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1.
Inflammation ; 2021 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33398542

RESUMO

Inflammation theory has suggested that the pathogenesis of postoperative ileus (POI) involves the steroid receptor coactivator-3 (SRC-3). Therefore, we investigated the role of SRC-3 in the muscles of the small intestine using a mouse POI model. Here, we reported that intestinal manipulation (IM) significantly reduced the extent of phenol red migration in the entire gastrointestinal tract, and the calculated geometric center (GC) value in wild-type (WT) mice at 24 h after surgery was higher than that in the knockout (KO) mice and in the sham-operated control group. The expression of SRC-3 was upregulated in the mouse intestinal muscularis at 24 h after surgical manipulation, and the mRNA and protein levels of inflammatory cytokines were upregulated compared with those in the control group. At 24 h after IM, the number of neutrophils in the experimental group was significantly higher than that in the control group; in the IM group, the number of neutrophils in the SRC-3-/- mice was markedly higher than that in the WT mice. At 24 h after IM, the myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity in the experimental group was significantly higher than that in the control group. In the IM group, the MPO activity of the SRC-3-/- mice was markedly higher than that of the WT mice. In summary, proinflammatory cytokines, the number of neutrophils, and the MPO activity were significantly increased in the muscularis of the jejunum and ileum of KO mice after IM compared with those of the WT mice, indicating that SRC-3 might play a protective role in POI.

2.
ACS Nano ; 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33449627

RESUMO

Nowadays, aggregation-induced emission luminogens (AIEgens) with reactive oxygen species (ROS) generating ability have been used as photosensitizers for imaging guided photodynamic therapy (PDT). To achieve enhanced antitumor outcomes, combining AIEgens-based PDT with chemotherapy is an efficient strategy. However, the therapeutic efficiency is hampered by the limited cellular uptake efficiency and the appropriate light irradiation occasion. In this paper, a self-guiding polymeric micelle (TB@PMPT) composed of two AIE photosensitizers and a reduction-sensitive paclitaxel prodrug (PTX-SS-N3) was established for enhanced chemo-photodynamic therapy by a dual-stage light irradiation strategy. When the micelles were accumulated in tumor tissues, the first light irradiation (L1, 6 min) was utilized to facilitate cellular uptake by "photochemical internalization" (PCI). Then, the intracellular glutathione (GSH) would induce the PTX release, micelles disassembly and the aggregation state change of AIEgens. The fluorescence signal change of two AIEgens-based ratiometric fluorescent probe could not only precisely guide the second light irradiation (L2, 18 min) for sufficient ROS production, but also monitor the nonfluorescent drug PTX release in turn. Both in vivo and in vitro studies demonstrated that the dual-stage light irradiation strategy employed for TB@PMPT micelles exhibited a superior therapeutic effect over only 24 min continuous light irradiation.

3.
Clin Chim Acta ; 512: 179-184, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33181151

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cerebrocardiac syndrome (CCS) is a common complication after severe traumatic brain injury (sTBI) and its occurrence obviously increases the risk of a poor outcome. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) acts as an inflammatory cytokine and its circulating concentration are related to acute heart and brain injury. The aim of this study was to examine the association of serum concentration of MIF with posttraumatic CCS. METHODS: From January 2016 to February 2019, 116 sTBI patients and 116 healthy controls with similar age and gender percentage were recruited. Relationship between serum MIF concentration and CCS was assessed using multivariate analysis. RESULTS: Serum MIF concentration of patients were significantly higher than those among controls. Serum MIF concentration were intimately correlated with Glasgow coma scale scores (t = -5.553, P < 0.001) and serum C-reactive protein concentration (t = 5.320, P < 0.001) in a multivariate linear regression model. 61 patients (52.6%) displayed CCS. Under ROC curve analylsis, there was a strong discriminatory ability for CCS regarding serum MIF concentration (area under curve, 0.834; 95% confidence interval, 0.754-0.897). Serum MIF concentration were highly associated with CCS independent of other confounding factors (odds ratio, 5.608; 95% CI: 1.896-16.587). CONCLUSIONS: Increased MIF in serum may be a useful biomarker for early detection of CCS after head trauma.

4.
ACS Nano ; 14(11): 14698-14714, 2020 11 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33174739

RESUMO

Even with optimal surgery, 80% of patients with ovarian cancer will have recurrence. Adjuvant therapy can reduce the recurrence of tumors; however, the therapeutic effect is still not prominent. Herein, we designed a modular peptide probe (TCDTMP), which can be self-assembled into nanoparticles (NPs) by loading in miR-145-5p or VEGF-siRNA. In vivo, (1) preoperative administration of TCDTMP/miR-145-5p ensured that NPs were adequately accumulated in tumors through active targeting and increased the expression of miR-145-5p in tumors, thereby inducing tumor cell apoptosis. (2) Intraoperatively, most of the tumors were removed, while the microscopic residual tumors were largely eliminated by TCDTMP/miR-145-5p-mediated photodynamic therapy (PDT). (3) Postoperatively, TCDTMP/VEGF-siRNA were given for antiangiogenesis therapy, thus delaying the recurrence of tumors. This treatment was named a preoperative (TCDTMP/miR-145-5p)||intraoperative (surgery and PDT)||postoperative (TCDTMP/VEGF-siRNA) therapeutic system and abbreviated as the PIP therapeutic system, which reduced the recurrence of ovarian cancer in subcutaneous tumor models, intraperitoneal metastasis models, and patient-derived tumor xenograft models. Our findings provide a therapeutic system based on modular peptide probes to reduce the recurrence of ovarian cancer after surgery, which provides a perspective for the surgical management of ovarian cancer.

5.
Environ Res ; : 110496, 2020 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33220245

RESUMO

Synergistic adsorption and oxidative degradation (via persulfate activation) on metal-free carbonaceous materials are expected to be environmentally friendly and highly efficient approach toward contaminants removal. Herein, nitrogen and sulfur codoped mesoporous carbon (NSDMC) were firstly synthesized via co-carbonization of calcium citrate and thiourea without any templates. NSDMC samples exhibit remarkably enhanced adsorption capacity and oxidative degradation (by activating PDS) for chlorophenols elimination. Increased SBET and introduced N-containing functional groups are beneficial for chlorophenols adsorption, PDS accessibility and successive activation. Doped sulfur species (especially for thiophenic S) can enhance the electron-transport performance of NSDMC, further promoting PDS activation and chlorophenols degradation. It can be ascribed to the synergistic effect of N and S codoping. NSDMC-30 (containing 5.83 at.% nitrogen and 2.15 at.% sulfur, and possessing SBET of 1935.9 m2 g-1) exhibits the optimal adsorption and catalytic oxidation capability for 4-CP removal. Degradation rate constant of NSDMC-30 is 0.125 min-1, which is 3.0 times and 7.8 times higher than nitrogen-doped MC and pristine MC, respectively. Radicals quenching experiments and EPR tests demonstrate that non-radical pathways play dominant role for PDS activation and chlorophenols degradation. Based on the influences of catalyst loading, initial 4-CP concentration, and PDS dosage on degradation kinetics of 4-CP, the pre-adsorption is unveiled to be the critical step determining oxidation rate of chlorophenols. More importantly, the results of in-situ Raman and electrochemical tests show that the surface-confined and activated PDS complex (carbon-PDS*) and continuous electron transfer from co-adsorbed 4-CP are mainly responsible for the oxidative degradation of chlorophenols. The intermediate products and TOC removal indicate that chlorophenols can be efficiently degraded and mineralized by as-synthesized NSDMC via activating PDS. Besides, the present NSDMC/PDS system is also applicable for purification of actual polluted water samples. This work provides in-depth knowledge of carbon-driven nonradical process for PDS activation and contaminants remediation.

6.
Inflammation ; 2020 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33083887

RESUMO

Fulminant hepatitis (FH) is an acute clinical disease with a poor prognosis and high mortality rate. The purpose of this study was to determine the protective effect of the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) inhibitor TAK-242 on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)/D-galactosamine (D-GalN)-induced explosive hepatitis and explore in vivo and in vitro mechanisms. Mice were pretreated with TAK-242 for 3 h prior to LPS (10 µg/kg)/D-GalN (250 mg/kg) administration. Compared to the LPS/D-GalN group, the TAK-242 pretreatment group showed significantly prolonged survival, reduced serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase levels, relieved oxidative stress, and reduced inflammatory interleukin (IL)-6, IL-12, and tumor necrosis factor-α levels. In addition, TAK-242 increased the accumulation of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs). Next, mice were treated with an anti-Gr-1 antibody to deplete MDSCs, and adoptive transfer experiments were performed. We found that TAK-242 protected against FH by regulating MDSCs. In the in vitro studies, TAK-242 regulated the accumulation of MDSCs and promoted the release of immunosuppressive inflammatory cytokines. In addition, TAK-242 inhibited protein expression of nuclear factor-κB and mitogen-activated protein kinases. In summary, TAK-242 had a hepatoprotective effect against LPS/D-GalN-induced explosive hepatitis in mice. Its protective effect may be involved in suppressing inflammation, reducing oxidative stress, and increasing the proportion of MDSCs.

7.
Top Curr Chem (Cham) ; 378(6): 47, 2020 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33026529

RESUMO

Enzyme, which exists widely in organisms, has high specificity and high catalytic efficiency for its substrates. The absence, the reduced activity, or the overexpression of enzyme are closely related to the occurrence and development of diseases. Therefore, enzyme is often used as markers for disease detection and treatment. To detect enzyme activity and track drug release, aggregation-induced emission (AIE) bioprobes have been developed because of their excellent photostability and high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Among them, peptide-based AIE bioprobes with great biocompatibility and specificity are favored by an increasing number of researchers. Enzymatic hydrolysis of peptide can cause aggregation of AIE molecules and drug release. In this review, enzyme-responsive peptide-based AIE bioprobes used for biomedical application are summarized according to the three aggregation strategies triggered by various reaction between peptide and enzyme, including enzyme-triggered precipitate, enzyme-catalyzed coupling, and enzyme-instructed self-assembly. By giving some representative examples, we discuss how each aggregation strategy detects enzyme activity and treats the diseases under imaging guidance. Finally, we comment on the current problems and future prospects of enzyme-responsive peptide-based AIE bioprobes.

8.
Genome Biol Evol ; 12(12): 2486-2490, 2020 Dec 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33045048

RESUMO

Dendrobium huoshanense is used to treat various diseases in traditional Chinese medicine. Recent studies have identified active components. However, the lack of genomic data limits research on the biosynthesis and application of these therapeutic ingredients. To address this issue, we generated the first chromosome-level genome assembly and annotation of D. huoshanense. We integrated PacBio sequencing data, Illumina paired-end sequencing data, and Hi-C sequencing data to assemble a 1.285 Gb genome, with contig and scaffold N50 lengths of 598 kb and 71.79 Mb, respectively. We annotated 21,070 protein-coding genes and 0.96 Gb transposable elements, constituting 74.92% of the whole assembly. In addition, we identified 252 genes responsible for polysaccharide biosynthesis by Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes functional annotation. Our data provide a basis for further functional studies, particularly those focused on genes related to glycan biosynthesis and metabolism, and have implications for both conservation and medicine.

9.
Environ Sci Technol ; 54(19): 12072-12080, 2020 10 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32910856

RESUMO

Consumption of rice (Oryza sativa) is the major dietary source of cadmium (Cd) for populations with rice as the staple. Little is known about the distribution and chemical speciation of Cd in rice grain, which is critical in determining the bioavailability of Cd to humans. We used synchrotron-based techniques for analyses of the speciation and distribution of Cd in rice grain. The majority of the Cd in rice grain was present as Cd-thiolate complexes (66-92%), likely in the form of Cd bound with thiol-rich proteins. The remainder was present as Cd-carboxyl compounds and Cd-histidine. Elemental mapping showed two different patterns of Cd distribution, one with an even distribution throughout the entire grain and the other with a preferential distribution in the outer tissues (aleurone layer and outer starchy endosperm). The distribution pattern is important as it affects the removal of Cd during milling. On average, milling reduced grain Cd concentrations by 23.5% (median of 27.5%), although the range varied widely from a 64.7% decrease to a 22.2% increase, depending upon the concentration of Cd in the bran. We found that the variation in the distribution pattern of Cd in the rice grain was due to a temporal change in the supply of Cd from the soil porewater during grain filling. These results have important implications for Cd bioavailability in human diets.


Assuntos
Oryza , Poluentes do Solo , Disponibilidade Biológica , Cádmio/análise , Grão Comestível/química , Humanos , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise
10.
Phytomedicine ; 78: 153296, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32890913

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has extensively and rapidly spread in the world, causing an outbreak of acute infectious pneumonia. However, no specific antiviral drugs or vaccines can be used. Phillyrin (KD-1), a representative ingredient of Forsythia suspensa, possesses anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, and antiviral activities. However, little is known about the antiviral abilities and mechanism of KD-1 against SARS-CoV-2 and human coronavirus 229E (HCoV-229E). PURPOSE: The study was designed to investigate the antiviral and anti-inflammatory activities of KD-1 against the novel SARS-CoV-2 and HCoV-229E and its potential effect in regulating host immune response in vitro. METHODS: The antiviral activities of KD-1 against SARS-CoV-2 and HCoV-229E were assessed in Vero E6 cells using cytopathic effect and plaque-reduction assay. Proinflammatory cytokine expression levels upon infection with SARS-CoV-2 and HCoV-229E infection in Huh-7 cells were measured by real-time quantitative PCR assays. Western blot assay was used to determine the protein expression of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) p65, p-NF-κB p65, IκBα, and p-IκBα in Huh-7 cells, which are the key targets of the NF-κB pathway. RESULTS: KD-1 could significantly inhibit SARS-CoV-2 and HCoV-229E replication in vitro. KD-1 could also markedly reduce the production of proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1ß, MCP-1, and IP-10) at the mRNA levels. Moreover, KD-1 could significantly reduce the protein expression of p-NF-κB p65, NF-κB p65, and p-IκBα, while increasing the expression of IκBα in Huh-7 cells. CONCLUSIONS: KD-1 could significantly inhibit virus proliferation in vitro, the up-regulated expression of proinflammatory cytokines induced by SARS-CoV-2 and HCoV-229E by regulating the activity of the NF-кB signaling pathway. Our findings indicated that KD-1 protected against virus attack and can thus be used as a novel strategy for controlling the coronavirus disease 2019.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antivirais/farmacologia , Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Coronavirus Humano 229E/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Coronavirus , Glucosídeos/farmacologia , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Animais , Chlorocebus aethiops , Coronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Coronavirus/metabolismo , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Forsythia/química , Humanos , Fitoterapia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Pneumonia Viral/metabolismo , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/virologia , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Vero , Replicação Viral/efeitos dos fármacos
11.
Cell Mol Immunol ; 17(10): 1095-1097, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32895485
12.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 532(3): 433-439, 2020 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32891432

RESUMO

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are an important cell source for tissue homeostasis and repair due to their stemness characteristic. Lots of intrinsic signaling pathways have been reported to regulate MSC stemness, but the extrinsic signals such as sodium lactate, particularly in physiological conditions, are poorly understood. Herein, we evaluated the effect of sodium lactate on human MSC stemness regulation by examining colony-forming ability, energy metabolism, multi-lineage differentiation ability, and pluripotent gene and protein expression. The underlying mechanism was further investigated with gene knockdown as well as small molecule interference and rescue experiments. We found that: (1) low concentration (1 mM) of sodium lactate promoted the stemness of human MSCs; (2) the upregulation of glycolysis was responsible for the MSC stemness promotion; (3) lysine demethylase 6B (KDM6B) was the key regulator which mediated sodium lactate-induced glycolysis and human MSC stemness enhancement. This study indicated that sodium lactate played an important role in human MSC stemness maintenance in physiological conditions, which could be related to KDM6B mediated metabolic regulation. It would provide new insight into stem cell biology, and contribute to cell transplantation and tissue regeneration strategies.

13.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(17)2020 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32887217

RESUMO

Invasive breast cancer is highly regulated by tumor-derived cytokines in tumor microenvironment. The development of drugs that specifically target cytokines are promising in breast cancer treatment. In this study, we reported that arctigenin, a bioactive compound from Arctium lappa L., could decrease tumor-promoting cytokines GM-CSF, MMP-3, MMP-9 and TSLP in breast cancer cells. Arctigenin not only inhibited the proliferation, but also the invasion and stemness of breast cancer cells via decreasing GM-CSF and TSLP. Mechanistically, arctigenin decreased the promoter activities of GM-CSF and TSLP via reducing the nuclear translocation of NF-κB p65 which is crucial for the transcription of GM-CSF and TSLP. Furthermore, arctigenin-induced depletion of GM-CSF and TSLP inhibited STAT3 phosphorylation and ß-catenin signaling resulting in decreased proliferation, invasion and stemness of breast cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. Our findings provide new insights into the mechanism by which tumor-promoting cytokines regulate breast cancer progression and suggest that arctigenin is a promising candidate for cytokine-targeted breast cancer therapy.

14.
Cell Death Dis ; 11(9): 763, 2020 09 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32938906

RESUMO

Monocyte-derived cells were shown to promote cartilage repair in osteoarthritis. The role of the long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) MM2P in this function of monocyte-derived cells remained unexplored. Treatment of RAW264.7 murine macrophages and mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages with IL-4 or IL-13 upregulated MM2P expression, upstream of STAT3 and STAT6 phosphorylation. Specifically, MM2P blocked SHP2-mediated dephosphorylation of STAT3 at Try705 and interacted with the RNA-binding protein FUS. In turn, p-STAT3 increased the Sox9 gene expression. These cells released Sox9 mRNA and protein-containing exosomes, as demonstrated by a transmission electron microscope, nanoparticle tracking analysis, and detection of typical surface markers. Their culture supernatant promoted the differentiation of mouse primary chondrocytes, i.e., upregulated the expression of Col1a2 and Acan genes and promoted the secretion of extracellular matrix components proteoglycan and type II collagen. These effects were mediated by Sox9 mRNA and protein delivered to chondrocytes by exosomes. Together, ex vivo treatment of monocyte-derived cells with IL-4 or IL-13 promoted chondrocyte differentiation and functions through exosome-mediated delivery of Sox9 mRNA and protein.

15.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 22(35): 19913-19922, 2020 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32856621

RESUMO

Based on first-principles calculations and ab initio molecular dynamics simulations, multidimensional B4N materials are investigated as anode materials for lithium ion batteries. The present results show that the monolayer B4N can reach a remarkably high specific capacity of 1874.27 mA h g-1 and possesses a low diffusion barrier (0.29 eV). Testing of bilayer B4N and bulk B4N reveals that the materials exhibit irreversible structural phase transformation. They are transformed from a layered structure to the more stable cavity-channel structure due to the adsorption of Li atoms. The volume expansions of their saturated lithiation cavity-channel structures are about 12%, which is close to that of graphite (10%). Moreover, it is found that the energy barriers of the bilayer and bulk B4N are less than 0.5 eV in the cavity-channel. The saturated adsorption of bulk B4N yields a specific capacity of 468.57 mA h g-1, which is higher than that of commercial graphite (372 mA h g-1). More importantly, all the lithiation structures in the monolayer, bilayer, and bulk B4N are verified to be thermodynamically stable at 350 K. These findings may encourage further experimental investigation in the design of multidimensional B4N materials as novel candidate anode materials for lithium ion batteries.

16.
Clin Chim Acta ; 510: 354-359, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32738268

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tumor necrosis factor-like weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK) might contribute to brain inflammation after acute brain injury. The current study was designed to investigate whether serum soluble TWEAK (sTWEAK) can serve as a potential biomarker for functional outcome after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH). METHODS: In this single-center prospective, observational study, admission serum sTWEAK concentrations were quantified among 112 aSAH patients. Impact of serum sTWEAK concentrations on a poor outcome (Glasgow outcome scale score 1-3) at 6 months after stroke onset was determined using multivariate analysis. RESULTS: Admission serum sTWEAK concentrations were intimately correlated with serum C-reactive protein concentrations, World Federation of Neurological Surgeons scores and modified Fisher scores. A total of 38 patients (33.9%) had a poor outcome at post-hemorrhagic 6 months. Admission serum sTWEAK concentrations were substantially higher in patients with a poor outcome than in the other remainders. Under receiver operating characteristic curve, serum sTWEAK concentrations significantly distinguished a poor outcome. Serum sTWEAK concentrations > 3.23 ng/ml discriminated the risk of a poor outcome with medium-high sensitivity and specificity and independently predicted a poor outcome. CONCLUSIONS: Serum sTWEAK, in close correlation with inflammation and hemorrhagic severity, might represent a potential biomarker for predicting clinical outcome after aSAH.

17.
J Phys Chem Lett ; : 7313-7319, 2020 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32787290

RESUMO

We investigated the evolution of ferromagnetism in layered Fe3GeTe2 flakes under different pressures and temperatures using in situ magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) spectroscopy. We found that the rectangular shape of the hysteresis loop under an out-of-plane magnetic field sweep can be sustained below 7 GPa. Above that pressure, an intermediate state appears in the low-temperature region signaled by an 8-shaped skewed hysteresis loop. Meanwhile, the coercive field and Curie temperature decrease with increasing pressures, implying the decrease of the exchange interaction and the magneto-crystalline anisotropy under pressures. The intermediate phase has a labyrinthine domain structure, which is attributed to the increase of the ratio of exchange interaction to magneto-crystalline anisotropy based on Jagla's theory. Moreover, our calculations reveal a weak structural transition around 6 GPa that corresponds to a significant change in the FeI-FeI bond length, which has strong influences on magnetic interaction. Detailed analysis on exchange interaction and magneto-crystalline anisotropy with pressure shows a consistent trend with experiments.

18.
Cell ; 182(3): 734-743.e5, 2020 08 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32643603

RESUMO

COVID-19, caused by SARS-CoV-2, is a virulent pneumonia, with >4,000,000 confirmed cases worldwide and >290,000 deaths as of May 15, 2020. It is critical that vaccines and therapeutics be developed very rapidly. Mice, the ideal animal for assessing such interventions, are resistant to SARS-CoV-2. Here, we overcome this difficulty by exogenous delivery of human ACE2 with a replication-deficient adenovirus (Ad5-hACE2). Ad5-hACE2-sensitized mice developed pneumonia characterized by weight loss, severe pulmonary pathology, and high-titer virus replication in lungs. Type I interferon, T cells, and, most importantly, signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) are critical for virus clearance and disease resolution in these mice. Ad5-hACE2-transduced mice enabled rapid assessments of a vaccine candidate, of human convalescent plasma, and of two antiviral therapies (poly I:C and remdesivir). In summary, we describe a murine model of broad and immediate utility to investigate COVID-19 pathogenesis and to evaluate new therapies and vaccines.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Vacinação , Animais , Chlorocebus aethiops , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Interferon gama/genética , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Pulmão/patologia , Pulmão/virologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/genética , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/metabolismo , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Receptor de Interferon alfa e beta/genética , Receptor de Interferon alfa e beta/metabolismo , Fator de Transcrição STAT1/genética , Fator de Transcrição STAT1/metabolismo , Organismos Livres de Patógenos Específicos , Transdução Genética , Células Vero , Carga Viral , Replicação Viral
19.
World J Surg Oncol ; 18(1): 174, 2020 Jul 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32682432

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The effect and safety of preoperative biliary drainage (PBD) in patients with perihilar cholangiocarcinoma are still controversial; the aim of our study is to evaluate all aspects of PBD. METHODS: All included studies featured PBD versus non-PBD (NPBD) groups were from 1996 to 2019 and were extracted from Cochrane Library, Embase, PubMed, and Science Citation Index Expanded. RESULTS: Sixteen studies met the inclusion criteria and were included in this analysis. PBD may lead to a significantly higher incidence of overall morbidities (OR 0.67, 95% CI 0.53, 0.85; P = 0.0009) and intraoperative transfusions (OR 0.72, 95% CI 0.55, 0.94; P = 0.02); moreover, bile leakage (OR 0.58, 95% CI 0.24, 1.41; P = 0.04), infection (OR 0.31, 95% CI 0.20, 0.47; P < 0.00001), and cholangitis (OR 0.18, 95% CI 0.007, 0.48; P = 0.0007) are also related to PBD. However, NPBD was associated with more frequent hepatic insufficiency (OR 3.09, 95% CI 1.15, 8.31; P = 0.03). In the subgroup meta-analysis, the differences in the outcomes of bile leakage and overall morbidity lost significance between the PBD and NPBD groups when the mean total serum bilirubin (TSB) concentration was above 15 mg/dl. CONCLUSION: Meta-analysis demonstrated that compared to NPBD, PBD is associated with a greater risk of several kinds of infection and morbidities, but its ability to reduce postoperative hepatic insufficiency cannot be ignored. In patients with a high TSB concentration, PBD tends to be a better choice. However, these results need to be confirmed in a future prospective randomized trial with large samples to clarify the effects and find a specific TSB concentration for PBD.

20.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2020 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32697835

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recent studies indicated that females have a lower morbidity, severe cases rate, mortality and better outcome than those of male. However, it remained to be addressed why this was the case. METHODS AND FINDINGS: To find the factors that potentially protect females from COVID-19, we recruited all confirmed patients hospitalized at three branches of Tongji Hospital (n=1902) from January 28 to March 8, 2020, and analyzed the correlation between menstrual status (n=509,including 68 from Mobile Cabin Hospital)/female hormones (n=78)/ cytokines related to immunity and inflammation(n=263), and the severity/clinical outcomes in female patients under 60 years of age.Non-menopausal female patients had milder severity and better outcome compared with age-matched men (p<0.01/p<0.01). Menopausal patients had longer hospitalization times than non-menopausal patients ( hazard ratio [HR], 1.91; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.06-3.46,p= 0.033). Both anti-müllerian hormone (AMH) and estradiol (E2) showed a negative correlation with severity of infection (AHR=0.146/0.304, 95%CI = [0.026-0.824]/[0.092-1.001], p=0.029/0.05). E2 levels were negatively correlated with IL-2R, IL-6, IL-8 and TNFα in luteal phase (Pearson Correlation=-0.592, -0.558, -0.545, -0.623; p=0.033, 0.048, 0.054, 0.023), and with C3 in follicular phase (Pearson Correlation=-0.651; p=0.030). CONCLUSION: Menopause is an independent risk factor for female COVID-19 patients. AMH and E2 are potential protective factors, negatively correlated with COVID-19's severity, among which E2 is attributed to its regulation of cytokines related to immunity and inflammation. Hormone supplement might be a potential therapy for COVID-19 patients.

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