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1.
Biosensors (Basel) ; 11(9)2021 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34562897

RESUMO

Super-resolution optical imaging is a consistent research hotspot for promoting studies in nanotechnology and biotechnology due to its capability of overcoming the diffraction limit, which is an intrinsic obstacle in pursuing higher resolution for conventional microscopy techniques. In the past few decades, a great number of techniques in this research domain have been theoretically proposed and experimentally demonstrated. Graphene, a special two-dimensional material, has become the most meritorious candidate and attracted incredible attention in high-resolution imaging domain due to its distinctive properties. In this article, the working principle of graphene-assisted imaging devices is summarized, and recent advances of super-resolution optical imaging based on graphene are reviewed for both near-field and far-field applications.

2.
Adv Mater ; 33(26): e2008070, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33998712

RESUMO

Phonon polaritons-light coupled to lattice vibrations-in polar van der Waals crystals offer unprecedented opportunities for controlling light at the nanoscale due to their anisotropic and ultralow-loss propagation. While their analog plasmon polaritons-light coupled to electron oscillations-have long been studied and exhibit interesting reflections at geometrical edges and electronic boundaries, whether phonon polaritons can be reflected by such barriers has been elusive. Here, the effective and tunable reflection of phonon polaritons at embedded interfaces formed in hydrogen-intercalated α-MoO3 flakes is elaborated upon. Without breaking geometrical continuity, such intercalation interfaces can reflect phonon polaritons with low losses, yielding the distinct phase changes of -0.8π and -0.3π associated with polariton propagation, high efficiency of 50%, and potential electrical tunability. The results point to a new approach to construct on-demand polariton reflectors, phase modulators, and retarders, which may be transplanted into building future polaritonic circuits using van der Waals crystals.

3.
Nano Lett ; 21(7): 3112-3119, 2021 Apr 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33764791

RESUMO

Surface phonon polaritons (SPhPs) in polar dielectrics offer new opportunities for infrared nanophotonics. However, bulk SPhPs inherently propagate isotropically with limited photon confinement, and how to collectively realize ultralarge confinement, in-plane hyperbolicity, and unidirectional propagation remains elusive. Here, we report an approach to solve the aforementioned issues of bulk SPhPs in one go by constructing a heterostructural interface between biaxial van der Waals material (e.g., α-MoO3) and bulk polar dielectric (e.g., SiC, AlN, and GaN). Because of anisotropy-oriented mode couplings, the hybridized SPhPs with a large confinement factor (>100) show in-plane hyperbolicity that has been switched to the orthogonal direction as compared to that in natural α-MoO3. More interestingly, this proof of concept allows steerable and unidirectional polariton excitation by suspending α-MoO3 on patterned SiC air cavities. Our finding exemplifies a generalizable framework to manipulate the flow of nanolight in many other hybrid systems consisting of anisotropic materials and polar dielectrics.

4.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 6086, 2020 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33257664

RESUMO

Highly confined and low-loss polaritons are known to propagate isotropically over graphene and hexagonal boron nitride in the plane, leaving limited degrees of freedom in manipulating light at the nanoscale. The emerging family of biaxial van der Waals materials, such as α-MoO3 and V2O5, support exotic polariton propagation, as their auxiliary optical axis is in the plane. Here, exploiting this strong in-plane anisotropy, we report edge-tailored hyperbolic polaritons in patterned α-MoO3 nanocavities via real-space nanoimaging. We find that the angle between the edge orientation and the crystallographic direction significantly affects the optical response, and can serve as a key tuning parameter in tailoring the polaritonic patterns. By shaping α-MoO3 nanocavities with different geometries, we observe edge-oriented and steerable hyperbolic polaritons as well as forbidden zones where the polaritons detour. The lifetime and figure of merit of the hyperbolic polaritons can be regulated by the edge aspect ratio of nanocavity.

5.
Nature ; 582(7811): 209-213, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32528096

RESUMO

Twisted two-dimensional bilayer materials exhibit many exotic electronic phenomena. Manipulating the 'twist angle' between the two layers enables fine control of the electronic band structure, resulting in magic-angle flat-band superconductivity1,2, the formation of moiré excitons3-8 and interlayer magnetism9. However, there are limited demonstrations of such concepts for photons. Here we show how analogous principles, combined with extreme anisotropy, enable control and manipulation of the photonic dispersion of phonon polaritons in van der Waals bilayers. We experimentally observe tunable topological transitions from open (hyperbolic) to closed (elliptical) dispersion contours in bilayers of α-phase molybdenum trioxide (α-MoO3), arising when the rotation between the layers is at a photonic magic twist angle. These transitions are induced by polariton hybridization and are controlled by a topological quantity. At the transitions the bilayer dispersion flattens, exhibiting low-loss tunable polariton canalization and diffractionless propagation with a resolution of less than λ0/40, where λ0 is the free-space wavelength. Our findings extend twistronics10 and moiré physics to nanophotonics and polaritonics, with potential applications in nanoimaging, nanoscale light propagation, energy transfer and quantum physics.

6.
Chem Rev ; 120(13): 6197-6246, 2020 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32496053

RESUMO

Recently, two rich and exciting research fields, layered two-dimensional (2D) materials and metamaterials, have started overlapping. Metamaterials are artificial, engineered materials with broad metaphotonic prospects such as negative refraction, perfect lensing, subwavelength imaging, and cloaking. The possibility of achieving metaphotonic properties using metamaterials based on layered 2D materials has been extensively exploited. Because they are highly tunable and adjustable with the ease of micro- and nanofabrication, 2D materials exhibit diverse optical properties such as natural negative refraction, natural anisotropic behavior, and even hyperbolic dispersion. A combination of 2D materials with conventional metamaterials promises a variety of prospective applications. In this review, we illustrate how the concept of metamaterials and their associated metaphotonic capabilities are naturally born in 2D materials. The multifunctionality of 2D materials may enable the manufacture of novel optical devices that work in a broad frequency range, from visible to terahertz, with particularly low loss, high speed, gated tunability, and miniaturized sizes. This new area of research links the fields of photonics, optoelectronics, and plasmonics with that of metamaterials and may provide insights to future innovations for 2D-material-inspired metaphotonic devices.

7.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2646, 2020 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32461577

RESUMO

Phonon polaritons (PhPs) have attracted significant interest in the nano-optics communities because of their nanoscale confinement and long lifetimes. Although PhP modification by changing the local dielectric environment has been reported, controlled manipulation of PhPs by direct modification of the polaritonic material itself has remained elusive. Here, chemical switching of PhPs in α-MoO3 is achieved by engineering the α-MoO3 crystal through hydrogen intercalation. The intercalation process is non-volatile and recoverable, allowing reversible switching of PhPs while maintaining the long lifetimes. Precise control of the intercalation parameters enables analysis of the intermediate states, in which the needle-like hydrogenated nanostructures functioning as in-plane antennas effectively reflect and launch PhPs and form well-aligned cavities. We further achieve spatially controlled switching of PhPs in selective regions, leading to in-plane heterostructures with various geometries. The intercalation strategy introduced here opens a relatively non-destructive avenue connecting infrared nanophotonics, reconfigurable flat metasurfaces and van der Waals crystals.

8.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 11(21): 19397-19403, 2019 May 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31026141

RESUMO

Interfaces between metals and semiconducting materials can inevitably influence the magnetotransport properties, which are crucial for technological applications ranging from magnetic sensing to storage devices. By taking advantage of this, a metallic graphene foam is integrated with semiconducting copper-based metal sulfide nanocrystals, i.e., Cu2ZnSnS4 (copper-zinc-tin-sulfur) without direct chemical bonding and structural damage, which creates numerous nanoboundaries that can be basically used to tune the magnetotransport properties. Herein, the magnetoresistance of a graphene foam is enhanced from nearly 90 to 130% at room temperature and under the application of 5 T magnetic field strength due to the addition of Cu2ZnSnS4 nanocrystals in high densities. We believe that the enhancement of magnetoresistance in hybrid graphene foam/Cu2ZnSnS4 nanocrystals is due to the evolution of the mobility fluctuation mechanism, triggered by the formation of nanoboundaries. Incorporating Cu2ZnSnS4 nanocrystals into a graphene foam not only provides an effective way to further enhance the magnitude of magnetoresistance but also opens a suitable window to achieve efficient and highly functional magnetic sensors with a large, linear, and controllable response.

9.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 28, 2019 01 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30604756

RESUMO

MicroRNA exhibits differential expression levels in cancer and can affect cellular transformation, carcinogenesis and metastasis. Although fluorescence techniques using dye molecule labels have been studied, label-free molecular-level quantification of miRNA is extremely challenging. We developed a surface plasmon resonance sensor based on two-dimensional nanomaterial of antimonene for the specific label-free detection of clinically relevant biomarkers such as miRNA-21 and miRNA-155. First-principles energetic calculations reveal that antimonene has substantially stronger interaction with ssDNA than the graphene that has been previously used in DNA molecule sensing, due to thanking for more delocalized 5s/5p orbitals in antimonene. The detection limit can reach 10 aM, which is 2.3-10,000 times higher than those of existing miRNA sensors. The combination of not-attempted-before exotic sensing material and SPR architecture represents an approach to unlocking the ultrasensitive detection of miRNA and DNA and provides a promising avenue for the early diagnosis, staging, and monitoring of cancer.


Assuntos
Antimônio/química , Técnicas Biossensoriais/instrumentação , Grafite/química , MicroRNAs/isolamento & purificação , Ressonância de Plasmônio de Superfície/instrumentação , Biomarcadores Tumorais/isolamento & purificação , Técnicas Biossensoriais/métodos , DNA de Cadeia Simples/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Dispositivos Lab-On-A-Chip , Limite de Detecção , Nanoestruturas/química , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Neoplasias/genética , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Ressonância de Plasmônio de Superfície/métodos
10.
Nature ; 562(7728): 557-562, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30356185

RESUMO

Polaritons-hybrid light-matter excitations-enable nanoscale control of light. Particularly large polariton field confinement and long lifetimes can be found in graphene and materials consisting of two-dimensional layers bound by weak van der Waals forces1,2 (vdW materials). These polaritons can be tuned by electric fields3,4 or by material thickness5, leading to applications including nanolasers6, tunable infrared and terahertz detectors7, and molecular sensors8. Polaritons with anisotropic propagation along the surface of vdW materials have been predicted, caused by in-plane anisotropic structural and electronic properties9. In such materials, elliptic and hyperbolic in-plane polariton dispersion can be expected (for example, plasmon polaritons in black phosphorus9), the latter leading to an enhanced density of optical states and ray-like directional propagation along the surface. However, observation of anisotropic polariton propagation in natural materials has so far remained elusive. Here we report anisotropic polariton propagation along the surface of α-MoO3, a natural vdW material. By infrared nano-imaging and nano-spectroscopy of semiconducting α-MoO3 flakes and disks, we visualize and verify phonon polaritons with elliptic and hyperbolic in-plane dispersion, and with wavelengths (up to 60 times smaller than the corresponding photon wavelengths) comparable to those of graphene plasmon polaritons and boron nitride phonon polaritons3-5. From signal oscillations in real-space images we measure polariton amplitude lifetimes of 8 picoseconds, which is more than ten times larger than that of graphene plasmon polaritons at room temperature10. They are also a factor of about four larger than the best values so far reported for phonon polaritons in isotopically engineered boron nitride11 and for graphene plasmon polaritons at low temperatures12. In-plane anisotropic and ultra-low-loss polaritons in vdW materials could enable directional and strong light-matter interactions, nanoscale directional energy transfer and integrated flat optics in applications ranging from bio-sensing to quantum nanophotonics.

11.
Adv Mater ; 30(15): e1705792, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29493028

RESUMO

A semiconductor p-n junction typically has a doping-induced carrier depletion region, where the doping level positively correlates with the built-in potential and negatively correlates with the depletion layer width. In conventional bulk and atomically thin junctions, this correlation challenges the synergy of the internal field and its spatial extent in carrier generation/transport. Organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites, a class of crystalline ionic semiconductors, are promising alternatives because of their direct badgap, long diffusion length, and large dielectric constant. Here, strong depletion in a lateral p-n junction induced by local electronic doping at the surface of individual CH3 NH3 PbI3 perovskite nanosheets is reported. Unlike conventional surface doping with a weak van der Waals adsorption, covalent bonding and hydrogen bonding between a MoO3 dopant and the perovskite are theoretically predicted and experimentally verified. The strong hybridization-induced electronic coupling leads to an enhanced built-in electric field. The large electric permittivity arising from the ionic polarizability further contributes to the formation of an unusually broad depletion region up to 10 µm in the junction. Under visible optical excitation without electrical bias, the lateral diode demonstrates unprecedented photovoltaic conversion with an external quantum efficiency of 3.93% and a photodetection responsivity of 1.42 A W-1 .

12.
Nanoscale ; 10(1): 142-149, 2017 Dec 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29159329

RESUMO

Plasmonic nanomaterials, along with their assemblies, provide numerous applications due to their profound optical properties. In this work, we report the self-assembly of Au@Ag core-shell nanocuboids (NCs) into staircase superstructures in both vertical and horizontal orientations through two-stage droplet evaporation. Each stair is composed of a uniform well-aligned monolayer of NCs. The gap distance between NCs can be greatly shrunk to boost the corresponding surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) performance using an ethanol wash method. The SERS performance of the assembled NCs is calculated by finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulation, and studied against the step number using 4-mercaptobenzoic acid as a Raman reporter molecule. The increasing EF with the increase of layer number proves that the plasmon mode propagates well in our uniformly aligned assemblies.

13.
Small ; 13(42)2017 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28940722

RESUMO

The integration of graphene with colloidal quantum dots (QDs) that have tunable light absorption affords new opportunities for optoelectronic applications as such a hybrid system solves the problem of both quantity and mobility of photocarriers. In this work, a hybrid system comprising of monolayer graphene and self-doped colloidal copper phosphide (Cu3-x P) QDs is developed for efficient broadband photodetection. Unlike conventional PbS QDs that are toxic, Cu3-x P QDs are environmental friendly and have plasmonic resonant absorption in near-infrared (NIR) wavelength. The half-covered graphene with Cu3-x P nanocrystals (NCs) behaves as a self-driven p-n junction and shows durable photoresponse in NIR range. A comparison experiment reveals that the surface ligand attached to Cu3-x P NCs plays a key role in determining the charge transfer efficiency from Cu3-x P to graphene. The most efficient three-terminal photodetectors based on graphene-Cu3-x P exhibit broadband photoresponse from 400 to 1550 nm with an ultrahigh responsivity (1.59 × 105 A W-1 ) and high photoconductive gain (6.66 × 105 ) at visible wavelength (405 nm), and a good responsivity of 9.34 A W-1 at 1550 nm. The demonstration of flexible graphene-Cu3-x P photodetectors operated at NIR wavelengths may find potential applications in optical sensing, biological imaging, and wearable devices.

14.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 9(28): 23265-23286, 2017 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28628307

RESUMO

TiO2 is the most investigated photocatalyst because of its nontoxicity, low cost, chemical stability, and strong photooxidative ability. Because of the morphology- and structure-dependent photocatalytic properties of TiO2, accurate characterization of the crystal and electronic structures of TiO2-based materials and their performance during the photocatalytic process is crucial not only for understanding the photocatalytic mechanism but also for providing experimental guidelines as well as a theoretical framework for the synthesis of high performance photocatalysts. In this review, we focused on the advanced characterization techniques that are utilized in the studies on the TiO2 structures and photocatalytic performance of TiO2 and TiO2-based materials. It is therefore anticipated that this review can provide a novel perspective to understand the fundamental aspects of photocatalysis and inspire the development of new photocatalysts with superior performances.

15.
Nanoscale ; 9(9): 3114-3120, 2017 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28203665

RESUMO

Low-cost, stabilized and ultrasensitive three-dimensional (3D) hierarchical surface-enhanced Raman scattering substrates ("sunflower-like" nanoarrays decorated with Ag nanoparticles, denoted as SLNAs-Ag) have been obtained by fabricating binary colloidal crystals and then decorating with Ag nanoparticles. In order to provide a larger density of hot spots within the laser-illumination area, the silica sphere arrays were chosen as the island-type platform for the polystyrene (PS) nanosphere deposition, and the distances between the PS nanospheres were tuned by etching for different durations. Compared with conventional 2D planar systems, the as-fabricated 3D SLNAs-Ag exhibited extremely high SERS sensitivity ascribed to the larger SERS active regions. Quantitative detection of molecules with an extremely low incident laser power was achieved on the "sunflower-like" nanoarrays in which the PS nanospheres were etched for 5 minutes and decorated with Ag nanoparticles, and the corresponding analytical enhancement factor is calculated to be 2 × 1014 with the concentration of rhodamine 6G down to 10-15 M. Based on the achieved SERS substrates, we have further demonstrated the highly sensitive detection of molecules such as melamine for food safety inspection.

16.
Adv Mater ; 29(3)2017 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27859705

RESUMO

Tungsten-graphene multilayer composites are fabricated using a stacking method. The thermal resistance induced by the graphene interlayer is moderate. An ion-implantation method is used to verify the radiation tolerance. The results show that graphene inserted among tungsten films plays a dominant role in reducing radiation damage. Furthermore, the performance of different tungsten period-thicknesses in radiation tolerance is systematically analyzed.

17.
Nanoscale Res Lett ; 11(1): 412, 2016 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27644238

RESUMO

A facile one-step polyol method is employed to synthesize the Ag nanoparticles (NPs) in large scale. The Ag NPs with different average diameter (from 52 to 120 nm) and particle size distribution are prepared by changing the mass ratio of AgNO3 and PVP. Furthermore, the as-obtained Ag NPs are prepared as conductive inks, which could be screen printed on various flexible substrates and formed as conductive patterns after sintering treatment. During the reaction process, PVP is used as the capping reagent for preventing the agglomeration of Ag NPs, and the influence of the mass ratio of AgNO3 and PVP to the size distribution of Ag NPs is investigated. The results of electronic properties reveal that the conductivity of printed patterns is highly dependent on the size distribution of as-obtained Ag NPs. Among all the samples, the optimal conductivity is obtained when the mass ratio of AgNO3 and PVP is 1:0.4. Subsequently, the sintering time and temperature are further investigated for obtaining the best conductivity; the optimal electrical resistivity value of 3.83 µΩ · cm is achieved at 160 °C for 75 min, which is close to the resistivity value of the bulk silver (1.58 µΩ · cm). Significantly, there are many potential advantages in printed electronics applications because of the as-synthesized Ag NPs with a low sintering temperature and low electrical resistivity.

18.
J Phys Condens Matter ; 28(43): 434002, 2016 11 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27602883

RESUMO

Searching for architectural building blocks with tunable morphology and peculiarity is a prominent challenge for novel diagnostic and therapeutic applications. Here, the aqueous-based seed-mediated methods for preparing highly mono-dispersed Au nanorods with a different aspect ratio are systematically studied by controlling the amounts of Ag ions and seeds. We also explore the effect of pH on the synthesis of gold nanorods. The realization of the overlap of longitudinal plasmon band and excitation source with different degrees is made by changing the aspect ratio of nanorod in order to determine its effect on the overall surface enhancement. In addition, the gold octahedra are prepared by overgrowth on Au nanorods. The SERS effects of Au nanorods are researched and the FDTD simulations are performed to reveal the morphology induced plasmon modes.

19.
Dalton Trans ; 45(32): 12745-55, 2016 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27461821

RESUMO

Coupling two different semiconductors to form composite photocatalysts is the most significant method for environmental remediation. In this regard, tube-like α-Fe2O3/Ag6Si2O7 heterostructures are synthesized via anchoring p-type Ag6Si2O7 nanoparticles (NPs) on the surface of n-type α-Fe2O3 short nanotubes (SNTs) by conventional wet-chemical routes. α-Fe2O3 SNTs are firstly fabricated by a hydrothermal method with the assistance of dihydrogen phosphate and sulphate. Then, Ag6Si2O7 NPs are anchored on α-Fe2O3 SNTs by an in situ deposition method, and the α-Fe2O3/Ag6Si2O7 p-n heterostructures are finally obtained. The morphologies, crystal structure, photocatalytic performance and photocurrent properties of as-synthesized α-Fe2O3/Ag6Si2O7 heterostructures are investigated. Six organic dyes are used for determining the high-efficiency Z-scheme photocatalytic activities of the as-obtained photocatalysts under ultraviolet and visible light (mercury lamp, 300 W). Compared with pure α-Fe2O3 SNTs, the photocurrent intensity of the α-Fe2O3/Ag6Si2O7 heterostructures is improved 62 times. The enhanced significant photocatalytic performance of α-Fe2O3/Ag6Si2O7 heterostructures could be attributed to charge transfer between Ag6Si2O7 NPs and the charge separation between Ag6Si2O7 NPs and α-Fe2O3 SNTs. These composite heterostructures are proposed to be an example for the preparation of other composite silicate photocatalysts for practical application in environmental remediation issues.

20.
J Phys Condens Matter ; 28(25): 254003, 2016 06 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27167880

RESUMO

In recent times, surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) has attracted attention for its excellent potential application in chemical and biological detection. In this work, we demonstrate that a highly homogeneous SERS substrate can be realized by Ag ion implantation and the subsequent annealing process. Both the implantation and annealing parameters have been optimized for a high sensitivity SERS substrate. The SERS measurement indicates that a sample implanted by 20 kV Ag ions with a dosage of 3 × 10(16) ions cm(-2) exhibits the highest SERS activity. In addition, the SERS activity of the Ag-implanted substrates depends highly on the annealing temperature and time. Since none of the fabrication processes contain chemical reactions, our substrate is a clean system without any chemical residues.

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