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1.
Acta Pharmacol Sin ; 2021 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34522005

RESUMO

Behavioral sensitization is a progressive increase in locomotor or stereotypic behaviours in response to drugs. It is believed to contribute to the reinforcing properties of drugs and to play an important role in relapse after cessation of drug abuse. However, the mechanism underlying this behaviour remains poorly understood. In this study, we showed that mTOR signaling was activated during the expression of behavioral sensitization to cocaine and that intraperitoneal or intra-nucleus accumbens (NAc) treatment with rapamycin, a specific mTOR inhibitor, attenuated cocaine-induced behavioural sensitization. Cocaine significantly modified brain lipid profiles in the NAc of cocaine-sensitized mice and markedly elevated the levels of phosphatidylinositol-4-monophosphates (PIPs), including PIP, PIP2, and PIP3. The behavioural effect of cocaine was attenuated by intra-NAc administration of LY294002, an AKT-specific inhibitor, suggesting that PIPs may contribute to mTOR activation in response to cocaine. An RNA-sequencing analysis of the downstream effectors of mTOR signalling revealed that cocaine significantly decreased the expression of SynDIG1, a known substrate of mTOR signalling, and decreased the surface expression of GluA2. In contrast, AAV-mediated SynDIG1 overexpression in NAc attenuated intracellular GluA2 internalization by promoting the SynDIG1-GluA2 interaction, thus maintaining GluA2 surface expression and repressing cocaine-induced behaviours. In conclusion, NAc SynDIG1 may play a negative regulatory role in cocaine-induced behavioural sensitization by regulating synaptic surface expression of GluA2.

2.
Bioengineered ; 12(1): 1351-1359, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33904385

RESUMO

RNA interference (RNAi) was used to investigate the role of epididymal vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) gene expression on sperm hyaluronidase (HYD) in a rat model of arsenic poisoning and to identify a new gene therapy target for male infertility caused by arsenic poisoning. The Rat model of chronic arsenic poisoning was established. And we found that positive expression of VEGF and VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR2) was observed by Immunohistochemical staining in the epididymal tissues of arsenic-exposed rats. Subsequently, VEGF-shRNA-1, VEGF-shRNA-2 and VEGF shRNA-3 expression vectors containing epididymal VEGF-shRNA lentivirus were constructed and injected into the bilateral epididymis of each group of rats (Control group, NC-shRNA negative infection group, VEGF-shRNA-1 group, VEGF-shRNA-2 group, VEGF-shRNA-3 group) (n = 10 per group). Compared with the negative infection group and the normal control group, the expression of VEGF and VEGFR2 mRNA and protein levels were significantly decreased following epididymal infection. In addition, the HYD activity was all significantly lower than that in the normal control group and the negative infection group. Taken together, epididymal VEGF gene silencing may inhibit the activity of sperm HYD through downregulating VEGFR2.

3.
Front Aging Neurosci ; 11: 254, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31572170

RESUMO

Neurofilament light (NFL) is a putative biomarker of neurodegeneration. This study evaluates the correlative association of NFL with Alzheimer's disease (AD) indices. Relevant studies were identified after a literature search in electronic databases and study selection was based on pre-determined eligibility criteria. Correlation coefficients between NFL levels and important AD indices reported by individual studies were pooled as z-scores. Meta-regression analyses were performed to evaluate the relationships between important covariates. Data from 38 studies (age 68.3 years [95% confidence interval (CI): 65.7, 70.9]; 54 % [95% CI: 50, 57] females) were used. Meta-analyses of correlation coefficients reported by the included studies showed that NFL levels in blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) correlated well (r = 0.59 [95% CI: 0.45, 0.71]; p < 0.0001). NFL levels correlated with MMSE score (r = -0.345 [95% CI: -0.43, -0.25]; p = 0.0001), and age (r = 0.485 [95% CI: 0.35, 0.61]; p = 0.00001). CSF NFL levels correlated with total tau (t-tau; r = 0.39 [95% CI: 0.27, 0.50]; p = 0.0001), phosphorylated tau (p-tau; r = 0.34 [95% CI: 0.19, 0.47]; p = 0.00001), and neurogranin (r = 0.25 [95% CI: 0.12, 0.37]; p = 0.001) but not with beta amyloid (Aß) (r = 0.00 [95%CI: -0.13, 0.12]; p = 0.937). In meta-regression, MMSE scores were associated inversely with blood NFL (metaregression coefficient (MC) -0.236 [95% CI:-0.40, -0.072; p = 0.008), and age (MC) -0.235 [-0.36, -0.11]; p = 0.001) and positively with CSF Aß-42 (MC 0.017 [0.010, 0.023]; p = 0.00001). NFL has good correlations with t-tau, and p-tau in CSF and CSF NFL levels correlates well with blood NFL levels. These results show that NFL can be a useful biomarker for improving diagnosis and predicting prognosis in AD patients especially if age weighted.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32082252

RESUMO

Plasma levels of PCSK9 are significantly higher in postmenopausal women. Pharmacologically increased estrogen levels have been shown to lower PCSK9 and LDL-C levels in animals and humans. The action of estrogen suggests that it has the ability to prevent PCSK9-mediated LDLR degradation in liver cells. However, little is known about how estrogen alters PCSK9-mediated LDLR degradation. Here, we report that 17ß-estradiol (ßE2) reduces PCSK9-mediated LDLR degradation by a mechanism that involves activation of the G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER). In cultured HepG2 cells, ßE2 prevented the internalization of PCSK9, which subsequently lead to PCSK9-mediated LDLR degradation. The altered LDLR levels also resulted in an increase in LDL uptake that was not observed in the absence of PCSK9. In addition, we showed that clathrin was rapidly increased in the presence of PCSK9, and this increase was blocked by ßE2 incubation, suggesting rapid recruitment of clathrin in HepG2 cells. PLCγ activation and intracellular Ca2+ release were both increased due to the rapid effect of estrogen. By using a GPER antagonist G15, we demonstrated that the GPER mediates the action of estrogen. Together, the data from this in vitro study demonstrate that estrogen can regulate LDLR levels mainly through GPER activation, which prevents PCSK9-dependent LDLR degradation in HepG2 cells.

5.
Planta Med ; 81(10): 784-90, 2015 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26039267

RESUMO

The present study investigated the flavonoids from Abrus cantoniensis against ethanol-induced gastric ulcers in mice. The flavonoids from A. cantoniensis were extracted with ethanol and purified by macroporous resin and polyamide. The 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl assay was used to measure the antioxidative activities in vitro. The ethanol-induced ulcer mouse model was used to evaluate the gastroprotective activities of the flavonoids from A. cantoniensis. In addition, a method was established to ensure accuracy for animal ulcer evaluation. The flavonoids from A. cantoniensis showed a strong free radical scavenging capacity with an IC50 of 43.83 µg/mL in the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl assay. At doses between 28.16-112.67 mg/kg, the flavonoids conspicuously reduced the ulcer index in ethanol-induced mice (p<0.001). Significant differences were found in the levels of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione, and myeloperoxidase in the stomach tissues between the flavonoids from the A. cantoniensis groups and the ethanol control group. The gastroprotective effect of the flavonoids from A. cantoniensis could be due to its antioxidative activity of the defensive mechanism. The data revealed that the flavonoids from A. cantoniensis could be a potential therapeutic agent for gastric ulcer prevention and treatment.


Assuntos
Abrus/química , Antiulcerosos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Úlcera Gástrica/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Antiulcerosos/química , Antioxidantes/química , Catalase/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos/métodos , Etanol/efeitos adversos , Flavonoides/química , Glutationa/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Estrutura Molecular , Peroxidase/metabolismo , Úlcera Gástrica/induzido quimicamente , Úlcera Gástrica/metabolismo , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
6.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 39(9): 1685-9, 2014 May.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25095385

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of total saponins from Sanguisorba officinalis (DYS) on hematopoietic cell proliferation, differentiation and the expression level of IL-3R and c-kit. METHOD: Baf3 and 32D cells were cultured with or without IL-3, then the cells were exposed to DYS in different concentrations of 5, 10, 20, 30 and 40 mg x L(-1) for 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours separately. After that, the cell proliferation and differentiation capacity were determinated by the methods of CCK8 and Giemsa staining separately. The effects of DYS on the expression level of IL-3 receptor in Baf3 cells and the expression level of c-kit in 32D cells were determinated using RT-PCR. RESULT: DYS promotes alone proliferation of Baf3 cells and 32D cells after 48 h. In contrast to control cells, 32D cells containing DYS without IL-3 form many large clusters. DYS also increases the proliferation when cultured with IL-3. High concentration of DYS induce alone the differentiation of 32D cells and increase alone the number of the polyploidy megakaryocyte. Moreover, DYS increases alone the expression level of IL-3R in Baf3 cells and the expression level of c-kit in 32D cells separately. CONCLUSION: Our data shows DYS can promote alone proliferation and differentiation of megakaryocyte progenitor cells. The proliferative and differentiative effect of DYS on megakaryocyte progenitor cells is correlated to the up-regulation of IL-3 receptor and c-kit expression.


Assuntos
Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Progenitoras de Megacariócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-kit/genética , Receptores de Interleucina-3/genética , Sanguisorba/química , Saponinas/farmacologia , Animais , Diferenciação Celular/genética , Linhagem Celular , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Interleucina-3/farmacologia , Células Progenitoras de Megacariócitos/metabolismo , Camundongos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Fatores de Tempo
7.
Adv Pharmacol Sci ; 2008: 362741, 2008.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21188136

RESUMO

We hypothesized that agonist-induced contraction correlates with the phospho-cofilin/cofilin (P-CF/CF) ratio in pulmonary artery (PA) rings and cultured smooth muscle cells (PASMCs). PA rings were used for isometric contractions and along with PASMCs for assay of P-CF/CF by isoelectric focusing and immunoblotting. The P-CF/CF measured 22.5% in PA and differentiated PASMCs, but only 14.8% in undifferentiated PASMCs. With comparable contraction responses in PA, endothelin-1 (100 nM) and norepinephrine (1 µM) induced a 2-fold increase of P-CF/CF, while angiotensin II (1 µM) induced none. All agonists activated Rho-kinase and LIMK2, and activation was eliminated by inhibition of Rho-kinase. Microcystin LF (20 nM) potentiated the angiotensin II, but not the 5-hydroxytryptamine (1 µM)-mediated increase of P-CF/CF. In conclusion, all tested agonists activate the Rho-kinase-LIMK pathway and increase P-CF/CF. Angiotensin II activates PP2A and counteracts the LIMK-mediated CF phosphorylation. CF phosphorylation stabilizes peripheral actin structures and may contribute to the maximal contraction of PA.

8.
J Biol Chem ; 282(23): 16871-7, 2007 Jun 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17442672

RESUMO

Short ClC3 isoform (sClC3) functions as a volume-sensitive outwardly rectifying anion channel (VSOAC) in some cell types. In previous studies, we have shown that the hypotonic activation of sClC3 is linked to cell swelling-mediated remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton. In the present study, we have tested the hypothesis that the cytosolic tails of sClC3 bind to actin directly and that binding modulates the hypotonic activation of the channel. Co-sedimentation assays in vitro demonstrated a strong binding between the glutathione S-transferase-fused cytosolic C terminus of sClC3 (GST-sClC3-CT) to filamentous actin (F-actin) but not to globular monomeric actin (G-actin). The GST-fused N terminus (GST-sClC3-NT) exhibited low binding affinity to both G- and F-actin. Co-sedimentation experiments with progressively truncated GST-sClC3-CT indicated that the F-actin binding region is located between amino acids 690 and 760 of sClC3. Two synthetic peptides mapping basic clusters of the cytosolic sClC3-CT (CTP2, isoleucine 716 to leucine 734; and CTP3, proline 688 to proline 709) prevented binding of GST-sClC3-CT to F-actin in vitro. Dialysis into NIH/3T3 cells of these two peptides (but not of synthetic peptide CTP1 (isoleucine 737 to glutamine 748)) reduced the maximal current density by 60 and 38%, respectively. Based on these results, we have concluded that, by direct interaction with subcortical actin filaments, sClC3 contributes to the hypotonic stress-induced VSOACs in NIH/3T3 cells.


Assuntos
Actinas/metabolismo , Canais de Cloreto/metabolismo , Citosol/metabolismo , Animais , Western Blotting , Glutationa Transferase/metabolismo , Humanos , Camundongos , Células NIH 3T3 , Concentração Osmolar , Ligação Proteica , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/metabolismo
9.
Vascul Pharmacol ; 44(5): 275-82, 2006 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16524786

RESUMO

Pulmonary hypertension is associated with remodeling of the smooth muscle layer of pulmonary arteries, manifested by reduced smooth muscle cell (SMC) contractility and enhanced motility and growth. These responses are underlied by increased dynamics of the peripheral actin network. Thus, we hypothesized that pulmonary hypertension is associated with upregulation of two proteins that regulate the dynamics of peripheral actin filaments, i.e., profilin and cofilin. We also analyzed the expression of LIMK2, which regulates the actin remodeling capacity of cofilin by phosphorylation. Experimental inflammation was induced by incubation of cultured pulmonary artery SMCs (PASMCs) with inflammatory mediators in vitro, and by subcutaneous administration of monocrotaline to Sprague-Dawley rats in vivo. Expression of messenger RNA (mRNA) was assessed by quantitative RT-PCR, protein levels and phosphorylation were analyzed by immunoblotting. Immune and Masson trichrome stained lung cryosections were analyzed by microscopy. PDGF, IL-1beta, ET-1 and TNFalpha upregulated the profilin, cofilin-2 and LIMK2 mRNA in cultured pulmonary artery SMCs (PASMCs). Along with the development of rat pulmonary artery and right ventricular hypertrophy, monocrotaline treatment also induced the mRNA and protein contents of profilin, cofilin-2 and LIMK2 in PASMCs. The cofilin upregulation was paralleled by a relative decrease of the phospho-cofilin content. The upregulation of profilin, cofilin and LIMK2 in experimental inflammation suggests that by intensifying the remodeling of subcortical actin filaments these proteins may contribute to the enhanced invasiveness and growth of SMCs, and to the development of increased vascular resistance and pulmonary hypertension.


Assuntos
Cofilina 2/biossíntese , Hipertensão Pulmonar/metabolismo , Monocrotalina/administração & dosagem , Músculo Liso Vascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Profilinas/biossíntese , Proteínas Quinases/biossíntese , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Cofilina 2/genética , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Cães , Hiperplasia , Hipertensão Pulmonar/induzido quimicamente , Hipertensão Pulmonar/patologia , Hipertrofia Ventricular Direita/induzido quimicamente , Hipertrofia Ventricular Direita/patologia , Mediadores da Inflamação/farmacologia , Quinases Lim , Músculo Liso Vascular/metabolismo , Músculo Liso Vascular/patologia , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/efeitos dos fármacos , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/metabolismo , Profilinas/genética , Proteínas Quinases/genética , Artéria Pulmonar/efeitos dos fármacos , Artéria Pulmonar/metabolismo , Artéria Pulmonar/patologia , RNA Mensageiro/biossíntese , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/farmacologia , Regulação para Cima
10.
Br J Pharmacol ; 145(1): 5-14, 2005 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15723096

RESUMO

Cl- channels have been implicated in essential cellular functions including volume regulation, progression of cell cycle, cell proliferation and contraction, but the physiological functions of the ClC-3 channel are controversial. We tested the hypothesis that the ClC-3 gene (ClCn-3) is upregulated in hypertensive pulmonary arteries of monocrotaline-treated rats, and upregulated ClC-3 channel aids viability of pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs). Experimental pulmonary hypertension was induced in rats by a single subcutaneous administration of monocrotaline (60 mg kg(-1)). Injected animals developed characteristic features of pulmonary hypertension including medial hypertrophy of pulmonary arteries and right ventricular hypertrophy. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), immunohistochemistry and Western immunoblot analysis indicated that histopathological alterations were associated with upregulation of the ClC-3 mRNA and protein expression in both smooth muscle cells of hypertensive pulmonary arteries and in cardiac myocytes. RT-PCR analysis of mRNA, extracted from canine cultured PASMCs, indicated that incubation with the inflammatory mediators endothelin-1 (ET-1), platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha), but not transforming growth factor beta (TGFbeta), upregulated ClC-3 mRNA. Adenovirus-mediated delivery and overexpression of ClC-3 in canine PASMCs improved cell viability against increasing concentrations of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2, range 50-250 microM). In conclusion, upregulation of ClC-3 in rat hypertensive lung and heart is a novel observation. Our functional data suggest that upregulation of ClC-3 is an adaptive response of inflamed pulmonary artery, which enhances the viability of PASMCs against reactive oxygen species.


Assuntos
Canais de Cloreto/metabolismo , Músculo Liso Vascular/metabolismo , Artéria Pulmonar/metabolismo , Animais , Arterite/metabolismo , Cães , Feminino , Hipertensão/metabolismo , Hipertrofia/metabolismo , Masculino , Músculo Liso Vascular/patologia , Estresse Oxidativo , Artéria Pulmonar/patologia , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Regulação para Cima
11.
J Vasc Res ; 41(5): 412-21, 2004.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15467300

RESUMO

Actin cytoskeleton reorganization is regulated by various actin-binding proteins. Cofilin is the principal filament-depolymerizing protein, whose activity is reduced upon phosphorylation by LIMK. Thus, LIMK and cofilin comprise a signal transduction module regulating actin turnover and myogenic tone in healthy vasculature. Novel functions of smooth muscle cells (SMCs) in the hypertensive pulmonary artery, such as increased motility and proliferation, are supported by the actin cytoskeleton. We therefore hypothesized that bioactive peptides that affect these SMC functions may also result in an upregulation of LIMK and cofilin expression. Semiquantitative RT-PCR and immunoblotting indicated that LIMK2 and cofilin mRNA and protein expression is upregulated in canine pulmonary artery SMCs (PASMCs) exposed to PDGF or IL-1beta (10 ng/ml). Inhibition of ERK MAPKs (U-0126, 10 muM) or p38 MAPK (PD-169316, 10 muM), but not PI3Ks (LY-294002, 50 muM), reduced LIMK2 and cofilin gene expression stimulated by PDGF or IL-1beta. Inhibition of ROCK (Y-27632, 10 muM) reduced only the IL-1beta-stimulated LIMK2 and cofilin expression. These novel observations in PASMCs indicate that LIMK2 and cofilin expression can be induced by PDGF or IL-1beta. This parallel upregulation of LIMK2 and cofilin may have potentially broad functional significance for the progress of pulmonary artery disease.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Interleucina-1/farmacologia , Proteínas dos Microfilamentos/genética , Músculo Liso Vascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Fator de Crescimento Derivado de Plaquetas/farmacologia , Artéria Pulmonar/citologia , Fatores de Despolimerização de Actina , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Cães , Feminino , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Quinases Lim , Masculino , Músculo Liso Vascular/citologia , Músculo Liso Vascular/fisiologia , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia
12.
Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol ; 287(2): H533-44, 2004 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15277197

RESUMO

The serum- and glucocorticoid-inducible kinase (SGK) is a serine/threonine protein kinase (PK) transcriptionally regulated by corticoids, serum, and cell volume. SGK regulates cell volume of various cells by effects on Na(+) and K(+) transport through membrane channels. We hypothesized a role for SGK in the activation of volume-sensitive osmolyte and anion channels (VSOACs) in cultured canine pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs). Intracellular dialysis through the patch electrode of recombinant active SGK, but not kinase-dead Delta60-SGK-K127M, heat-inactivated SGK, or active Akt1, partially activated VSOACs under isotonic conditions. Dialysis of active SGK before cell exposure to hypotonic medium significantly accelerated the activation kinetics and increased the maximal density of VSOAC current. Exposure of PASMCs to hypotonic medium (230 mosM) activated phosphatidylinositol 3-kinases (PI3Ks) and their downstream targets Akt/PKB and SGK but not PKC-epsilon. Inhibition of PI3Ks with wortmannin reduced the activation rate and maximal amplitude of VSOACs. Immunoprecipitated ClC-3 channels were phosphorylated by PKC-epsilon but not by SGK in vitro, suggesting that SGK may activate VSOACs indirectly. These data indicate that the PI3K-SGK cascade is activated on hypotonic swelling of PASMCs and, in turn, affects downstream signaling molecules linked to activation of VSOACs.


Assuntos
Canais de Cloreto/fisiologia , Soluções Hipotônicas/farmacologia , Músculo Liso Vascular/metabolismo , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/metabolismo , Proteínas Nucleares , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/fisiologia , Artéria Pulmonar/metabolismo , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Canais de Cloreto/metabolismo , Cães , Condutividade Elétrica , Eletrofisiologia , Proteínas Imediatamente Precoces , Músculo Liso Vascular/citologia , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/citologia , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Fosforilação , Proteína Quinase C/metabolismo , Proteína Quinase C-épsilon , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas/fisiologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt , Artéria Pulmonar/citologia
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