GES-1 and Caco-2 cell viability, as well as the mortality, heart rate, and abnormality rate of zebra fish embryos. Specifically, a high concentration (≥ 200 µg/mL) and long exposure time (≥ 48 h) of food additive nano-SiO2 affected GES-1, Caco-2 cells, and the gastrointestinal tract in zebra fish embryos.

20.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 187: 566-574, 2021 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34303743

RESUMO

In this study, we developed an in-package colorimetric paper to monitor the ripeness of kiwifruit by detecting the release of aldehydes. Strongly hydrophobic composite films were prepared using chitosan as the matrix and beeswax as an additive. A piece of cellulose paper containing methyl red and bromocresol violet as color indicators was heat-sealed between two hydrophobic films to protect the indicators from the effects of fruit respiration and transpiration. The nucleophilic addition reaction between aldehydes and OH- (Cannizzaro reaction) changes the pH in the paper and triggers a color change in the indicators. As the kiwifruit ripens, the colorimetric paper changes from bluish-purple to dark red and then gradually to red. A mobile phone application was further used to measure the RGB values and link them to kiwifruit ripeness. This intelligent paper can be used for the accurate and convenient monitoring of produce in real time.

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