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1.
Opt Express ; 29(21): 34126-34134, 2021 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34809210

RESUMO

High brightness Si nanocrystal white light-emitting diodes (WLED) based on differentially passivated silicon nanocrystals (SiNCs) are reported. The active layer was made by mixing freestanding SiNCs with hydrogen silsesquioxane, followed by annealing at moderately high temperatures, which finally led to a continuous spectral light emission covering red, green and blue regimes. The photoluminescence quantum yield (PLQY) of the active layer was 11.4%. The SiNC WLED was composed of a front electrode, electron transfer layer, front charge confinement layer, highly luminescent active layer, rear charge confinement layer, hole transfer layer, textured p-type Si substrate and aluminum rear electrode from top to bottom. The peak luminance of the SiNC WLED achieved was 2060 cd/m2. The turn-on voltage was 3.7 V. The chromaticity of the SiNC WLED indicated white light emission that could be adjusted by changing the annealing temperature of the active layer with color temperatures ranging from 3686 to 5291 K.

2.
Brain Imaging Behav ; 2021 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34677785

RESUMO

To investigate directed information flow of epileptiform activity in benign epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes (BECTS) during ictal epileptiform discharges (IEDs) and non-IEDs periods. In this multi-center study, a total of 188 subjects, including 50 BECTS and 138 normal children's controls (NCs) from three different centers (Center 1: females/males, 38/55; mean age, 9.33 ± 2.6 years; Center 2: females/males,7/10; mean age, 8.59 ± 2.32 years; Center 3: females/males, 14/14; mean age, 13 ± 3.42 years) were recruited. The BECTS were classified into IEDs (females/males, 12/15; mean age, 8.15 ± 1.68 years) and non-IEDs (females/males, 10/13; mean age, 9.09 ± 1.98 years) subgroups depending on presence of central-temporal spikes from an EEG-fMRI examination. Three new methods, structural equation parametric modeling, dynamic causal modeling and granger causality density (GCD) were used to determine optimal network architectures for BECTS. Three multicentric NCs determined a reliable and consistent network architecture by structural equation parametric modeling method. Further analyses were used for IEDs and non-IEDs to determine the brain network architecture by structural equation parametric modeling, dynamic causal modeling and GCD, respectively. The brain network architecture of IEDs substate, non-IEDs substate and NCs are different. IEDs promoted the driving effect of the Rolandic areas with more output information flows, and increased the targeted effect of the top of pre-/post-central gyrus with more input information flows. The information flow arises from the Rolandic areas, and subsequently propagates to the top of pre-/post-central gyrus and thalamus. From non-IEDs status to IEDs status, the thalamus load may play an important role in the modulation and regulation of epileptiform activity. These findings shed new light on pathophysiological mechanism of directed localization of epileptiform activity in BECTS.

4.
J Affect Disord ; 297: 102-111, 2021 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34687782

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Subjects with mental disorders are at a higher risk of various pandemic, but no specific studies concerning on screening and comparing the risk factors of COVID-19 for subjects with and without mental disorders, and the role of different classes of mental disorders with respect to the COVID-19. METHODS: This study comprised 42,264 subjects with mental disorders and 431,694 subjects without. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the associations of exposure factors with COVID-19 risk. Interaction terms were employed to explore the potential interaction effect between mental disorders and each exposure factor on COVID-19 risk. RESULTS: Mental disorders increased 1.45-fold risk of COVID-19 compared with non-mental disorders. There were significant interaction effects between mental disorders and age, sex, ethnicity, health ratings, socioeconomic adversity, lifestyle habits or comorbidities on COVID-19 risk. Subjects with and without mental disorders shared some overlapping risk factors of COVID-19, including the non-white ethnicity, socioeconomic adversity and comorbidities. Subjects without mental disorders carry some specific risk and protective factors. Among subjects with mental disorders, the COVID-19 risk was higher in subjects with a diagnosis of organic/symptomatic mental disorders, mood disorders, and neurotic, stress-related and somatoform disorders than that of their counterparts. Age, amount of alcohol consumption, BMI and Townsend deprivation showed non-linear increase with COVID-19 risk. LIMITATIONS: Absence of replication. CONCLUSIONS: Subjects with mental disorders are vulnerable populations to whom more attention should be paid. Public health guidance should focus on reducing the COVID-19 risk by advocating healthy lifestyle habits and preferential policies in populations with comorbidities.

5.
Front Public Health ; 9: 684112, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34434913

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), a respiratory disease of unknown origin, has a high rate of morbidity and mortality. Individuals with mental disorders may have a higher risk of infection and worse clinical outcomes because of a variety of factors such as poorer general resilience and lower immune function. However, there have been no studies to date specifically investigating the risk of COVID-19 and associated mortality in these patients. This was addressed in the present study by analyzing the data of 473,958 subjects included in the UK Biobank, 14,877 of whom tested positive for COVID-19 infection. Logistic regression analysis was performed to evaluate the associations between mental disorders and risks of COVID-19 infection and associated mortality. The results showed that subjects who were diagnosed with a mental disorder had a significantly higher risk of developing COVID-19 and a worse outcome as evidenced by higher rates of COVID-19-related mortality, with the strongest effects observed for dementia. Among dementia subtypes, Alzheimer disease patients had the highest risks of COVID-19 infection (7.39-fold increase) and associated mortality (2.13-fold increase). Late-life anxiety only increased the risk of developing COVID-19 while late-life depression not only was associated with a higher risk of infection but also a worse outcome. These findings highlight the need to prioritize patients with mental disorders-especially those who experience these disorders later in life-when implementing preventive strategies such as vaccinations.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Transtornos Mentais , Ansiedade , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Epilepsia ; 62(10): 2426-2438, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34346086

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Seizure occurs when the balance between excitatory and inhibitory (E/I) inputs to neurons is perturbed, resulting in abnormal electrical activity. This study investigated whether an existing E/I imbalance in neural networks is a useful diagnostic biomarker for Rolandic epilepsy by a resting-state dynamic causal modeling-based support vector machine (rs-DCM-SVM) algorithm. METHODS: This multicenter study enrolled a discovery cohort (76 children with Rolandic epilepsy and 76 normal controls [NCs]) and a replication cohort (59 children with Rolandic epilepsy and 60 NCs). Spatial independent component analysis was used to seven canonical neural networks, and a total of 25 regions of interest were selected from these networks. The rs-DCM-SVM classifier was used for individual classification, consensus feature selection, and feature ranking. RESULTS: The rs-DCM-SVM classifier showed that the E/I imbalance in brain networks is a useful neuroimaging biomarker for Rolandic epilepsy, with an accuracy of 88.2% and 81.5% and an area under curve of .92 and .83 in the discovery and the replication cohorts, respectively. Consensus brain regions with the highest contributions to the classification were located within the epilepsy-related networks, indicating that this classifier was suitable. Consensus functional connection pairs with the highest contributions to the classification were associated with an excitation network loop and an inhibition network loop. The excitation loop mediated the integration of advanced cognitive networks (subcortex, dorsal attention, default mode, executive control, and salience networks), whereas the inhibition loop was involved in the segregation of sensorimotor and language networks. The two loops showed functional segregation. SIGNIFICANCE: Brain E/I imbalance has potential to serve as a biomarker for individual classification in children with Rolandic epilepsy, and might be an important mechanism for causing seizures and cognitive impairment in children with Rolandic epilepsy.

7.
Chem Soc Rev ; 50(19): 10733-10742, 2021 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34382626

RESUMO

Construction of new carbon-carbon bonds is the cornerstone of organic chemistry. Organometallic reagents are amongst the most robust and versatile nucleophiles for this purpose. Polarization of the metal-carbon bonds in these reagents facilitates their reactions with a vast array of electrophiles to achieve chemical diversification. The dependence on stoichiometric quantities of metals and often organic halides as feedstock precursors, which in turn produces copious amounts of metal halide waste, is the key limitation of the classical organometallic reactions. Inspired by the classical Wolff-Kishner reduction converting carbonyl groups in aldehydes or ketones into methylene derivatives, our group has recently developed strategies to couple various alcohols, aldehydes, and ketones with a broad range of both hard and soft carbon electrophiles in the presence of catalytic amounts of transition metals, via the hydrazone derivatives: i.e., as organometallic reagent surrogates. This Tutorial Review describes the chronological development of this concept in our research group, detailing its creation in the context of a deoxygenation reaction and evolution to a more general carbon-carbon bond-forming strategy. The latter is demonstrated by the employment of carbonyl-derived alkyl carbanions in various transition-metal catalyzed chemical transformations, including 1,2-carbonyl/imine addition, conjugate addition, carboxylation, olefination, cross-coupling, allylation, alkylation and hydroalkylation.

8.
Environ Int ; 157: 106829, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34425483

RESUMO

The sulfonate compound 2,3-dihydroxypropane-1-sulfonate (DHPS) is one of the most abundant organic sulfur compounds in the biosphere. DHPS derived from dietary intake could be transformed into sulfide by intestinal microbiota and thus impacts human health. However, little is known about its sulfur transformation and subsequent impacts in marine environment. In this study, laboratory-culturing was combined with targeted metabolomic, chemical fluorescence probing, and comparative proteomic methods to examine the bioavailability of chiral DHPS (R and S isomers) for bacteria belonging to the marine Roseobacter clade. The metabolic potential of DHPS in bacteria was further assessed based on genomic analysis. Roseobacter members Ruegeria pomeroyi DSS-3, Dinoroseobacter shibae DFL 12, and Roseobacter denitrificans OCh 114 could utilize chiral DHPS for growth, producing sulfite. They all contained a similar gene cluster for DHPS metabolism but differed in the genes encoding enzymes for desulfonation. There was no significant difference in the growth rate and DHPS consumption rate for R. pomeroyi DSS-3 between R- and S-DHPS cultures, with few proteins expressed differentially were found. Proteomic data suggested that a series of hydrogenases oxidized DHPS, after which desulfonation could proceed via three distinct enzymatic pathways. Strain R. pomeroyi DSS-3 completed the desulfonation via L-cysteate sulfo-lyase, while D. shibae DFL 12 and R. denitrificans OCh 114 primarily utilized sulfolactate sulfo-lyase, and sulfopyruvate decarboxylase followed by sulfoacetaldehyde acetyltransferase, respectively, to complete desulfonation releasing the sulfonate-moiety. The sulfite could be further oxidized or incorporated into sulfate assimilation, indicated by the proteomic data. Furthermore, DHPS metabolic pathways were found primarily in marine bacterial groups, including the majority of sequenced Roseobacter genomes. Our results suggest that chiral DHPS, as a vital reduced sulfur reservoir, could be metabolized by marine bacteria, providing a resource for bacterial growth, rather than acting as a source of toxic sulfide within the marine ecosystem.


Assuntos
Roseobacter , Alcanossulfonatos , Ecossistema , Humanos , Proteômica , Rhodobacteraceae , Roseobacter/genética
9.
Front Hum Neurosci ; 15: 641961, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33958993

RESUMO

Brain structural covariance network (SCN) can delineate the brain synchronized alterations in a long-range time period. It has been used in the research of cognition or neuropsychiatric disorders. Recently, causal analysis of structural covariance network (CaSCN), winner-take-all and cortex-subcortex covariance network (WTA-CSSCN), and modulation analysis of structural covariance network (MOD-SCN) have expended the technology breadth of SCN. However, the lack of user-friendly software limited the further application of SCN for the research. In this work, we developed the graphical user interface (GUI) toolkit of brain structural covariance connectivity based on MATLAB platform. The software contained the analysis of SCN, CaSCN, MOD-SCN, and WTA-CSSCN. Also, the group comparison and result-showing modules were included in the software. Furthermore, a simple showing of demo dataset was presented in the work. We hope that the toolkit could help the researchers, especially clinical researchers, to do the brain covariance connectivity analysis in further work more easily.

10.
FEBS J ; 288(18): 5311-5330, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33763993

RESUMO

Human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (UMSCs) demonstrate great therapeutic potential in regenerative medicine. The use of UMSCs for clinical applications requires high quantity and good quality of cells usually by in vitro expansion. However, the heterogeneity and the characteristics of cultured UMSCs and the cognate human umbilical cord tissue at single-cell resolution remain poorly defined. In this study, we created a single-cell transcriptome profile of human umbilical cord tissue and the cognate culture-expanded UMSCs. Based on the inferred characteristics of cell clusters and trajectory analysis, we identified three subgroups in culture-expanded UMSCs and putative novel transcription factors (TFs) in regulating UMSC state transition. Further, putative ligand-receptor interaction analysis demonstrated that cellular interactions most frequently occurred in epithelial-like cells with other cell groups in umbilical cord tissue. Moreover, we dissected the transcriptomic differences of in vitro and in vivo subgroups and inferred the telomere-related molecules and pathways that might be activated in UMSCs for cell expansion in vitro. Our study provides a comprehensive and integrative study of the transcriptomics of human umbilical cord tissue and their cognate-cultured counterparts, which paves the way for a deeper understanding of cellular heterogeneity and offers fundamental biological insight of UMSCs-based cell therapy.


Assuntos
Heterogeneidade Genética , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/metabolismo , Transcriptoma/genética , Cordão Umbilical/metabolismo , Diferenciação Celular/genética , Células Cultivadas , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/genética , Humanos , Transplante de Células-Tronco Mesenquimais , Análise de Célula Única , Cordão Umbilical/citologia
11.
Laryngoscope ; 131(10): 2361-2368, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33704794

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: Adenotonsillectomy is first-line treatment for pediatric obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) when not otherwise contraindicated. There is concern severe OSAS increases risk of comorbid cardiopulmonary abnormalities, such as ventricular hypertrophy or pulmonary hypertension, which preoperative testing could detect. Our objective is to determine if there is a severity of pediatric OSAS where previously undetected cardiopulmonary comorbidities are likely. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective chart review. METHODS: We performed a retrospective review of 358 patients ≤21 years with severe OSAS who underwent adenotonsillectomy at a tertiary hospital June 1, 2016 to June 1, 2018. We extracted demographics, comorbidities, polysomnography, and preoperative tests. Wilcoxon rank-sum and logistic regression estimated associations of OSAS severity (based on obstructive apnea-hypopnea index [OAHI], hypoxia, hypercarbia) with preoperative echocardiograms and chest X-rays (CXRs). RESULTS: Mean age was 5.9 (±3.6) years and 52% were male. Mean OAHI and oxygen saturation nadir were 30.3 (±23.8) and 80.7% (±9.2), respectively. OAHI ≥60 was associated with having a preoperative echocardiogram (OR, 3.8; 95% CI, 1.7-8.5) or CXR (OR, 3.0; 95% CI, 1.4-6.8) compared to OAHI 10-59. There were no significant associations between OSAS severity and test abnormalities. The presence of previously diagnosed cardiopulmonary comorbidities was associated with abnormalities on echocardiogram (OR, 36; 95% CI, 4.1-320.1) and CXR (OR, 4.1; 95% CI, 1.2-14.4). CONCLUSIONS: Although pediatric patients with very severe OSAS (OAHI ≥60) underwent more pre-adenotonsillectomy cardiopulmonary tests, OSAS severity did not predict abnormal findings. Known cardiopulmonary comorbidities may be a better indication for cardiopulmonary testing than polysomnographic parameters, which could streamline pre-adenotonsillectomy evaluation and reduce cost. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 4 Laryngoscope, 131:2361-2368, 2021.


Assuntos
Hipertensão Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Hipertrofia Ventricular Esquerda/epidemiologia , Hipertrofia Ventricular Direita/epidemiologia , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios/métodos , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/cirurgia , Adenoidectomia/efeitos adversos , Adenoidectomia/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Comorbidade , Ecocardiografia/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Hipertrofia Ventricular Esquerda/diagnóstico , Hipertrofia Ventricular Direita/diagnóstico , Lactente , Masculino , Polissonografia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco/métodos , Medição de Risco/estatística & dados numéricos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/diagnóstico , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/epidemiologia , Tonsilectomia/efeitos adversos , Tonsilectomia/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
12.
Front Oncol ; 11: 593728, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33747914

RESUMO

Background: Digestive system cancers (DSCs) are associated with high morbidity and mortality. S100P has been reported as a prognostic biomarker in DSCs, but its prognostic value remains controversial. Accordingly, we conducted a meta-analysis to investigate whether S100P is correlated with overall survival (OS) of patients with DSCs. The relationship between S100P and clinicopathological features was also evaluated. Methods: We systematically searched PubMed, Embase, Web of Science and Cochrane Library for eligible studies up to January 2020. In total, 16 publications with 1,925 patients were included. Results: S100P overexpression was associated with poor OS of patient with DSCs (HR=1.54, 95% CI: 1.14-2.08, P=0.005). When stratified by anatomic structure, S100P overexpression was associated with poor prognosis in non-gastrointestinal tract cancers (HR=1.98, 95% CI: 1.44-2.72, P<0.001) but not in gastrointestinal tract cancers (HR=1.09, 95% CI: 0.66-1.81, P=0.727). When stratified by tumor type, S100P overexpression predicted poor OS in cholangiocarcinoma (HR=2.14, 95% CI: 1.30-3.50, P=0.003) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HR=1.91, 95% CI: 1.22-2.99, P =0.005) but not in gastric cancer (HR=0.97, 95% CI: 0.65-1.45, P=0.872), colorectal cancer (HR=1.18, 95% CI: 0.32-4.41, P=0.807), gallbladder cancer (HR=1.40, 95% CI: 0.84-2.34, P=0.198), and pancreatic cancer (HR=1.92, 95% CI: 0.99-3.72, P=0.053). Furthermore, high S100P expression was significantly associated with distant metastasis (OR=3.58, P=0.044), advanced clinical stage (OR=2.03, P=0.041) and recurrence (OR=1.66, P=0.007). Conclusion: S100P might act as a prognostic indicator of non-gastrointestinal tract cancers.

13.
Sleep ; 44(8)2021 08 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33640972

RESUMO

STUDY OBJECTIVES: We aimed to investigate the prospective associations of sleep phenotypes with severe intentional self-harm (ISH) in middle-aged and older adults. METHODS: A total of 499,159 participants (mean age: 56.55 ± 8.09 years; female: 54.4%) were recruited from the UK Biobank between 2006 and 2010 with follow-up until February 2016 in this population-based prospective study. Severe ISH was based on hospital inpatient records or a death cause of ICD-10 codes X60-X84. Patients with hospitalized diagnosis of severe ISH before the initial assessment were excluded. Sleep phenotypes, including sleep duration, chronotype, insomnia, sleepiness, and napping, were assessed at the initial assessments. Cox regression analysis was used to estimate temporal associations between sleep phenotypes and future risk of severe ISH. RESULTS: During a follow-up period of 7.04 years (SD: 0.88), 1,219 participants experienced the first hospitalization or death related to severe ISH. After adjusting for demographics, substance use, medical diseases, mental disorders, and other sleep phenotypes, short sleep duration (HR: 1.50, 95% CI: 1.23-1.83, p < .001), long sleep duration (HR: 1.56, 95% CI: 1.15-2.12, p = .004), and insomnia (usually: HR: 1.57, 95% CI: 1.31-1.89, p < .001) were significantly associated with severe ISH. Sensitivity analyses excluding participants with mental disorders preceding severe ISH yielded similar results. CONCLUSION: The current study provides the empirical evidence of the independent prediction of sleep phenotypes, mainly insomnia, short- and long-sleep duration, for the future risk of severe ISH among middle-aged and older adults.


Assuntos
Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos , Comportamento Autodestrutivo , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Comportamento Autodestrutivo/epidemiologia , Sono , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
14.
Laryngoscope ; 131(4): 898-906, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33026674

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) increases the risk of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) due to obesity, hypotonia, and abnormal ventilatory responses. We evaluated post-adenotonsillectomy complications, polysomnography changes, and quality of life in children with OSA and PWS. STUDY DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis by searching PubMed, Embase, Cochrane, Web of Science, and Scopus. Two researchers independently reviewed studies about adenotonsillectomy for OSA in patients <21 years with PWS. We extracted study design, patient numbers, age, complications, polysomnography, and quality of life. We pooled postoperative changes in apnea hypopnea index (AHI) for meta-analysis. We applied Methodological Index for Nonrandomized Studies (MINORS) criteria to assess study quality. RESULTS: The initial search yielded 169 studies. We included 68 patients from eight studies with moderate to high risk of bias. Six studies reported on complications and 12 of 51 patients (24%) had at least one. Velopharyngeal insufficiency was the most commonly reported complication (7/51, 14%). We included seven studies in meta-analysis. Mean postoperative improvement in AHI was 7.7 (95% CI: 4.9-10.5). Postoperatively 20% (95% CI: 3%-43%) had resolution of OSA with AHI < 1.5 while 67% (95% CI: 50%-82%) had improvement from severe/moderate OSA to mild/resolved (AHI < 5). Two studies evaluated quality of life and demonstrated improvement. CONCLUSIONS: Children with PWS undergoing adenotonsillectomy for OSA have a substantial risk of postoperative complications that may require additional interventions, especially velopharyngeal insufficiency. Despite improvements in polysomnography and quality of life, many patients had residual OSA. This information can be used to counsel families when considering OSA treatment options. Laryngoscope, 131:898-906, 2021.


Assuntos
Adenoidectomia , Síndrome de Prader-Willi/cirurgia , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/cirurgia , Tonsilectomia , Criança , Humanos , Polissonografia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Síndrome de Prader-Willi/complicações , Qualidade de Vida , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/etiologia
15.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc ; 247: 119128, 2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33166779

RESUMO

In life systems, sulfurdioxide (SO2) has very important function in several physiological processes, which can be generated endogenously during the biosynthesis of sulfur-containing amino acids. Herein, a ratiometric fluorescence probe CY carried with the structure of hemicyanine dyes has been developed to track SO2 derivatives through Michael-addition reaction. The solution of CY shows significant changes from yellow to colorless after adding the SO32-/HSO3- in day light within 2 min. Successfully, probe CY can detect SO2 derivatives in living cells and seawater. Furthermore, probe CY also be used to monitor the change of SO2 derivatives in seawater. These results give evidence of the potential application of CY in future biomedical diagnosis and marine environment research.


Assuntos
Corantes Fluorescentes , Dióxido de Enxofre , Carbocianinas , Fluorescência , Células HeLa , Humanos , Água do Mar
16.
Brain Imaging Behav ; 15(1): 430-443, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32367486

RESUMO

Sleep-related attentional bias and instinctual craving-sleep status may be associated with value-driven selective attention network and SEEKING system. We hypothesized that the two networks might be important components and underlie etiology of inability to initiate or/and maintain sleep in patients with chronic insomnia (PIs). Our aim is to investigate whether frequency-frequency couplings(temporal and spatial coupling, and differences of a set of imaging parameters) could elevate the sensibility to characterize the two insomnia-related networks in studying their relationships with sleep parameters and post-insomnia emotions. Forty-eight PIs and 48 status-matched good sleepers were requested to complete sleep and emotion-related questionnaires. Receiver operating characteristic curve was used to calculate the discriminatory power of a set of parameters. Granger causality and mediating causality analysis were used to address the causal relationships between the two networks and sleep/emotion-related parameters. Frequency-frequency couplings could characterize the two networks with high discriminatory power (AUC, 0.951; sensitivity, 87.5%; specificity, 95.8%), which suggested that the frequency-frequency couplings could be served as a useful biomarker to address the insomnia-related brain networks. Functional deficits of the SEEKING system played decreased mediator acting in post-insomnia negative emotions (decreased frequency-frequency coupling). Functional hyperarousal of the value-driven attention network played decreased mediator acting in sleep regulation (increased frequency-frequency coupling). Granger causality analysis showed decreased causal effect connectivity between and within the two networks. The between-network causal effect connectivity segregation played decreased mediator acting in sleep regulation (decreased connectivity). These findings suggest that the functional deficits and segregation of the two systems may underlie etiology of PIs.


Assuntos
Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Sono , Inquéritos e Questionários
17.
Brain Imaging Behav ; 15(3): 1542-1552, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32737823

RESUMO

A new method, called granger causality density (GCD), could reflect the directed information flow of the epileptiform activity, which is much closely match with excitatory and inhibitory imbalance theory of epilepsy. Here, we investigated if GCD could effectively localize the Rolandic focus in 50 patients with benign childhood epilepsy with central-temporal spikes (BECTS) from 27 normal children. The BECTS were classified into ictal epileptiform discharges (IEDs; 12 females, 15 males;age, 8.15 ± 1.68 years) and non-IEDs (10 females, 13 males; age, 9.09 ± 1.98 years) subgroups depending on the presence of central-temporal spikes. Multiple correlation-modality analyses (Pearson, across-voxel and across-subject correlations) were used to calculate the couplings between the GCD maps and IEDs-related brain activation map. The individual lateralization coefficient of localize IEDs and multiple regression analysis were used to identify the reliability of the GCD method in localizing the Rolandic focus. In this study, multiple correlation-modality analyses showed that the IEDs-related brain activation map and the GCD maps had highly temporal (coefficient ׀r\= 0.56 ~ 0.65) and spatial (\r\=0.53~0.91) (r\=~ couplings. The proposed GCD method and multiple regression analyses showed consistent findings with the clinical EEG recordings in lateralization of Rolandic focus. Furthermore, the GCD method could reflect the epilepsy-related brain activity during non-IEDs substate. Therefore, the proposed GCD method has the potential to be served as an effective and reliable neuroimaging biomarker to localize the Rolandic focus of BECTS. These findings are critical for clinical early diagnosis, and may promote the progression of treatment and management of pediatric epilepsy.


Assuntos
Epilepsia Rolândica , Criança , Eletroencefalografia , Epilepsia Rolândica/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
18.
Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol ; 130(7): 833-839, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33319598

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Effective delivery of discharge instructions and access to postoperative care play a critical role in outcomes after pediatric surgery. Previous studies in the pediatric emergency department suggest that caregivers with language barriers have less comprehension of discharge instructions despite use of interpretation services. However, the impact of language barriers during discharge on surgical outcomes in a pediatric surgical setting has not been studied. This study examined the effect of parental language during discharge on number and mode of healthcare contact following pediatric adenotonsillectomy. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted on children who underwent adenotonsillectomy at a tertiary care pediatric academic medical center from July 1, 2016 to June 1, 2018. Data were collected on consecutive patients with non-English-speaking caregivers and a systematic sampling of patients with English-speaking caregiver. Surgery-related complications and healthcare contacts within 90 days after discharge were collected. Two-tailed t tests, χ2 tests, and logistic regression were performed to assess the association between parental primary language and incidence of healthcare contact after surgery. RESULTS: A total of 136 patients were included: 85 English-speaking and 51 non-English-speaking. The groups were comparable in age, sex, and comorbidities. The non-English group had more patients with public insurance (86% vs. 56%; P < .001). Number of encounters and types of complications following discharge were similar, but the non-English group was more likely to utilize the emergency department compared to phone calls (OR, 9.3; 95% CI, 2.3-38.2), even after adjustment for insurance type (OR, 7.9; 95% CI, 1.6-39.4). CONCLUSION: Language barriers at discharge following pediatric otolaryngology surgery is associated with a meaningful difference in how patients utilized medical care. Interventions to improve comprehension and access may help reduce preventable emergency department visits and healthcare costs.


Assuntos
Adenoidectomia , Cuidadores , Barreiras de Comunicação , Alta do Paciente , Tonsilectomia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
Int J Ophthalmol ; 13(12): 1961-1967, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33344197

RESUMO

AIM: To describe the clinicopathologic features and classification of pediatric and adolescent ocular tumors and tumor-like lesions. METHODS: A total of 719 cases of pathologically confirmed ocular tumors and tumor-like lesions in a pediatric population from two academic institutions over an 18-year period were retrospectively analyzed. The main outcome measures were the clinical and pathological features of the cases. RESULTS: Benign tumors accounted for 92.1% of all cases while malignant tumors accounted for 7.9%. The most common ocular benign tumors were (epi-)dermoid cysts (19.8%), nevi (15.2%), corneal dermoid tumors (9.8%), and calcified epitheliomas (8.8%). The most common ocular malignant tumors were retinoblastoma (80.8%), and rhabdomyosarcoma (3.9%). Eyelid and ocular surface tumors comprised 73.3% of benign tumors while intraocular and orbital cavity comprised 94.2% of malignant tumors. For tumor site, the upper eyelid was up to 1.79 times more than lower eyelid (P<0.05). Age at surgery and sex also had an association with different lesions (P=0.006, P=0.035, respectively). CONCLUSION: Most ocular tumors and tumor-like lesions in children and adolescents are benign. Pediatric ocular tumors are distinct from those in adults in terms of histological origin. (Epi-)dermoid cysts are the most common benign tumors while retinoblastomas the most common malignant tumors.

20.
J Plant Physiol ; 255: 153276, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33059125

RESUMO

Wild relatives of crops are often rich in genetic resources and provide great possibilities for crop improvement. Ipomoea pes-caprae is one of the wild relatives of sweet potato and has high salt tolerance. Transcriptomes in the treatment and control groups at various times were sequenced to identify salt tolerance genes and salt response pathways. A total of 40,525 genes were obtained, of which 2478 and 3334 were differentially expressed in the roots and leaves of I. pes-caprae under salt stress, respectively. Identification of candidate genes revealed that the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway of plants and plant hormone signal transduction participates in the salt signal of I. pes-caprae under salt stress. Homology to ABI2 (HAB2) and Clade A protein phosphatases type 2C (HAI1), which encode two protein phosphatases 2C (PP2C) in the abscisic acid (ABA) signal pathway, were continuously up-regulated upon salt stress, indicating their key role in the salt signal transduction pathway of I. pes-caprae. The expression of EIN3-binding F-box protein 1 (EBF1) in the ethylene signaling pathway was also up-regulated, revealing that the salt tolerance of I. pes-caprae was related to the scavenging of reactive oxygen species (ROS). This study provides insights into the mechanism of salt-tolerant plants and the mining of salt-tolerant genes in sweet potato for the innovation of germplasm resources.


Assuntos
Sequência de Bases , Ipomoea/genética , Ipomoea/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Estresse Salino/genética , Tolerância ao Sal/genética , Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Produtos Agrícolas/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Folhas de Planta/genética , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/metabolismo , Estresse Salino/fisiologia , Plantas Tolerantes a Sal/genética , Plantas Tolerantes a Sal/metabolismo
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