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1.
BMJ ; 375: n2202, 2021 10 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34645600

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To systematically review the conduct and reporting of formula trials. DESIGN: Systematic review. DATA SOURCES: Medline, Embase, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) were searched from 1 January 2006 to 31 December 2020. REVIEW METHODS: Intervention trials comparing at least two formula products in children less than three years of age were included, but not trials of human breast milk or fortifiers of breast milk. Data were extracted in duplicate and primary outcome data were synthesised for meta-analysis with a random effects model weighted by the inverse variance method. Risk of bias was evaluated with Cochrane risk of bias version 2.0, and risk of undermining breastfeeding was evaluated according to published consensus guidance. Primary outcomes of the trials included in the systematic review were identified from clinical trial registries, protocols, or trial publications. RESULTS: 22 201 titles were screened and 307 trials were identified that were published between 2006 and 2020, of which 73 (24%) trials in 13 197 children were prospectively registered. Another 111 unpublished but registered trials in 17 411 children were identified. Detailed analysis was undertaken for 125 trials (23 757 children) published since 2015. Seventeen (14%) of these recently published trials were conducted independently of formula companies, 26 (21%) were prospectively registered with a clear aim and primary outcome, and authors or sponsors shared prospective protocols for 11 (9%) trials. Risk of bias was low in five (4%) and high in 100 (80%) recently published trials, mainly because of inappropriate exclusions from analysis and selective reporting. For 68 recently published superiority trials, a pooled standardised mean difference of 0.51 (range -0.43 to 3.29) was calculated with an asymmetrical funnel plot (Egger's test P<0.001), which reduced to 0.19 after correction for asymmetry. Primary outcomes were reported by authors as favourable in 86 (69%) trials, and 115 (92%) abstract conclusions were favourable. One of 38 (3%) trials in partially breastfed infants reported adequate support for breastfeeding and 14 of 87 (16%) trials in non-breastfed infants confirmed the decision not to breastfeed was firmly established before enrolment in the trial. CONCLUSIONS: The results show that formula trials lack independence or transparency, and published outcomes are biased by selective reporting. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO 2018 CRD42018091928.

2.
PLoS Med ; 18(9): e1003763, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34547017

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We aimed to investigate the association of serum pentadecanoic acid (15:0), a biomarker of dairy fat intake, with incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) and all-cause mortality in a Swedish cohort study. We also systematically reviewed studies of the association of dairy fat biomarkers (circulating or adipose tissue levels of 15:0, heptadecanoic acid [17:0], and trans-palmitoleic acid [t16:1n-7]) with CVD outcomes or all-cause mortality. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We measured 15:0 in serum cholesterol esters at baseline in 4,150 Swedish adults (51% female, median age 60.5 years). During a median follow-up of 16.6 years, 578 incident CVD events and 676 deaths were identified using Swedish registers. In multivariable-adjusted models, higher 15:0 was associated with lower incident CVD risk in a linear dose-response manner (hazard ratio 0.75 per interquintile range; 95% confidence interval 0.61, 0.93, P = 0.009) and nonlinearly with all-cause mortality (P for nonlinearity = 0.03), with a nadir of mortality risk around median 15:0. In meta-analyses including our Swedish cohort and 17 cohort, case-cohort, or nested case-control studies, higher 15:0 and 17:0 but not t16:1n-7 were inversely associated with total CVD, with the relative risk of highest versus lowest tertile being 0.88 (0.78, 0.99), 0.86 (0.79, 0.93), and 1.01 (0.91, 1.12), respectively. Dairy fat biomarkers were not associated with all-cause mortality in meta-analyses, although there were ≤3 studies for each biomarker. Study limitations include the inability of the biomarkers to distinguish different types of dairy foods and that most studies in the meta-analyses (including our novel cohort study) only assessed biomarkers at baseline, which may increase the risk of misclassification of exposure levels. CONCLUSIONS: In a meta-analysis of 18 observational studies including our new cohort study, higher levels of 15:0 and 17:0 were associated with lower CVD risk. Our findings support the need for clinical and experimental studies to elucidate the causality of these relationships and relevant biological mechanisms.

3.
Health Res Policy Syst ; 19(1): 122, 2021 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34493295

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Health systems around the world have been forced to make choices about how to prioritize care, manage infection control and maintain reserve capacity for future disease outbreaks. Primary healthcare has moved into the front line as COVID-19 testing transitions from hospitals to multiple providers, where tracking testing behaviours can be fragmented and delayed. Pooled general practice data are a valuable resource which can be used to inform population and individual care decision-making. This project aims to examine the feasibility of using near real-time electronic general practice data to promote effective care and best-practice policy. METHODS: The project will utilize a design thinking approach involving all collaborators (primary health networks [PHNs], general practices, consumer groups, researchers, and digital health developers, pathology professionals) to enhance the development of meaningful and translational project outcomes. The project will be based on a series of observational studies utilizing near real-time electronic general practice data from a secure and comprehensive digital health platform [POpulation Level Analysis and Reporting (POLAR) general practice data warehouse]. The study will be carried out over 1.5 years (July 2020-December 2021) using data from over 450 general practices within three Victorian PHNs and Gippsland PHN, Eastern Melbourne PHN and South Eastern Melbourne PHN, supplemented by data from consenting general practices from two PHNs in New South Wales, Central and Eastern Sydney PHN and South Western Sydney PHN. DISCUSSION: The project will be developed using a design thinking approach, leading to the building of a meaningful near real-time COVID-19 geospatial reporting framework and dashboard for decision-makers at community, state and nationwide levels, to identify and monitor emerging trends and the impact of interventions/policy decisions. This will integrate timely evidence about the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic related to its diagnosis and treatment, and its impact across clinical, population and general practice levels.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Medicina Geral , Austrália , Teste para COVID-19 , Eletrônica , Humanos , Pandemias , Políticas , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371932

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There are numerous guidelines developed for bone health. Yet, it is unclear whether the differences in guideline development methods explain the variability in the recommendations for vitamin D and calcium intake. The objective of this systematic review was to collate and compare recommendations for vitamin D and calcium across bone health guidelines, assess the methods used to form the recommendations, and explore which methodological factors were associated with these guideline recommendations. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, and other databases indexing guidelines to identify records in English between 2009 and 2019. Guidelines or policy statements on bone health or osteoporosis prevention for generally healthy adults aged ≥40 years were eligible for inclusion. Two reviewers independently extracted recommendations on daily vitamin D and calcium intake, supplement use, serum 25 hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] level, and sunlight exposure; assessed guideline development methods against 25 recommended criteria in the World Health Organization (WHO) handbook for guideline development; and, identified types identified types of evidence underpinning the recommendations. RESULTS: we included 47 eligible guidelines from 733 records: 74% of the guidelines provided vitamin D (200~600-4000 IU/day) and 70% provided calcium (600-1200 mg/day) recommendations, 96% and 88% recommended vitamin D and calcium supplements, respectively, and 70% recommended a specific 25(OH)D concentration. On average, each guideline met 10 (95% CI: 9-12) of the total of 25 methodological criteria for guideline development recommended by the WHO Handbook. There was uncertainty in the association between the methodological criteria and the proportion of guidelines that provided recommendations on daily vitamin D or calcium. Various types of evidence, including previous bone guidelines, nutrient reference reports, systematic reviews, observational studies, and perspectives/editorials were used to underpin the recommendations. CONCLUSIONS: There is considerable variability in vitamin D and calcium recommendations and in guideline development methods in bone health guidelines. Effort is required to strengthen the methodological rigor of guideline development and utilize the best available evidence to underpin nutrition recommendations in evidence-based guidelines on bone health.


Assuntos
Remodelação Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Osso e Ossos/efeitos dos fármacos , Cálcio/administração & dosagem , Suplementos Nutricionais , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto/normas , Recomendações Nutricionais , Vitamina D/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Osso e Ossos/fisiopatologia , Cálcio/efeitos adversos , Suplementos Nutricionais/efeitos adversos , Medicina Baseada em Evidências/normas , Feminino , Nível de Saúde , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/normas , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Osteoporose/diagnóstico , Osteoporose/epidemiologia , Osteoporose/fisiopatologia , Osteoporose/prevenção & controle , Vitamina D/efeitos adversos
5.
Nutr Health ; : 2601060211011798, 2021 May 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33940973

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Data in the Offspring Framingham Osteoporosis Study (FOS) suggested that higher intake of dietary fiber was modestly protective against loss of bone mineral density at the femoral neck in men but not in women. AIM: To examine the relationship of fiber intake with risk of hip fractures in men. METHODS: We included 367 men from the FOS Original cohort, 1730 men from the FOS Offspring cohort, and 782 men from the Concord Health and Ageing in Men Project (CHAMP) in the analysis. Incident fractures were defined as medically confirmed first occurrence of osteoporotic fractures at the proximal femur. Fiber intake was estimated via a validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) or diet history. Cox proportional hazards models were applied to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). A random-effects model was used to estimate the pooled relative risk in meta-analysis. RESULTS: Seventy-two incident hip fractures were identified, of which 24 occurred in the FOS Original cohort [mean (SD): age 75.3 (5.1) years; follow-up time: 8.5 (6.2) years; dietary fiber: 19 (8) (g/d)], 19 in the FOS Offspring cohort [58.8 (9.8) years; 11.0 (5.9) years; 19 (8) (g/d)], and 29 in CHAMP [81.4 (4.5) years; 5.2 (1.5) years; 28 (10) (g/d)]. We did not find significant associations within each cohort between fiber intake and risk of hip fractures. The pooled HR (95% CI) was 0.80 (0.39, 1.66) comparing energy-adjusted dietary fiber at tertile 3 vs. tertile 1 (I2 = 0, p = 0.56). CONCLUSION: These data suggested that dietary fiber was not associated with risk of incident hip fractures in men.

6.
J Rheumatol ; 48(2): 303, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33060313
7.
Public Health Nutr ; 23(16): 2879-2885, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32552917

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: With significant shifts in the dietary recommendations between the 2007 and 2019 Canadian dietary guidelines, such as promoting plant-based food intake, reducing highly processed food intake and advocating the practice of food skills, we compared their differences in guideline development methods. DESIGN: Two reviewers used twenty-five guided criteria to appraise the methods used to develop the most recent dietary guidelines against those outlined in the 2014 WHO Handbook for Guideline Development. SETTING: Canada. PARTICIPANTS: 2007 and 2019 dietary guidelines. RESULTS: We found that the 2019 guidelines were more evidence-based and met 80 % (20/25) of the WHO criteria. For example, systematic reviews and health organisation authoritative reports, but not industry reports, constituted the evidence base for the dietary recommendations. However, recommendations on food sustainability and food skill practice were driven primarily by stakeholders' interests. By contrast, less information was recorded about the process used to develop the 2007 guidelines, resulting in 24 % (6/25) consistency with the WHO standards. CONCLUSIONS: Our analysis suggests that a more transparent and evidence-based approach is used to develop the 2019 Canadian dietary guidelines and that method criteria should support further incorporation of nutrition priorities (food sustainability and food skills) in future dietary guideline development.

8.
J Rheumatol ; 47(7): 1019-1025, 2020 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31732550

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We examined the association between sleep and odds of developing knee pain, and whether this relationship varied by status of widespread pain (WSP). METHODS: At the 60-month visit of the Multicenter Osteoarthritis Study, sleep quality and restless sleep were each assessed by using a single item from 2 validated questionnaires. Each sleep measure was categorized into 3 levels, with poor/most restless sleep as the reference. WSP was defined as pain above and below the waist on both sides of the body and axially using a standard homunculus, based on the American College of Rheumatology criteria. Outcomes from 60-84 months included (1) knee pain worsening (KPW; defined as minimal clinically important difference in WOMAC pain), (2) prevalent, and (3) incident consistent frequent knee pain. We applied generalized estimating equations in multivariable logistic regression models. RESULTS: We studied 2329 participants (4658 knees; 67.9 yrs, body mass index 30.9]. We found that WSP modified the relationship between sleep quality and KPW (p = 0.002 for interaction). Among persons with WSP, OR (95% CI) for KPW was 0.53 (0.35-0.78) for those with very good sleep quality (p trend < 0.001); additionally, we found the strongest association of sleep quality in persons with > 8 painful joint sites (p trend < 0.01), but not in those with ≤ 2 painful joint sites. Similar results were observed using restless sleep, in the presence of WSP. The cross-sectional relationship between sleep and prevalence of consistent frequent knee pain was significant. CONCLUSION: Better sleep was related to less KPW with coexisting widespread pain.

9.
BMJ Open ; 9(11): e031840, 2019 11 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31699738

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Current recommendations for vitamin D and calcium in dietary guidelines and bone health guidelines vary significantly among countries and professional organisations. It is unknown whether the methods used to develop these recommendations followed a rigourous process and how the differences in methods used may affect the recommended intakes of vitamin D and calcium. The objectives of this study are (1) collate and compare recommendations for vitamin D and calcium across guidelines, (2) appraise methodological quality of the guideline recommendations and (3) identify methodological factors that may affect the recommended intakes for vitamin D and calcium. This study will make a significant contribution to enhancing the methodological rigour in public health guidelines for vitamin D and calcium recommendations. METHODS AND ANALYSES: We will conduct a systematic review to evaluate vitamin D and calcium recommendations for osteoporosis prevention in generally healthy middle-aged and older adults. Methodological assessment will be performed for each guideline against those outlined in the 2014 WHO handbook for guideline development. A systematic search strategy will be applied to locate food-based dietary guidelines and bone health guidelines indexed in various electronic databases, guideline repositories and grey literature from 1 January 2009 to 28 February 2019. Descriptive statistics will be used to summarise the data on intake recommendation and on proportion of guidelines consistent with the WHO criteria. Logistic regression, if feasible, will be used to assess the relationships between the methodological factors and the recommendation intakes. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethics approval is not required as we will only extract published data or information from the published guidelines. Results of this review will be disseminated through conference presentations and peer-reviewed publications. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42019126452.


Assuntos
Cálcio na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Projetos de Pesquisa , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto , Vitamina D/administração & dosagem , Vitaminas/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Saúde Pública
10.
F1000Res ; 8: 1760, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32117567

RESUMO

Background: Dietary guidelines should be informed by systematic reviews (SRs) of the available scientific evidence. However, if the SRs that underpin dietary guidelines are flawed in their design, conduct or reporting, the recommendations contained therein may be misleading or harmful. To date there has been little empirical investigation of bias due to selective inclusion of results, and bias due to missing results, in SRs of food/diet-outcome relationships. Objectives: To explore in SRs with meta-analyses of the association between food/diet and health-related outcomes: (i) whether systematic reviewers selectively included study effect estimates in meta-analyses when multiple effect estimates were available; (ii) what impact selective inclusion of study effect estimates may have on meta-analytic effects, and; (iii) the risk of bias due to missing results (publication bias and selective non-reporting bias) in meta-analyses. Methods: We will systematically search for SRs with meta-analysis of the association between food/diet and health-related outcomes in a generally healthy population, published between January 2018 and June 2019. We will randomly sort titles and abstracts and screen them until we identify 50 eligible SRs. The first reported meta-analysis of a binary or continuous outcome in each SR (the 'index meta-analysis') will be evaluated. We will extract from study reports all study effect estimates that were eligible for inclusion in the index meta-analyses (e.g. from multiple instruments and time points) and will quantify and test for evidence of selective inclusion of results. We will also assess the risk of bias due to missing results in the index meta-analyses using a new tool (ROB-ME). Ethics and dissemination: Ethics approval is not required because information will only be extracted from published studies. Dissemination of the results will be through peer-reviewed publications and presentations at conferences. We will make all data collected from this study publicly available via the Open Science Framework.


Assuntos
Publicações , Relatório de Pesquisa , Estado Nutricional , Viés de Publicação , Fatores de Risco
11.
J Nutr ; 148(12): 1961-1967, 2018 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30517729

RESUMO

Background: Dietary fiber reduces body weight and inflammation in clinical trials. It is unclear whether body mass index (BMI) and inflammation might explain the observed association between higher fiber intake and the lower risk of symptomatic knee osteoarthritis (SXKOA). Objectives: We quantified the extent to which BMI and inflammation influenced the relation between dietary fiber and SXKOA. Methods: We used longitudinal data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative (OAI) and the Framingham Offspring Osteoarthritis Study. At baseline of each study, men and women (mean age: 61 y) with or at risk of knee osteoarthritis were followed for 48 mo in the OAI. Adults (mean age: 53 y) were followed for 9.5 y in the Framingham study. Dietary fiber intake was estimated using a validated food-frequency questionnaire. Measured weight and height were used to calculate BMI. Serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (CRP) was measured in the Framingham study only. Incident SXKOA was defined as new onset of a combination of knee pain and radiographic osteoarthritis. We applied marginal structural models to quantify the mediation through BMI in the OAI and the sequential mediation through BMI and CRP in the Framingham study. Results: Incident SXKOA occurred in 861 knees among 2876 persons in the OAI and in 143 knees among 971 persons in the Framingham study. In persons whose fiber intake was ≥21 g/d compared with those with intakes <21 g/d, the OR (95% CI) was 0.70 (0.53, 0.91) for the overall association with SXKOA and was 0.93 (0.92, 0.95) for the mediation via BMI (per kg/m2) in the OAI. In the Framingham study, the overall association was 0.57 (0.30, 1.09), the mediation through BMI (via BMI and the influence of BMI on CRP) was 0.94 (0.85, 1.02), and the mediation through CRP (per milligram per liter) was 0.99 (0.84, 1.19). Conclusion: Our findings suggest that the inverse association of fiber intake and the risk of incident symptomatic knee osteoarthritis is partially mediated by BMI.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Fibras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Osteoartrite do Joelho/etiologia , Idoso , Proteína C-Reativa/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Osteoartrite do Joelho/sangue , Risco
12.
Bone ; 112: 51-57, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29660426

RESUMO

Meta-analyses of studies conducted among Western populations suggest that coffee consumption does not affect osteoporotic fracture risk. However, experimental studies have shown that the effect of caffeine on bone health may depend on dosage. We examined the associations between consumption of coffee, tea and caffeine and risk of hip fracture in an Asian cohort. In a population-based prospective cohort of 63,257 Chinese men and women aged 45-74 years in Singapore, a validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire was used to assess habitual consumption of coffee and tea at baseline. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to estimate hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for risk of hip fracture with adjustment for potential confounders. During a mean follow-up of 16.7 years, 2502 incident hip fracture cases were identified. Compared to coffee drinkers <1 cup/week, those who drank ≥4 cups/day had a statistically significant higher risk to develop hip fractures, the HR (95% CI) was 1.32 (1.07, 1.63) in the whole cohort analysis, 1.46 (1.01, 2.10) for men and 1.33 (1.02, 1.72) for women. Among postmenopausal women, compared to those who drank coffee <1 cup/week, drinking 2-3 cups/day was associated with the lowest risk [HR: 0.88 (0.76, 1.01)] and drinking ≥4 cups/day was associated with the highest risk [HR: 1.31 (1.00, 1.71)]. Similar associations with caffeine intake were found among postmenopausal women. Restricted spline analyses suggested a non-linear association between coffee/caffeine consumption and hip fracture risk in postmenopausal women (p for non-linearity ≤ 0.05). No association was found with tea consumption in either sex. These data suggest that drinking coffee ≥4 cups/day is associated with a higher hip fracture risk, while a moderate intake may alleviate risk in postmenopausal women. Future studies should corroborate these results to determine levels of optimal coffee consumption in relation to bone health.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Bebidas/efeitos adversos , Café/efeitos adversos , Saúde , Fraturas do Quadril/epidemiologia , Chá/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pós-Menopausa , Fatores de Risco , Singapura
13.
J Bone Miner Res ; 33(2): 241-249, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29024045

RESUMO

Dietary fiber may increase calcium absorption, but its role in bone mineralization is unclear. Furthermore, the health effect of dietary fiber may be different between sexes. We examined the association between dietary fiber (total fiber and fiber from cereal, fruits, vegetables, nuts, and legumes) and bone loss at the femoral neck, trochanter, and lumbar spine (L2 to L4 ) in older men and women. In the Framingham Offspring Study, at baseline (1996-2001), diet was assessed using the Willett food-frequency questionnaire, and bone mineral density (BMD) was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Follow-up BMD was measured in 2001-2005 and 2005-2008 among 792 men (mean age 58.1 years; BMI 28.6 kg/m2 ) and 1065 women (mean age 57.3 years; BMI 27.2 kg/m2 ). We used sex-specific generalized estimating equations in multivariable regressions to estimate the difference (ß) of annualized BMD change in percent (%ΔBMD) at each skeletal site per 5 g/d increase in dietary fiber. We further estimated the adjusted mean for bone loss (annualized %ΔBMD) among participants in each higher quartile (Q2, Q3, or Q4) compared with those in the lowest quartile (Q1) of fiber intake. Higher dietary total fiber (ß = 0.06, p = 0.003) and fruit fiber (ß = 0.10, p = 0.008) was protective against bone loss at the femoral neck in men but not in women. When examined in quartiles, men in Q2-Q4 of total fiber had significantly less bone loss at the femoral neck versus those in Q1 (all p < 0.04). For women, we did not observe associations with hip bone loss, although fiber from vegetables appeared to be protective against spine bone loss in women but not men. There were no associations with cereal fiber or nut and legume fiber and bone loss in men or women. Our findings suggest that higher dietary fiber may modestly reduce bone loss in men at the hip. © 2017 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.


Assuntos
Reabsorção Óssea/patologia , Fibras na Dieta , Densidade Óssea , Reabsorção Óssea/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
14.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 76(8): 1411-1419, 2017 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28536116

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Dietary fibre reduces body weight and inflammation both of which are linked with knee osteoarthritis (OA). We examined the association between fibre intake and risk of knee OA. METHODS: We used data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative (OAI) of 4796 participants and Framingham Offspring Osteoarthritis Study (Framingham) of 1268 persons. Dietary intake of fibre was estimated at baseline, and incident radiographic OA (ROA) and symptomatic OA (SxOA) were followed annually until 48 months in OAI and assessed 9 years later in Framingham. Knee pain worsening was also examined in OAI. Generalised estimating equations were applied in multivariable regression models. RESULTS: In OAI, we identified 869 knees with SxOA, 152 knees with ROA and 1964 knees with pain worsening among 4051 subjects with valid dietary intake (baseline mean age: 61.2 years; mean body mass index (BMI): 28.6). In Framingham, 143 knees with SxOA and 176 knees with ROA among 971 such subjects (baseline mean age: 53.9 years; mean BMI: 27.0) were identified. In both cohorts, dietary total fibre was inversely associated with risk of SxOA (p trend <0.03) with significantly lower risk at the highest versus lowest quartile (OR (95% CI): 0.70 (0.52, 0.94) for OAI and 0.39 (0.17, 0.88) for Framingham). Furthermore, dietary total and cereal fibre were significantly inversely associated with knee pain worsening in OAI (p trend <0.02). No apparent association was found with ROA. CONCLUSIONS: Findings from two longitudinal studies consistently showed that higher total fibre intake was related to a lower risk of SxOA, while the relation to ROA was unclear.


Assuntos
Fibras na Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Osteoartrite do Joelho/epidemiologia , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Osteoartrite do Joelho/diagnóstico por imagem , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Proteção , Radiografia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
15.
Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken) ; 69(12): 1932-1933, 2017 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28085230

Assuntos
Fibras na Dieta , Dor , Humanos
16.
Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken) ; 69(9): 1331-1339, 2017 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27899003

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Dietary fiber may reduce knee pain, in part by lowering body weight and reducing inflammation. In this study, we assessed whether fiber intake was associated with patterns of knee pain development. METHODS: In a prospective, multicenter cohort of 4,796 men and women ages 45-79 years with or at risk of knee osteoarthritis, participants underwent annual followups for 8 years. Dietary fiber intake was estimated using a validated food frequency questionnaire at baseline. Group-based trajectory modeling was used to identify Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index pain trajectories, which were assessed for associations with dietary fiber intake using polytomous regression models. RESULTS: Of the eligible participants (4,470 persons and 8,940 knees, mean ± SD age 61.3 ± 9.1 years, 58% women), 4.9% underwent knee replacement and were censored at the time of surgery. Four distinct knee pain patterns were identified: no pain (34.5%), mild pain (38.1%), moderate pain (21.2%), and severe pain (6.2%). Dietary total fiber was inversely related to membership in the moderate or severe pain groups (P ≤ 0.006 for trend for both). Subjects in the highest versus those in the lowest quartile of total fiber intake had a lower risk of belonging to the moderate pain pattern group (odds ratio [OR] 0.76 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.61-0.93]) and severe pain pattern group (OR 0.56 [95% CI 0.41-0.78]). Similar results were found with grain fiber and these 2 pain pattern groups. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that a high intake of dietary total or grain fiber, particularly the recommended daily fiber average intake of 25 gm per day, is associated with a lower risk of developing moderate or severe knee pain over time.


Assuntos
Artralgia/dietoterapia , Artralgia/etiologia , Fibras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Articulação do Joelho , Osteoartrite do Joelho/complicações , Idoso , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Medição da Dor , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo
17.
Bone ; 83: 171-177, 2016 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26555636

RESUMO

While epidemiologic studies suggest that bone turnover biomarkers may predict hip fracture risk, findings are inconsistent and Asian data are lacking. We conducted a matched case-control (1:1) study nested in the Singapore Chinese Health Study, a population-based prospective cohort of Chinese men and women (45-74years) recruited from 1993 to 1998 in Singapore. One hundred cases with incident hip fracture and 100 individually matched controls were randomly selected from 63,257 participants. Serum bone turnover biomarkers, namely bone alkaline phosphatase (bone ALP), osteocalcin (OC), procollagen type I N propeptide (PINP), N-terminal and C-terminal crosslinking telopeptide of type I collagen (NTX-I and CTX-I) were measured using immunoassays. Hip fracture cases had significantly higher serum levels of OC, PINP, CTX-I and NTX-I than controls (p<0.05). There was a dose-dependent positive relationship between OC, PINP, CTX-I and NTX-I and risk of hip fracture (all Ps for trend≤0.006), where the risk was significantly increased by 4.32-8.23 folds for the respective BTM [Quartile (Q) 4 vs. Q1]. The odds ratio [OR (95% CI)] at the highest quartile (Q4) was 6.63 (2.02-21.18) for PINP and 4.92 (1.67-14.51) for CTX-I. The joint effect of PINP and CTX-I showed a 7-fold increase in risk (OR: 7.36; 95% CI: 2.53-21.41) comparing participants with higher levels of PINP (Q4) and CTX-I (Q3-Q4) to those with low levels of PINP (Q1-Q3) and CTX-I (Q1-Q2). Our data demonstrated that higher serum levels of bone turnover biomarkers were associated with increased risk of hip fracture in an Asian population.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Biomarcadores/sangue , Remodelação Óssea , Fraturas do Quadril/sangue , Fraturas do Quadril/fisiopatologia , Fraturas por Osteoporose/sangue , Fraturas por Osteoporose/fisiopatologia , Idoso , Colágeno Tipo I/sangue , Intervalos de Confiança , Feminino , Fraturas do Quadril/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fraturas por Osteoporose/epidemiologia , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/sangue , Peptídeos/sangue , Pró-Colágeno/sangue , Fatores de Risco , Singapura/epidemiologia
18.
Nutrients ; 7(5): 3322-46, 2015 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25961321

RESUMO

Because of ongoing global ageing, there is a rapid worldwide increase in incidence of osteoporotic fractures and the resultant morbidity and mortality associated with these fractures are expected to create a substantial economic burden. Dietary modification is one effective approach for prevention of osteoporosis in the general population. Recently, B vitamins have been investigated for their possible roles in bone health in human studies. In this review, we provide different lines of evidence and potential mechanisms of individual B vitamin in influencing bone structure, bone quality, bone mass and fracture risk from published peer-reviewed articles. These data support a possible protective role of B vitamins, particularly, B2, B6, folate and B12, in bone health. However, results from the clinical trials have not been promising in supporting the efficacy of B vitamin supplementation in fracture reduction. Future research should continue to investigate the underlying mechanistic pathways and consider interventional studies using dietary regimens with vitamin B enriched foods to avoid potential adverse effects of high-dose vitamin B supplementation. In addition, observational and interventional studies conducted in Asia are limited and thus require more attention due to a steep rise of osteoporosis and hip fracture incidence projected in this part of the world.


Assuntos
Conservadores da Densidade Óssea/uso terapêutico , Densidade Óssea , Osso e Ossos/efeitos dos fármacos , Osteoporose/prevenção & controle , Fraturas por Osteoporose/prevenção & controle , Complexo Vitamínico B/uso terapêutico , Humanos
19.
J Nutr ; 144(4): 511-8, 2014 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24572035

RESUMO

Data on overall dietary pattern and osteoporotic fracture risk from population-based cohorts are limited, especially from Asian populations. This study examined the relation between overall diet and hip fracture risk by using principal components analysis (PCA) to identify dietary pattern specific to the study population and by using the Alternative Healthy Eating Index (AHEI) 2010 to assess dietary quality. The Singapore Chinese Health Study is a prospective population-based cohort that enrolled 63,257 Chinese men and women (including both pre- and postmenopausal women) aged 45-74 y between 1993 and 1998 in Singapore. Habitual diet was assessed by using a validated food-frequency questionnaire. Two dietary patterns, the vegetable-fruit-soy (VFS) pattern and the meat-dim-sum (MDS) pattern, were derived by PCA. Overall dietary quality was assessed according to the AHEI 2010, which was defined a priori for chronic disease prevention. A Cox regression model was applied with adjustment for potential confounders. In both genders, higher scores for the VFS pattern and the AHEI 2010 were associated with lower risk of hip fracture in a dose-dependent manner (all P-trend ≤ 0.008). Compared with the lowest quintile, participants in the highest quintile had a 34% reduction in risk (HR: 0.66; 95% CI: 0.55, 0.78) for the VFS pattern and a 32% reduction in risk (HR: 0.68; 95% CI: 0.58, 0.79) for the AHEI 2010. The MDS pattern score was not associated with hip fracture risk. An Asian diet rich in plant-based foods, namely vegetables, fruit, and legumes such as soy, may reduce the risk of hip fracture.


Assuntos
Comportamento Alimentar , Frutas , Fraturas do Quadril/prevenção & controle , Política Nutricional , Cooperação do Paciente , Alimentos de Soja , Verduras , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Comportamento Alimentar/etnologia , Feminino , Promoção da Saúde , Fraturas do Quadril/epidemiologia , Fraturas do Quadril/etnologia , Humanos , Incidência , Perda de Seguimento , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fraturas por Osteoporose/epidemiologia , Fraturas por Osteoporose/etnologia , Fraturas por Osteoporose/prevenção & controle , Cooperação do Paciente/etnologia , Análise de Componente Principal , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Singapura
20.
J Bone Miner Res ; 29(2): 408-17, 2014 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23857780

RESUMO

Experimental and epidemiologic data suggest that carotenoids in vegetables and fruits may benefit bone health due to their antioxidant properties. The relationship between dietary total and specific carotenoids, as well as vegetables and fruits, and risk of hip fracture was examined among Chinese in Singapore. We used data from the Singapore Chinese Health Study, a prospective cohort of 63,257 men and women who were of ages 45 to 74 years between 1993 and 1998. At recruitment, subjects were interviewed on lifestyle factors and medical history. Usual diet was measured using a validated food frequency questionnaire. During a mean follow-up of 9.9 years, we identified 1630 hip fracture incident cases. Among men, consumption of vegetables was associated with lower hip fracture risk. Similarly, dietary total carotenoids and specific carotenoids, α-carotene, ß-carotene, and lutein/zeaxanthin were inversely associated with hip fracture risk. Compared to men in the lowest quartile of nutrient density, men in the highest quartile had statistically significant 26% to 39% risk reduction (all p for trend <0.05). When stratified by body mass index (BMI), the greatest protective effects of total vegetables and carotenoids were found in men with BMI <20 kg/m(2) (p for trend ≤0.004). There was no association between dietary carotenoids or vegetables/fruits and hip fracture risk among women. This study suggests that adequate intake of vegetables may reduce risk of osteoporotic fractures among elderly men and that the antioxidant effects of carotenoids may counteract the mechanism of osteoporosis related to leanness.


Assuntos
Carotenoides/administração & dosagem , Frutas , Fraturas do Quadril , Osteoporose , Verduras , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Feminino , Seguimentos , Fraturas do Quadril/complicações , Fraturas do Quadril/epidemiologia , Fraturas do Quadril/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Osteoporose/complicações , Osteoporose/epidemiologia , Osteoporose/prevenção & controle , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores Sexuais , Singapura/epidemiologia
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