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1.
Tex Heart Inst J ; 48(3)2021 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34383957

RESUMO

During the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandmic, more patients are presenting with complications late after acute myocardial infarction. We report the case of a 71-year-old man who delayed seeking medical care for 2 weeks, despite progressive shortness of breath, cough, and tactile fever, for fear of contracting COVID-19 in the hospital. Clinical and echocardiographic evaluation revealed a ventricular septal rupture secondary to acute myocardial infarction. The patient underwent urgent cardiac catheterization, followed by successful saphenous vein grafting to the left anterior descending coronary artery and open surgical repair of the ventricular septal rupture with a bovine pericardial patch. This case highlights a potential long-lasting negative effect that the COVID-19 pandemic will have on the care-seeking behavior and health of patients with acute cardiovascular disease.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Cateterismo Cardíaco/métodos , Ponte de Artéria Coronária/métodos , Medo , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/psicologia , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST , Ruptura do Septo Ventricular , Idoso , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/psicologia , Angiografia Coronária/métodos , Ecocardiografia/métodos , Eletrocardiografia/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , SARS-CoV-2 , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/complicações , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/diagnóstico , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/fisiopatologia , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/cirurgia , Tempo para o Tratamento/tendências , Resultado do Tratamento , Ruptura do Septo Ventricular/diagnóstico , Ruptura do Septo Ventricular/etiologia , Ruptura do Septo Ventricular/fisiopatologia , Ruptura do Septo Ventricular/cirurgia
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34263294

RESUMO

AIMS: Shock index (SI), defined as the ratio of heart rate (HR) to systolic blood pressure (SBP), is easily obtained and predictive of mortality in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. However, large-scale evaluations of SI in patients with non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) are lacking. METHODS AND RESULTS: Hospitalizations for acute myocardial infarction were sampled from four US areas by the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study and classified by physician review. Shock index was derived from the HR and SBP at first presentation and considered high when ≥0.7. From 2000 to 2014, 18 301 weighted hospitalizations for NSTEMI were sampled and had vitals successfully obtained. Of these, 5753 (31%) had high SI (≥0.7). Patients with high SI were more often female (46% vs. 39%) and had more prevalent chronic kidney disease (40% vs. 32%). TIMI (Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction) risk scores were similar between the groups (4.3 vs. 4.2), but GRACE (Global Registry of Acute Coronary Syndrome) score was higher with high SI (140 vs. 118). Angiography, revascularization, and guideline-directed medications were less often administered to patients with high SI, and the 28-day mortality was higher (13% vs. 5%). Prediction of 28-day mortality by SI as a continuous measurement [area under the curve (AUC): 0.68] was intermediate to that of the GRACE score (AUC: 0.87) and the TIMI score (AUC: 0.54). After adjustments, patients with high SI had twice the odds of 28-day mortality (odds ratio = 2.02; 95% confidence interval: 1.46-2.80). CONCLUSION: The SI is easily obtainable, performs moderately well as a predictor of short-term mortality in patients hospitalized with NSTEMI, and may be useful for risk stratification in emergency settings.

3.
J Invasive Cardiol ; 33(9): E702-E708, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34148867

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We sought to test the hypothesis that patients undergoing ultrasound-assisted catheter-directed thrombolysis (USAT) with standard alteplase and heparin dosing would not develop significant depletion of systemic fibrinogen, which may account for the lower risk of bleeding seen in contemporary trials. We also sought to compare the relative outcomes of individuals with submassive pulmonary embolism (PE) undergoing USAT and anticoagulation alone. METHODS: Utilizing a single-center prospective registry, we identified 102 consecutive adult patients with submassive PE who were considered for USAT based on a standardized treatment algorithm between November 2016 and May 2019. Patients not receiving USAT therapy were treated with anticoagulation alone. RESULTS: Baseline characteristics were generally similar between groups (n = 51 in each group). Major bleeding rates were not significantly different between groups (2.0% vs 5.9% in USAT vs control, respectively; P=.62). Notably, no USAT patient experienced clinically significant hypofibrinogenemia (mean trough fibrinogen, 369.8 ± 127.1 mg/dL; minimum, 187 mg/dL). The mean trough fibrinogen of patients experiencing any bleeding event (major or minor) was 306.6 mg/dL (SE, 23.9 mg/dL) vs 380.3 mg/dL (SE, 20.4 mg/dL) in those without a bleeding event (P=.02). CONCLUSIONS: In this cohort analysis of patients undergoing USAT, there was no evidence for clinically significant depletion of fibrinogen or intracranial hemorrhage. Although our data suggest an association between lower fibrinogen levels and bleeding events, our results are not clear enough to suggest a clinically useful fibrinogen cut-off value. Further study is needed to determine the utility of routine fibrinogen monitoring in this population.

4.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(10)2021 May 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34069613

RESUMO

As a well-known medical imaging methodology, intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) imaging plays a critical role in diagnosis, treatment guidance and post-treatment assessment of coronary artery diseases. By cannulating a miniature ultrasound transducer mounted catheter into an artery, the vessel lumen opening, vessel wall morphology and other associated blood and vessel properties can be precisely assessed in IVUS imaging. Ultrasound transducer, as the key component of an IVUS system, is critical in determining the IVUS imaging performance. In recent years, a wide range of achievements in ultrasound transducers have been reported for IVUS imaging applications. Herein, a comprehensive review is given on recent advances in ultrasound transducers for IVUS imaging. Firstly, a fundamental understanding of IVUS imaging principle, evaluation parameters and IVUS catheter are summarized. Secondly, three different types of ultrasound transducers (piezoelectric ultrasound transducer, piezoelectric micromachined ultrasound transducer and capacitive micromachined ultrasound transducer) for IVUS imaging are presented. Particularly, the recent advances in piezoelectric ultrasound transducer for IVUS imaging are extensively examined according to their different working mechanisms, configurations and materials adopted. Thirdly, IVUS-based multimodality intravascular imaging of atherosclerotic plaque is discussed. Finally, summary and perspectives on the future studies are highlighted for IVUS imaging applications.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana , Ultrassonografia de Intervenção , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico por imagem , Desenho de Equipamento , Humanos , Transdutores , Ultrassonografia
5.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 77(16): 1994-2003, 2021 04 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33888249

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has impacted many aspects of ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) care, including timely access to primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI). OBJECTIVES: The goal of the NACMI (North American COVID-19 and STEMI) registry is to describe demographic characteristics, management strategies, and outcomes of COVID-19 patients with STEMI. METHODS: A prospective, ongoing observational registry was created under the guidance of 3 cardiology societies. STEMI patients with confirmed COVID+ (group 1) or suspected (person under investigation [PUI]) (group 2) COVID-19 infection were included. A group of age- and sex-matched STEMI patients (matched to COVID+ patients in a 2:1 ratio) treated in the pre-COVID era (2015 to 2019) serves as the control group for comparison of treatment strategies and outcomes (group 3). The primary outcome was a composite of in-hospital death, stroke, recurrent myocardial infarction, or repeat unplanned revascularization. RESULTS: As of December 6, 2020, 1,185 patients were included in the NACMI registry (230 COVID+ patients, 495 PUIs, and 460 control patients). COVID+ patients were more likely to have minority ethnicity (Hispanic 23%, Black 24%) and had a higher prevalence of diabetes mellitus (46%) (all p < 0.001 relative to PUIs). COVID+ patients were more likely to present with cardiogenic shock (18%) but were less likely to receive invasive angiography (78%) (all p < 0.001 relative to control patients). Among COVID+ patients who received angiography, 71% received PPCI and 20% received medical therapy (both p < 0.001 relative to control patients). The primary outcome occurred in 36% of COVID+ patients, 13% of PUIs, and 5% of control patients (p < 0.001 relative to control patients). CONCLUSIONS: COVID+ patients with STEMI represent a high-risk group of patients with unique demographic and clinical characteristics. PPCI is feasible and remains the predominant reperfusion strategy, supporting current recommendations.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/estatística & dados numéricos , SARS-CoV-2 , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Canadá/epidemiologia , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , América do Norte/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Recidiva , Sistema de Registros/estatística & dados numéricos , Reoperação/estatística & dados numéricos , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/diagnóstico , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/mortalidade , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/terapia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
6.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 10(2): e018414, 2021 01 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33399008

RESUMO

Background Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) with in-hospital onset (AMI-IHO) has poor prognosis but is clinically underappreciated. Whether its occurrence has changed over time is uncertain. Methods and Results Since 1987, the ARIC (Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities) study has conducted adjudicated surveillance of AMI hospitalizations in 4 US communities. Our analysis was limited to patients aged 35 to 74 years with symptomatic AMI. Patients with symptoms initiating after hospital arrival were considered AMI-IHO. A total of 26 678 weighted hospitalizations (14 276 unweighted hospitalizations) for symptomatic AMI were identified from 1995 to 2014, with 1137 (4%) classified as in-hospital onset. The population incidence rate of AMI-IHO increased in the 4 ARIC communities from 1995 through 2004 to 2005 through 2014 (12.7-16.9 events per 100 000 people; P for 20-year trend <0.0001), as did the proportion of AMI hospitalizations with in-hospital onset (3.7%-6.1%; P for 20-year trend =0.03). The 10-year proportions were stable for patients aged 35 to 64 years (3.0%-3.4%; P for 20-year trend =0.3) but increased for patients aged ≥65 years (4.6%-7.8%; P for 20-year trend =0.008; P for interaction by age group =0.04). AMI-IHO had a more severe clinical course with lower use of AMI therapies or invasive strategies and higher in-hospital (7% versus 3%), 28-day (19% versus 5%), and 1-year (29% versus 12%) mortality (P<0.0001 for all). Conclusions In this population-based community surveillance, AMI-IHO increased from 2005 to 2014, particularly among older patients. Quality initiatives to improve recognition and management of AMI-IHO should be especially focused on hospitalized patients aged >65.


Assuntos
Mortalidade Hospitalar/tendências , Hospitalização , Infarto do Miocárdio , Administração dos Cuidados ao Paciente , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Comorbidade , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitalização/tendências , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico , Infarto do Miocárdio/mortalidade , Avaliação de Processos e Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Administração dos Cuidados ao Paciente/métodos , Administração dos Cuidados ao Paciente/tendências , Medição de Risco/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
8.
Clin Cardiol ; 43(12): 1555-1561, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33159461

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In-hospital ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) is associated with a higher mortality rate than out-of-hospital STEMI. Quality measures and universal protocols for treatment of in-hospital STEMI do not exist, likely contributing to delays in recognition and treatment. HYPOTHESIS: To analyze differences in mortality among three subsets of patients who develop in-hospital STEMI. METHODS: This was a multicenter, retrospective observational study of patients who developed in-hospital STEMI at six United States medical centers between 2008 and 2017. Patients were stratified into three groups: (1) cardiac, (2) periprocedure, or (3) noncardiac/nonpostprocedure. Outcomes examined include time from electrocardiogram (ECG) acquisition to cardiac catheterization lab arrival (ECG-to-CCL) and survival to discharge. RESULTS: We identified 184 patients with in-hospital STEMI (mean age 68.7 years, 58.7% male). Group 1 (cardiac) patients had a shorter average ECG-to-CCL time (69 minutes) than group 2 (periprocedure, 215 minutes) and group 3 (noncardiac/nonpostprocedure, 199 minutes). Compared to group 1, survival to discharge was lower for group 2 (OR 0.33, P = .102) and group 3 (OR 0.20, P = .016). After adjusting for prespecified covariates, the relationship between group and survival showed a similar trend but did not reach statistical significance. CONCLUSIONS: Patients who develop in-hospital STEMI in the context of a preceding procedure or noncardiac illness appear to have longer reperfusion times and higher in-hospital mortality than patients admitted with cardiac diagnoses. Larger studies are warranted to further investigate these observations. Health systems should place an increased emphasis on developing quality metrics and implementing quality improvement initiatives to improve outcomes for in-hospital STEMI.

9.
World J Cardiol ; 12(6): 269-284, 2020 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32774779

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cardiac catheterization is among the most performed medical procedures in the modern era. There were sporadic reports indicating that cardiac arrhythmias are common during cardiac catheterization, and there are risks of developing serious and potentially life-threatening arrhythmias, such as sustained ventricular tachycardia (VT), ventricular fibrillation (VF) and high-grade conduction disturbances such as complete heart block (CHB), requiring immediate interventions. However, there is lack of systematic overview of these conditions. AIM: To systematically review existing literature and gain better understanding of the incidence of cardiac arrhythmias during cardiac catheterization, and their impact on outcomes, as well as potential approaches to minimize this risk. METHODS: We applied a combination of terms potentially used in reports describing various cardiac arrhythmias during common cardiac catheterization procedures to systematically search PubMed, EMBASE and Cochrane databases, as well as references of full-length articles. RESULTS: During right heart catheterization (RHC), the incidence of atrial arrhythmias (premature atrial complexes, atrial fibrillation and flutter) was low (< 1%); these arrhythmias were usually transient and self-limited. RHC associated with the development of a new RBBB at a rate of 0.1%-0.3% in individuals with normal conduction system but up to 6.3% in individuals with pre-existing left bundle branch block. These patients may require temporary pacing due to transient CHB. Isolated premature ventricular complexes or non-sustained VT are common during RHC (up to 20% of cases). Sustained ventricular arrhythmias (VT and/or VF) requiring either withdrawal of catheter or cardioversion occurred infrequently (1%-1.3%). During left heart catheterizations (LHC), the incidence of ventricular arrhythmias has declined significantly over the last few decades, from 1.1% historically to 0.1% currently. The overall reported rate of VT/VF in diagnostic LHC and coronary angiography is 0.8%. The risk of VT/VF was higher during percutaneous coronary interventions for stable coronary artery disease (1.1%) and even higher for patients with acute myocardial infarctions (4.1%-4.3%). Intravenous adenosine and papaverine bolus for fractional flow reserve measurement, as well as intracoronary imaging using optical coherence tomography have been reported to induce VF. Although uncommon, LHC and coronary angiography were also reported to induce conduction disturbances including CHB. CONCLUSION: Cardiac arrhythmias are common and potentially serious complications of cardiac catheterization procedures, and it demands constant vigilance and readiness to intervene during procedures.

10.
World J Cardiol ; 12(2): 91-96, 2020 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32184977

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Myocardial bridging (MB) is increasingly recognized to stimulate atherogenesis, which may contribute to an acute coronary syndrome. Stenting the coronary segment with MB has been recognized to have an increased risk of in-stent restenosis, stent fracture and coronary perforation. The safety and efficacy of stenting the culprit lesion with overlaying MB in ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) as primary reperfusion therapy has not been established. CASE SUMMARY: We reported a patient who presented with inferior STEMI with a culprit lesion of an acute thrombotic occlusion in the right coronary artery and thrombolysis and thrombin inhibition in myocardial infarction 0 flow. After the stent placement during primary percutaneous coronary intervention, intravascular ultrasound revealed MB overlying the stented segment where heavy atherosclerotic plaque were present. Likely due to the combination of plaque herniation or prolapse caused by MB, as well as local increased inflammation and thrombogenicity, acute stent thrombosis occurred at this region, which led to acute stent failure. The patient required an emergent repeated cardiac catheterization and placing a second layer of stent to enhance the radial strength and reduce the inter-strut space. CONCLUSION: Plaque herniation or prolapse after stenting a MB segment in STEMI is a potential etiology for acute stent failure.

11.
Int J Cardiol ; 306: 196-202, 2020 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32033785

RESUMO

AIMS: To study the correlation between intra-procedural left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP) and the development of contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CI-AKI) in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). METHODS AND RESULTS: A single center retrospective observational study compared clinical and hemodynamic characteristics of patients who developed post-PCI CI-AKI with those did not. CI-AKI was defined as an absolute increase in serum creatinine ≥0.5 mg/dl or an increase ≥25% from baseline 48-72 h after the administration of contrast medium. Among 1301 consecutive patients who underwent PCI, 125 patients (9.6%) developed CI-AKI. The CI-AKI group had a higher average LVEDP (18.4 ± 8.7 vs 14.4 ± 6.6 mm Hg; p < .0001) and higher prevalence of elevated LVEDP (≥20 mm Hg) than those without CI-AKI (47.2% vs 23.3%, p < .0001). After adjustments, elevated LVEDP remained independently associated with CI-AKI (OR 2.21; 95% CI 1.40-3.50). LVEDP predicted the development of CI-AKI with a receiver operating characteristic area under curve (AUC) of 0.64. The association between elevated LVEDP and the risk of CI-AKI was stronger in patients with reduced ejection fraction (EF ≤ 40%) (OR = 4.08; 95% CI: 1.68-9.91) than those with preserved EF (OR = 1.69; 95% CI: 0.94-3.04) (p value for interaction = .0003). Patients who had LVEDP ≥ 20 mm Hg and LVEF ≤ 40% had a post-PCI incidence rate of developing CI-AKI of 36.5%. CONCLUSIONS: Elevated intra-procedural LVEDP (≥20 mm Hg) is independently associated with increased risk of CI-AKI for patients undergoing cardiac catheterization and PCI, especially in the setting of reduced LVEF (≤40%).


Assuntos
Injúria Renal Aguda , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Injúria Renal Aguda/induzido quimicamente , Injúria Renal Aguda/diagnóstico , Injúria Renal Aguda/epidemiologia , Pressão Sanguínea , Meios de Contraste/efeitos adversos , Angiografia Coronária , Humanos , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Risco
12.
Am J Cardiol ; 123(9): 1393-1398, 2019 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30773247

RESUMO

ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) occurring in patients hospitalized for a noncardiac condition is associated with a high mortality rate and thus we sought to determine the mechanisms underlying STEMI in this patient population. This is a single center retrospective study of 70 patients who had STEMI while hospitalized on a noncardiac service and underwent coronary angiography. Thrombotic in-hospital STEMI was defined by angiographic or intravascular imaging evidence of intracoronary thrombus, plaque rupture, or stent thrombosis. Thirty-six (51%) inpatient STEMIs developed in the operating room or various postoperative stages and 6 (9%) after endoscopy or a percutaneous procedure. Thrombotic etiologies were found in 39 (56%) patients. Nonthrombotic etiologies included vasospasm, supply-demand mismatch, and takotsubo cardiomyopathy. Patients in the thrombotic group were more likely to have antiplatelet medications discontinued on admission, had higher peak troponin levels and were more likely to undergo percutaneous coronary intervention than patients in the nonthrombotic group. Exposure to vasopressors, time from ECG to angiography, post-STEMI ejection fraction, length of stay, and in-hospital mortality were similar in both groups. There was no difference in the use of percutaneous coronary intervention in patients but longer ECG to coronary angiography times and fivefold higher in-hospital mortality in thrombotic inpatient STEMI compared with 643 patients who presented with an out-of-hospital STEMI during the same time period. In conclusion, thrombotic and nonthrombotic mechanisms cause STEMI in hospitalized patients and are associated with a high mortality.


Assuntos
Angiografia Coronária/métodos , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/complicações , Eletrocardiografia , Pacientes Internados , Medição de Risco/métodos , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/etiologia , Ultrassonografia de Intervenção/métodos , Idoso , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico , Feminino , Seguimentos , Mortalidade Hospitalar/tendências , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , North Carolina/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/diagnóstico , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/epidemiologia , Taxa de Sobrevida/tendências , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
Am J Physiol Cell Physiol ; 315(6): C830-C838, 2018 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30257106

RESUMO

Hyperphosphatemia, the elevated level of inorganic phosphate (Pi) in serum, is associated with increased cardiovascular morbidities and mortality. The effects of high Pi on endothelial cells are not well studied. This study investigated high Pi-induced endothelial cell apoptosis and the role of microRNA-21. Mouse myocardial endothelial cells (MEC) were cultured in normal (1 mM) and high (5 mM) Pi conditions. Apoptosis was detected by TUNEL staining and flow cytometry. MicroRNA profiles of MEC response to changes in Pi concentration were obtained using gene expression arrays. Expression levels of the microRNA-21 target genes, programmed cell death gene 4 ( PDCD4), poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase ( PARP), and phosphatase and tensin homolog ( PTEN), as well as NF-κB were measured by Western blotting and RT-PCR. MicroRNA-21-specific inhibitors and mimics were used to study effects of microRNA-21 on MEC apoptosis and gene expression regulations. High Pi induced MEC apoptosis and upregulated microRNA-21 expression. MicroRNA-21-specific mimics reproduced high Pi-induced apoptosis in normal Pi medium, and microRNA-21 inhibitors ameliorated the high Pi induction of apoptosis, suggesting that microRNA-21 mediated high Pi-induced MEC apoptosis. The microRNA-21 targets PDCD4, PTEN, PARP, and NF-κB were significantly downregulated in high Pi conditions. High Pi-induced downregulation of PDCD4 was abolished by microRNA-21 inhibitors and selective ERK inhibitor (selumetinib) and was reproduced by microRNA-21 mimics. Inhibitors and mimics of microRNA-21 did not have effects on high Pi-induced NF-κB downregulation. Selumetinib blocked high Pi-induced NF-κB downregulation. MicroRNA-21 mediates high Pi-induced endothelial cell apoptosis, which involves an ERK1/2/microRNA-21/PDCD4 pathway. High Pi-induced downregulation of NF-κB expression is mediated by an ERK1/2 signaling-dependent but microRNA-21-independent mechanism.


Assuntos
Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/genética , MicroRNAs/genética , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerases/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/genética , Animais , Apoptose/genética , Benzimidazóis/administração & dosagem , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/genética , Humanos , Hiperfosfatemia/sangue , Hiperfosfatemia/patologia , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Miocárdio/patologia , NF-kappa B/genética , PTEN Fosfo-Hidrolase/genética , Fosfatos/sangue
14.
Catheter Cardiovasc Interv ; 92(5): E333-E340, 2018 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29577589

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To identify invasive hemodynamic parameters that correlate with infarction size in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). BACKGROUND: Invasive hemodynamics obtained during primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI) are predictive of mortality in STEMI, but which parameters correlate best with the size of the infarction are unknown. METHODS: This is a single-center study of 405 adult patients with STEMI who had left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP) measured during PPCI. Size of infarction was estimated by peak troponin I level and ejection fraction (LVEF) determined by echocardiography. RESULTS: The average (±SD) age was 61 ± 14 years, TIMI STEMI risk score was 3.5 ± 2.7 and Grace score was 157 ± 42. Hemodynamic parameters that correlated best with EF were LVEDP (r = -0.40), PP (r = 0.24), and SBP/LVEDP ratio (r = 0.22) and with peak troponin were SBP/LVEDP ratio (r = -0.41), LVEDP (r = 0.31), and PP (r = -0.29). SBP/LVEDP (AUC = 0.76) and SBP (AUC = 0.77) had a stronger association with in-hospital mortality than did LVEDP (AUC = 0.66) or PP (AUC = 0.64). Door-to-balloon time did not affect the correlations between hemodynamic parameters and infarct size. CONCLUSIONS: In this sample of 405 patients undergoing PPCI, SBP/LVEDP ratio had the strongest correlation with peak troponin levels and LVEDP with EF, whereas SBP/LVEDP and SBP had a strong association with in-hospital mortality. These results suggest that measurement of LVEDP as well as SBP may help risk stratify patients during PPCI.


Assuntos
Angioplastia Coronária com Balão , Cateterismo Cardíaco , Ecocardiografia , Hemodinâmica , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/diagnóstico , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/terapia , Função Ventricular Esquerda , Idoso , Angioplastia Coronária com Balão/efeitos adversos , Angioplastia Coronária com Balão/mortalidade , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Miocárdio/patologia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/mortalidade , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/fisiopatologia , Volume Sistólico , Resultado do Tratamento , Troponina I/sangue , Pressão Ventricular
15.
JAMA Cardiol ; 3(6): 527-531, 2018 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29466558

RESUMO

Importance: In-hospital ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) is a unique clinical entity with epidemiology, incidence, and outcomes distinct from that of out-of-hospital STEMI and has only within the past 10 years begun to receive increased attention and research. Patients with in-hospital STEMI are older, have more comorbidities, and more frequently have coagulopathies and contraindications for anticoagulation and fibrinolytic therapy. A standardized clinical definition of in-hospital STEMI is lacking. The objectives of this special communication are to (1) summarize the knowledge base regarding in-hospital STEMI; (2) review the challenges of diagnosis and treatment of patients with in-hospital STEMI; (3) present a standardized clinical definition for in-hospital STEMI; and (4) provide a quality improvement protocol to improve diagnosis, triage, and treatment of patients with in-hospital STEMI. Observations: Patients with in-hospital STEMI less frequently present with typical angina symptoms, and an electrocardiogram is often obtained owing to changes in clinical status, changes on telemetry, or a finding of elevated cardiac biomarker. The frequent nontypical presentations often lead to substantial delays in the diagnosis of STEMI. Only 34% to 71% of patients with in-hospital STEMI undergo diagnostic catheterization, and only 22% to 56% undergo percutaneous coronary intervention. Even in contemporary reports, some studies report in-hospital mortality in the range of 31% to 42%. Three areas of delay in the treatment of patients with in-hospital STEMI that merit particular attention are (1) delays in electrocardiogram acquisition, (2) delays in electrocardiogram interpretation, and (3) delays in activation of existing STEMI systems of care. Conclusions and Relevance: Treatment of patients with in-hospital STEMI is more complex and challenging than treatment of patients who develop out-of-hospital STEMI, leading to delays in diagnosis and triage and less frequent use of reperfusion therapy. Quality improvement programs targeted at decreasing delays and streamlining treatment of such patients may improve treatment and outcome.


Assuntos
Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/diagnóstico , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/terapia , Protocolos Clínicos , Hospitalização , Humanos , Melhoria de Qualidade , Triagem
16.
Am J Med ; 131(5): 574.e1-574.e11, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29274759

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease has become a leading cause of death for patients with paraplegia. Acute myocardial infarction in patients with paraplegia has not been described in the literature. This study investigates clinical features, management strategies, and outcomes of these patients. METHODS: Acute myocardial infarction in patients with or without paraplegia was identified in the New York State Inpatient Database between 2007 and 2013. Clinical comorbidities, management strategies and their associated outcomes were compared using propensity score-matching analysis. RESULTS: Among 402,569 patients with acute myocardial infarction, 1400 had a concomitant diagnosis of paraplegia. Compared with those without, patients with paraplegia were younger, more likely to be black, and had a higher prevalence of hypertension, anemia, congestive heart failure, coagulopathy, and depression, but a lower prevalence of diabetes, hyperlipidemia, obesity, chronic lung disease, and renal failure. Patients with paraplegia were more likely to receive medical therapy without a diagnostic cardiac catheterization than those without (83.7% vs 64.5%, P < .001). Nine percent of patients with paraplegia received revascularization, which was significantly lower than that without paraplegia. In terms of the clinical outcome, patients with paraplegia had higher in-hospital mortality than those without (22.4% vs 16.8%, P < .001). Among the patients with paraplegia, the subcohort that received revascularization had lower in-hospital mortality (9.5% vs 22.0%, P < .01), had shorter length of stay (13.0 vs 16.9 days, P =.08), and higher hospital charges ($130,079 vs $92,125, P < .001) than those without revascularization. Furthermore, the paraplegic subcohort underwent coronary artery bypass grafting that was associated with higher in-hospital mortality (21.7% vs 1.7%, P < .001), longer length of stay (24.8 vs 14.2 days, P < .001), and higher hospital charges ($231,323 vs $144,449, P < .01) than subcohort that received percutaneous coronary intervention. CONCLUSIONS: Acute myocardial infarction patients with concomitant paraplegia had distinct clinical characteristics and comorbidity profiles; were less likely to receive revascularization therapy; and had higher in-hospital mortality. Acute myocardial infarction patient with paraplegia who underwent revascularization were associated with better clinical outcomes, in particular, those who were treated with percutaneous coronary intervention had significantly lower in-hospital mortality than those treated with coronary artery bypass grafting.


Assuntos
Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/terapia , Paraplegia/epidemiologia , Idoso , Anemia/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Depressão/epidemiologia , Coagulação Intravascular Disseminada/epidemiologia , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Preços Hospitalares/estatística & dados numéricos , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Revascularização Miocárdica/estatística & dados numéricos , New York/epidemiologia , Paraplegia/terapia , Estudos Retrospectivos
17.
World J Cardiol ; 10(12): 254-266, 2018 Dec 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30622684

RESUMO

Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) is a multisystem disorder that essentially can affect any organ in the human body. The hallmark of the pathogenesis in TTP is the large von Willebrand factor multimers on platelet-mediated micro-thrombi formation, leading to microvascular thrombosis. Autopsy studies showed that cardiac arrest and myocardial infarction are the most common immediate causes of death in these patients. Clinical manifestations of cardiac involvement in TTP vary dramatically, from asymptomatic elevation of cardiac biomarkers, to heart failure, MI and sudden cardiac death. There is limited knowledge about optimal cardiac evaluation and management in patients with TTP. The absence of typical cardiac symptoms, combined with complicated multi-organ involvement in TTP, may contribute to the under-utilization of cardiac evaluation and treatment. Prompt diagnosis and timely initiation of effective therapy could be critically important in selected cases. Based on our experience and this review of the literature, we developed several recommendations for focused cardiac evaluation for patients with acute TTP: (1) patients with suspected or confirmed TTP should be screened for the potential presence of cardiac involvement with detailed history and physical, electrocardiogram and cardiac enzymes; (2) clinical deterioration of TTP patients warrants immediate cardiac reevaluation; (3) TTP patients with clinical evidence of cardiac involvement should be monitored for telemetry, cardiac biomarkers and evaluated with transthoracic echocardiography. These patients require urgent targeted TTP treatment as well as cardiac-specific treatment. Aspirin therapy is indicated for all TTP patients. Since epicardial coronary artery involvement is rare, cardiac catheterization is usually not required, given the high risk for hemorrhage and kidney injury; (4) we recommend evidence-based medical therapy for ischemic symptoms and heart failure. TTP patients with evidence of cardiac involvement would also benefit from routine cardiology follow up during remission.

18.
Am J Pathol ; 187(12): 2895-2911, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29153655

RESUMO

Our goal was to measure the association of CXCL5 and molecular phenotypes associated with coronary atherosclerosis severity in patients at least 65 years old. CXCL5 is classically defined as a proinflammatory chemokine, but its role in chronic inflammatory diseases, such as coronary atherosclerosis, is not well defined. We enrolled individuals who were at least 65 years old and undergoing diagnostic cardiac catheterization. Coronary artery disease (CAD) severity was quantified in each subject via coronary angiography by calculating a CAD score. Circulating CXCL5 levels were measured from plasma, and both DNA genotyping and mRNA expression levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells were quantified via microarray gene chips. We observed a negative association of CXCL5 levels with CAD at an odds ratio (OR) of 0.46 (95% CI, 0.27-0.75). Controlling for covariates, including sex, statin use, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, obesity, self-reported race, smoking, and diabetes, the OR was not significantly affected [OR, 0.54 (95% CI, 0.31-0.96)], consistent with a protective role for CXCL5 in coronary atherosclerosis. We also identified 18 genomic regions with expression quantitative trait loci of genes correlated with both CAD severity and circulating CXCL5 levels. Our clinical findings are consistent with the emerging link between chemokines and atherosclerosis and suggest new therapeutic targets for CAD.


Assuntos
Quimiocina CXCL5/sangue , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/sangue , Idoso , Quimiocina CXCL5/genética , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
19.
BMJ Case Rep ; 20172017 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29038197

RESUMO

Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) affects essentially all organ systems. Myocardial injury in TTP is often attributed to microthrombi formation. We present the first case report in the literature of an acute TTP patient with concomitant obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD) and acute myocardial infarction who underwent successful percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). A 70-year-old female patient who was diagnosed with acute TTP required plasma exchange. The patient also experienced episodes of angina pectoris, elevated cardiac enzymes and global ST segment depressions on ECG. A subsequent non-invasive ischaemia workup revealed significant ischaemia. Coronary angiography revealed obstructive CAD in her right coronary artery, requiring PCI with a bare metal stent placement and dual antiplatelet therapy. The patient tolerated antiplatelet therapy well. At 6 months of follow-up, she had no recurrent angina. This case highlights the potential co-existence of obstructive CAD and acute TTP requiring careful differential diagnosis and treatment.


Assuntos
Arteriopatias Oclusivas/etiologia , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/etiologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/etiologia , Púrpura Trombocitopênica Trombótica/complicações , Idoso , Angina Pectoris/etiologia , Angina Pectoris/cirurgia , Arteriopatias Oclusivas/cirurgia , Angiografia Coronária , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/cirurgia , Feminino , Humanos , Infarto do Miocárdio/cirurgia , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/métodos , Púrpura Trombocitopênica Trombótica/terapia
20.
Am J Cardiol ; 120(9): 1472-1478, 2017 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28844509

RESUMO

Patients hospitalized for noncardiac conditions often experience increased levels of stress and hemodynamic challenges, making them susceptible to acute coronary events. The clinical features, management strategy, and outcomes of inpatient non-ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) have not been described. This single-center retrospective study identified patients with inpatient NSTEMI from the University of North Carolina Hospitals discharge database in February 2008 to April 2014 using International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9) codes. This process generated an initial list of 485 cases that were subsequently manually reviewed. The associations of cardiac catheterization with in-hospital mortality and length of stay were analyzed using multivariable logistic regression and multiple linear regression. A total of 302 patients were confirmed to have inpatient NSTEMI, with 154 patients admitted to surgical and 148 admitted to nonsurgical services. The in-hospital mortality rate of patients with inpatient NSTEMI was high (19%). Patients with inpatient NSTEMI who underwent cardiac catheterization had lower in-hospital mortality rates than those who did not undergo cardiac catheterization (6% vs 25%; adjusted odds ratio 0.19, 95% confidence interval 0.07 to 0.50) and were discharged 6.8 days earlier (95% confidence interval 2.3 to 11.2 days). Inpatient NSTEMIs on surgical services compared with nonsurgical services were more likely to generate cardiology consultation (96% vs 62%, p <0.0001) and left heart catheterization (41% vs 24%, p = 0.002), with similar rates of revascularization (56% vs 56%, p = 1.0). In conclusion, both nonsurgical and surgical patients with inpatient NSTEMI who underwent invasive management had lower in-hospital mortality rates and shorter lengths of stay.


Assuntos
Cateterismo Cardíaco , Tempo de Internação , Infarto do Miocárdio sem Supradesnível do Segmento ST/mortalidade , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio sem Supradesnível do Segmento ST/terapia , Estudos Retrospectivos
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