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1.
Eur J Radiol ; 151: 110287, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35429716

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study aimed to evaluate the diagnostic performance of convolutional neural network (CNN) models in Chiari malformation type I (CMI) and to verify whether CNNs can identify the morphological features of the craniocervical junction region between patients with CMI and healthy controls (HCs). To date, numerous indicators based on manual measurements are used for the diagnosis of CMI. However, the corresponding postoperative efficacy and prognostic evaluations have remained inconsistent. From a diagnostic perspective, CNN models may be used to explore the relationship between the clinical features and image morphological parameters. METHODS: This study included a total of 148 patients diagnosed with CMI at our institution and 205 HCs were included. T1-weighted sagittal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) images were used for the analysis. A total of 220 and 355 slices were acquired from 98 patients with CMI and 155 HCs, respectively, to train and validate the CNN models. In addition, median sagittal images obtained from 50 patients with CMI and 50 HCs were selected to test the models. We applied original cervical MRI images (CI) and images of posterior cranial fossa and craniocervical junction area (CVI) to train the CI- and CVI-based CNN models. Transfer learning and data augmentation were used for model construction and each model was retrained 10 times. RESULTS: Both the CI- and CVI-based CNN models achieved high diagnostic accuracy. In the validation dataset, the models had diagnostic accuracy of 100% and 97% (p = 0.005), sensitivity of 100% and 98% (p = 0.016), and specificity of 100% (p = 0.929), respectively. In the test dataset, the accuracy was 97% and 96% (p = 0.25), sensitivity was 97% and 92% (p = 0.109), and specificity was 100% (p = 0.123), respectively. For patients with cerebellar subungual herniation less than 5 mm, three out of the 10 CVI-based retrained models reached 100% sensitivity. CONCLUSIONS: Our results revealed that the CNN models demonstrated excellent diagnostic performance for CMI. The models had higher sensitivity than the application of cerebellar tonsillar herniation alone and could identify features in the posterior cranial fossa and craniocervical junction area of patients. Our preliminary experiments provided a feasible method for the diagnosis and study of CMI using CNN models. However, further studies are needed to identify the morphologic characteristics of patients with different clinical outcomes, as well as patients who may benefit from surgery.

2.
J Knee Surg ; 34(11): 1227-1236, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32131097

RESUMO

Although periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) has been hypothesized to increase the risk of complications following revision total knee arthroplasty (TKA), strong evidence linking the two is lacking. The aim of this study was to determine whether PJI is an independent risk factor for inpatient perioperative complications, and increased resource use in patients undergoing revision TKA. We relied on the US Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) to identify patients with PJI or non-PJI treated with revision TKA between 2002 and 2014. Overall, 5,316 (16.4%) and 27,033 (83.6%) patients were categorized as PJI and non-PJI, respectively. To adjust for potential baseline differences between the two groups, propensity-score-based matching was performed. This resulted in 5,187 (50%) PJI patients matched to 5,187 (50%) non-PJI patients. The rates of postoperative complications, blood transfusions, prolonged length of stay (pLOS), in-hospital cost, and in-hospital mortality were assessed for both groups. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed within the cohort after propensity-score matching. For PJI versus non-PJI, respectively, the following rates were recorded: blood transfusions, 28.3 versus 18.4% (p < 0.0001); postoperative complications, 27.5 versus 19.8% (p < 0.0001); pLOS (>4 d), 61.9 versus 26.9% (p < 0.0001); in-hospital cost (>$39,929), 55.8 versus 44.2% (p < 0.0001); in-hospital mortality, 0.6 versus 0.3% (p = 0.016). In multivariable logistic regression analyses, PJI patients were more likely to receive a blood transfusion (odds ratio [OR]: 1.78; p < 0.0001), to experience postoperative complications (OR: 1.56; p < 0.0001), to have a higher in-hospital cost (OR: 1.65; p < 0.0001), to have a pLOS following surgery following surgery (OR: 4.69; p < 0.0001), and to have a higher in-hospital mortality (OR: 2.14; p = 0.019). After adjustment for potential selection biases, PJI is associated with more adverse perioperative outcomes and resource use than non-PJI patients. This is a Level II (level of evidence), prognostic study.


Assuntos
Artrite Infecciosa , Artroplastia do Joelho , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese , Artrite Infecciosa/cirurgia , Artroplastia do Joelho/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Pontuação de Propensão , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/epidemiologia , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/etiologia , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/cirurgia , Reoperação , Estudos Retrospectivos
3.
Europace ; 22(11): 1712-1717, 2020 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32830238

RESUMO

AIMS: Accessory pathways (APs) successfully ablated at the aortomitral continuity (AMC) were sporadically reported but relevant data are very limited. We aimed to describe the electrophysiological characteristics of AMC-AP and the related anatomy. METHODS AND RESULTS: This study involved eight (male/female = 3/5, mean age 42.6 ± 10.5 years) patients with left-sided AP successfully ablated in the AMC region. The retrograde atrial activation sequence was analysed and compared via recordings at the His-bundle (HB), coronary sinus (CS), and roving catheter during tachycardia, and the peak of QRS from the same cardiac circle used as time reference. Of the eight patients, two received prior ablations. During tachycardia, the activation time at the proximal CS (CSp), lateral CS (CSl), and HB region averaged 120 ± 26 ms, 124 ± 29 ms, and 117 ± 21 ms following the reference, respectively (P = 0.86). The latest atrial activation was recorded in the posterior CS which averaged 135 ± 25 ms following the reference. Placing the ablation catheter to AMC via retrograde approach was attempted in all cases but stable positioning achieved in none. Via transseptal approach, the ablation catheter could be easily placed at the AMC and recorded the earliest retrograde atrial activations with 60 ± 27 ms earlier than the relatively 'earliest' CS/HB recordings, and ablation at this site successfully eliminated AP conduction. No patients had recovered AP conduction after at least 12-month follow-up. CONCLUSION: AMC-AP is featured by recording comparable retrograde atrial activation times at CSp, CSl, and HB with the latest recordings at the posterior CS. Stable placement and successful ablation in the AMC via retrograde aortic approach was difficult but can be achieved via transseptal approach.


Assuntos
Feixe Acessório Atrioventricular , Ablação por Cateter , Feixe Acessório Atrioventricular/cirurgia , Adulto , Eletrocardiografia , Feminino , Átrios do Coração/cirurgia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Taquicardia
4.
Hip Int ; 30(5): 622-628, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32686507

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Revision total hip arthroplasty (THA) remains a significant challenge when there is severe femoral bone loss. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical and radiographic outcomes of revision THA in patients with femoral bone loss treated with Zweymüller SLR-Plus stem. METHODS: A retrospective review of 82 patients who underwent revision THA using tapered rectangular femoral stem between 1997 and 2007 was undertaken. Of the 82 patients, 9 patients were lost to follow-up and were excluded from the study. The most common reason for revision was aseptic loosening (92%), periprosthetic femur fracture (5%), and infection (3%). Bone loss was categorised preoperatively according to the Paprosky classification. The mean clinical follow-up was 14 years (range 10-19 years). Their mean age at the time of index surgery was 54.7 ± 15.3 (range 30-82) years. RESULTS: The mean Harris Hip Score was significantly improved at final follow-up (68.1 ±10.3) compared with that before the revision surgery (30.4 ± 7.7) (p < 0.0001). Of the 75 stems, 69 (92%) stems were radiographically stable at the last evaluation. Among the 69 stems, 64 hips (85%) had radiographic evidence of bone ingrowth and 5 (5%) had stable fibrous fixation of the stem. Among the 7 hips that were re-revised, 5 hips were re-revised for aseptic loosening, whereas 2 were re-revised for an infection. Kaplan-Meier survivorship analysis, with removal of the stem for any cause as the endpoint, revealed that the 15-year rate of survival of the components was 90% (95% CI, 0.83-0.97). CONCLUSION: Revision THA in patients with proximal femoral bone loss using Zweymüller SLR-Plus stem led to a high rate of osseointegration of the stem and good clinical results at long-term follow-up.


Assuntos
Artroplastia de Quadril/instrumentação , Fêmur/patologia , Fêmur/cirurgia , Prótese de Quadril/efeitos adversos , Fraturas Periprotéticas/cirurgia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Artroplastia de Quadril/efeitos adversos , Artroplastia de Quadril/métodos , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Osseointegração , Fraturas Periprotéticas/etiologia , Desenho de Prótese , Reoperação , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Tempo
5.
J Knee Surg ; 33(10): 947-957, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31127600

RESUMO

Venous thromboembolism (VTE; deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism) is a known complication following primary total knee arthroplasty (TKA). The aim of this study was to investigate the trends of the incidence of VTE after primary TKA and identify associated risk factors for the occurrence of VTEs in a large cohort of TKA patients. We performed a retrospective study in which the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) database was used to identify all patients who underwent primary TKA over a period of 13 consecutive years (between 2002 and 2014) in the United States. The occurrence of a symptomatic VTE was identified with the use of ICD-9-CM (International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification) diagnosis codes. A total of 1,460,901 primary TKA procedures were identified in the NIS from 2002 to 2014, and 12,944 of these patients were recorded as having 13,855 VTEs, consisting of 7,609 deep venous thromboses (0.52%) and 6,246 pulmonary emboli (0.43%). The overall VTE incidence in patients undergoing TKA in the United States from 2002 to 2014 was 0.89%. Patient-related risk factors for VTEs include an older age (odds ratio [OR]: 1.44; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.31-1.59), black race (OR: 1.34; 95% CI: 1.25-1.44), and Medicare insurance (OR: 1.18; 95% CI: 1.13-1.22). Most of the comorbidities were associated with an increased risk of VTE following TKA. Particularly, cardiac arrhythmias, coagulopathy, fluid and electrolyte disorders, pulmonary circulation disorders, and weight loss increased the risk of VTE by more than twofold. After adjusting for confounders, VTE was associated with a longer hospital stay (2.81 ± 0.02 day), increased costs (US$14,212.16 ± US$255.64), and higher mortality rate (OR: 13.04; 95% CI: 11.08-15.35). This nationally representative study of inpatients in the United States identified several independent risk factors for VTE perioperatively in TKA patients and provided evidence that VTE patients after TKA are likely to have worse results than non-VTE patients with regard to the length of hospital stay, hospital costs, and inhospital mortality. This is a level III, prognostic study.


Assuntos
Artroplastia do Joelho/efeitos adversos , Embolia Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Tromboembolia Venosa/epidemiologia , Trombose Venosa/epidemiologia , Adulto , Afro-Americanos , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Comorbidade , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Humanos , Tempo de Internação , Masculino , Medicare , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
6.
BMC Musculoskelet Disord ; 20(1): 113, 2019 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30885201

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To evaluate the clinical results of arthroscopic repair with or without platelet-rich plasma (PRP) for tears of the discoid lateral meniscus (DLM). METHODS: Twenty-nine patients with DLM tears within a stable knee were arthroscopically treated with meniscal suture repair. Of those, 14 were augmented with platelet-rich plasma (PRP), and 15 were performed without PRP augmentation. Patients were evaluated at baseline (the day before surgery) and then 12 and 24 months after the last injection. Evaluation included the Lysholm score, and Ikeuchi grade, Visual analogue score (VAS) for pain and failure rate. Failure was defined by patients developing symptoms of joint line pain, locking, swelling or requiring repeat arthroscopy. RESULTS: There was no difference in the failure rate in the PRP group (1 of 14) compared with the non-PRP group (2 of 15) (P = 0.58). Statistically significant improvement in Lysholm score, Ikeuchi grade and VAS for pain was documented at the last follow-up compared with baseline in both PRP and non-PRP group. No significantly difference was found between the PRP group and non-PRP group on Lysholm score, Ikeuchi grade and VAS for pain at the last follow-up. In the univariate analysis of each variable, younger age (P = 0.036) and longer follow-up duration (P = 0.043) were statistically associated with a better function improvement. Whereas in multivariate analysis, only younger age (P = 0.004) was significantly associated with a better function improvement. CONCLUSION: With regard to clinical evaluations in arthroscopic repair for DLM tears, PRP group had similar effect in pain relief and functional improvement to non-PRP group at mid-term follow-up. Future larger prospective studies with a longer follow-up are needed to determine whether PRP should be used with DLM repair.


Assuntos
Artroscopia/métodos , Plasma Rico em Plaquetas , Lesões do Menisco Tibial/diagnóstico por imagem , Lesões do Menisco Tibial/terapia , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Meniscos Tibiais/diagnóstico por imagem , Meniscos Tibiais/cirurgia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
7.
J Knee Surg ; 32(3): 259-268, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29618143

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to use meta-analytic approach to compare the efficacy and safety of intraarticular hylan and hyaluronic acid (HA) for knee osteoarthritis (OA) treatment. We searched PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane databases through July 2017 to identify Level I randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that evaluated clinical efficacy and safety of hylan compared with HA for knee OA. The primary outcomes were Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) for pain and Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) pain, and WOMAC function scores. In each study and for the outcome measures (VAS for pain, WOMAC pain, function and stiffness scores, and Lequesne score), we calculated the treatment effect from the difference between the preintervention and postintervention changes in the hylan and HA groups. Twenty-one RCTs involving 3,058 patients were included. Pooled analysis suggested that compared with HA, hylan was associated with similar pain relief and function improvement in patients with knee OA (VAS for pain: mean difference [MD], -3.04; 95% confidence interval [CI], -9.13 to 3.04; p = 0.33; I 2 = 76%. WOMAC pain score: MD, 0.23; 95% CI, -0.25 to 0.70; p = 0.35; I 2 = 0%. WOMAC function score: MD, -0.47; 95% CI, -6.81 to 5.88; p = 0.88; I 2 = 84%). No significant difference was found comparing the patients with treatment-related adverse events. The relationship was robust in sensitivity analysis and consistent in most of the subgroup analyses. As to the primary outcomes (WOMAC pain, function scores, VAS for pain), the difference between hylan and HA did not reach the previously reported minimum clinically important difference (MCID) values (-13.4 for VAS for pain, -2.0 for WOMAC pain score, -7.7 for WOMAC function score). Our meta-analysis showed that there were no statistically and clinically significant differences in pain relief and function improvement between hylan and HA injections for knee OA treatment. In view of its higher costs, we discourage the use of hylan in patients with knee OA in clinical practice. The level of evidence is I, meta-analysis of Level I studies.


Assuntos
Ácido Hialurônico/análogos & derivados , Ácido Hialurônico/uso terapêutico , Osteoartrite do Joelho/tratamento farmacológico , Viscossuplementos/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Injeções Intra-Articulares , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Osteoartrite do Joelho/fisiopatologia , Manejo da Dor , Medição da Dor , Resultado do Tratamento , Escala Visual Analógica
8.
J Knee Surg ; 31(7): 654-663, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28895645

RESUMO

The use of tranexamic acid (TXA) during primary total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is well documented. However, considering the potential side effects, including deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE), the ideal route of administration remains controversial. Therefore, we performed a meta-analysis to compare the efficacy of topical versus intravenous TXA and explore the most effective regimen in patients undergoing primary TKA. We conducted a systematic literature search in PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane database through July 2016 to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating the efficacy and safety of topical and intravenous TXA in primary TKA. We assessed the risk of bias using the Cochrane Collaboration's tool. We assessed the quality of evidence using the GRADE profiler software. A total of 15 RCTs including 1,240 participants met the inclusion criteria. We found no statistically significant difference between topical and intravenous TXA in terms of transfusion rate (p = 0.75), total blood loss (p = 0.51), total drain output (p = 0.60), maximum hemoglobin drop (p = 0.24), length of stay (p = 0.08), and thromboembolic complications (p = 0.73). Subgroup analyses showed that compared with 1 g topical TXA, 2 g topical TXA was more effective to reduce blood transfusion rate and total blood loss, and did not increase thromboembolic complications. We also found three times intravenous TXA was more effective than one time of intravenous TXA to reduce blood transfusion rate and total blood loss without increasing of thromboembolic complications. Topical TXA had a similar efficacy to intravenous TXA in reducing blood transfusion and blood loss, and did not increase the risk of thromboembolic complications in primary TKA. Besides, the current meta-analysis suggested that three times of intravenous TXA is efficient and safe. We also recommended 2 g topical TXA instead of 1 g topical TXA because it was more efficient to reduce blood transfusion rate and total blood loss and did not increase thromboembolic complications.


Assuntos
Antifibrinolíticos/administração & dosagem , Artroplastia do Joelho/efeitos adversos , Perda Sanguínea Cirúrgica/prevenção & controle , Transfusão de Sangue , Hemorragia Pós-Operatória/prevenção & controle , Ácido Tranexâmico/administração & dosagem , Administração Intravenosa , Administração Tópica , Antifibrinolíticos/efeitos adversos , Protocolos Clínicos , Humanos , Hemorragia Pós-Operatória/etiologia , Embolia Pulmonar/induzido quimicamente , Embolia Pulmonar/prevenção & controle , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Tromboembolia/induzido quimicamente , Tromboembolia/prevenção & controle , Ácido Tranexâmico/efeitos adversos , Trombose Venosa/induzido quimicamente , Trombose Venosa/prevenção & controle
9.
J Knee Surg ; 30(9): 854-862, 2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28114702

RESUMO

Partial and total meniscectomies are the most common treatments for patients with discoid lateral meniscus (DLM). We conducted this study to quantitatively assess and compare the outcomes of partial and total meniscectomies for DLM. We also assessed whether the outcomes differed by the type of DLM, duration of follow-up, and age of patients. We searched PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane database to identify relevant studies that reported outcomes, including Ikeuchi grade, the International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) Subjective Knee score, Lysholm score, or failure rate, in patients who underwent partial and total meniscectomies. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated for dichotomous outcomes, whereas mean difference and 95% CIs were calculated for continuous outcomes. Fifteen studies met the inclusion criteria. The overall rate of excellent (E) or good (G) postoperatively was 85.5% (95% CI: 79.5-91.5%). The E or G rate of partial meniscectomy was significantly higher than that of total meniscectomy (OR= 1.97, 95% CI: 1.03-3.75, p = 0.038). Besides, patients younger than 20 years had a significantly higher E or G rate than those older than 20 years. (OR = 3.12, 95% CI: 1.18-8.23, p = 0.022). We also found the E or G rate tended to decrease from short- to long-term follow-up. Our systematic review and meta-analysis showed that that partial meniscectomy could achieve better outcomes compared with total meniscectomy for DLM patients.


Assuntos
Meniscectomia , Meniscos Tibiais/anormalidades , Meniscos Tibiais/cirurgia , Humanos
10.
Arthroscopy ; 33(3): 659-670.e1, 2017 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28012636

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To use meta-analysis techniques to evaluate the efficacy and safety of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) injections for the treatment knee of osteoarthritis (OA). METHODS: We performed a systematic literature search in PubMed, Embase, Scopus, and the Cochrane database through April 2016 to identify Level I randomized controlled trials that evaluated the clinical efficacy of PRP versus control treatments for knee OA. The primary outcomes were Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) pain and function scores. The primary outcomes were compared with their minimum clinically important differences (MCID)-defined as the smallest difference perceived as important by the average patient. RESULTS: We included 10 randomized controlled trials with a total of 1069 patients. Our analysis showed that at 6 months postinjection, PRP and hyaluronic acid (HA) had similar effects with respect to pain relief (WOMAC pain score) and functional improvement (WOMAC function score, WOMAC total score, International Knee Documentation Committee score, Lequesne score). At 12 months postinjection, however, PRP was associated with significantly better pain relief (WOMAC pain score, mean difference -2.83, 95% confidence interval [CI] -4.26 to -1.39, P = .0001) and functional improvement (WOMAC function score, mean difference -12.53, 95% CI -14.58 to -10.47, P  < .00001; WOMAC total score, International Knee Documentation Committee score, Lequesne score, standardized mean difference 1.05, 95% CI 0.21-1.89, P = .01) than HA, and the effect sizes of WOMAC pain and function scores at 12 months exceeded the MCID (-0.79 for WOMAC pain and -2.85 for WOMAC function score). Compared with saline, PRP was more effective for pain relief (WOMAC pain score) and functional improvement (WOMAC function score) at 6 months and 12 months postinjection, and the effect sizes of WOMAC pain and function scores at 6 months and 12 months exceeded the MCID. We also found that PRP did not increase the risk of adverse events compared with HA and saline. CONCLUSIONS: Current evidence indicates that, compared with HA and saline, intra-articular PRP injection may have more benefit in pain relief and functional improvement in patients with symptomatic knee OA at 1 year postinjection. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level I, meta-analysis of Level I studies.


Assuntos
Osteoartrite do Joelho/terapia , Plasma Rico em Plaquetas , Humanos , Ácido Hialurônico/uso terapêutico , Injeções Intra-Articulares , Medição da Dor , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Viscossuplementos/uso terapêutico
11.
J Int Med Res ; 41(2): 276-83, 2013 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23569033

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the efficacy of statins in the treatment of asthma. METHODS: Electronic databases were searched to identify randomized controlled trials that measured the efficacy of statins in the treatment of asthma, and a meta-analysis of the pooled data was performed. RESULTS: Five trials were identified; four met the inclusion criteria (total number of patients 200). Compared with controls, patients in the statin groups had higher forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) values before inhaled corticosteroids (0.09 l, 95% confidence interval [CI] -0.06, 0.23), higher FEV1 values after inhaled corticosteroids (0.06 l, 95% CI -0.09, 0.22), and higher morning peak expiratory flow rates (9.87 l, 95% CI -15.66, 35.40). These results were not statistically significant and, furthermore, publication bias was detected. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, there is currently insufficient evidence to show that statins improve lung function in patients with asthma.


Assuntos
Asma/tratamento farmacológico , Asma/fisiopatologia , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/uso terapêutico , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Administração por Inalação , Corticosteroides/administração & dosagem , Corticosteroides/uso terapêutico , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Volume Expiratório Forçado/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/farmacologia , Pico do Fluxo Expiratório/efeitos dos fármacos
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