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1.
Clin Cancer Res ; 2021 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34548320

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Little is known about the efficacy of HER2-targeted therapy in patients with breast cancer showing different HER2-pathway dependence and immune phenotypes. Herein, we report a NeoALTTO exploratory analysis evaluating the clinical value of 22 types of tumor-infiltrating immune cells by CIBERSORT and 5 immune-related metagenes in the overall patient population, and in subgroups defined by the TRAR classifier as HER2-addicted (TRAR-low) or not (TRAR-high). METHODS: Association of baseline TRAR, immune-related metagenes, and CIBERSORT data with pathologic complete response (pCR) and event-free survival (EFS) were assessed using logistic and Cox regression models. Corrections for multiple testing were performed by the Bonferroni method. RESULTS: A total of 226 patients were analyzed: 80 (35%) achieved a pCR, and 64 (28%) experienced a relapse with a median follow-up of 6.7 (interquartile range 6.1-6.8) years; 108 cases were classified as TRAR-low, and 118 TRAR-high. Overall, γδ T-cell fraction [OR = 2.69; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.40-5.18], and no immune-related metagenes were predictive of pCR. Notably, lymphocyte-specific kinase (LCK) predicted pCR to combination (OR = 2.53; 95% CI, 1.12-5.69), but not to single-agent trastuzumab or lapatinib [OR = 0.74; 95% CI, 0.45-1.22 (P interaction = 0.01)]. Integrating LCK with γδ T cells in a multivariate model added to the discriminatory capability of clinical and molecular variables with a shift in AUC from 0.80 (95% CI, 0.74-0.86) to 0.83 (95% CI, 0.78-0.89). In TRAR-low cases, activated mast cells, IFN and MHCII were reduced, and STAT1, HCK1, and γδ T cells were associated with pCR. STAT1 was broadly associated with improved EFS regardless of pCR, and nodal status in overall (HR = 0.68; 95% CI, 0.49-0.94) and in TRAR-low cases (HR = 0.50; 95% CI, 0.30-0.86). CONCLUSIONS: Immuno-phenotyping holds the promise to complement current predictive models in HER2-positive breast cancer and to assist in new therapeutic development.

2.
Virchows Arch ; 479(2): 233-246, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34255145

RESUMO

The term "biobanking" is often misapplied to any collection of human biological materials (biospecimens) regardless of requirements related to ethical and legal issues or the standardization of different processes involved in tissue collection. A proper definition of biobanks is large collections of biospecimens linked to relevant personal and health information (health records, family history, lifestyle, genetic information) that are held predominantly for use in health and medical research. In addition, the International Organization for Standardization, in illustrating the requirements for biobanking (ISO 20387:2018), stresses the concept of biobanks being legal entities driving the process of acquisition and storage together with some or all of the activities related to collection, preparation, preservation, testing, analysing and distributing defined biological material as well as related information and data. In this review article, we aim to discuss the basic principles of biobanking, spanning from definitions to classification systems, standardization processes and documents, sustainability and ethical and legal requirements. We also deal with emerging specimens that are currently being generated and shaping the so-called next-generation biobanking, and we provide pragmatic examples of cancer-associated biobanking by discussing the process behind the construction of a biobank and the infrastructures supporting the implementation of biobanking in scientific research.


Assuntos
Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos , Pesquisa Biomédica , Medicina de Precisão , Manejo de Espécimes , Acreditação , Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos/classificação , Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos/ética , Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos/legislação & jurisprudência , Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos/normas , Pesquisa Biomédica/classificação , Pesquisa Biomédica/ética , Pesquisa Biomédica/legislação & jurisprudência , Pesquisa Biomédica/normas , Guias como Assunto , Humanos , Formulação de Políticas , Medicina de Precisão/classificação , Medicina de Precisão/ética , Medicina de Precisão/normas , Manejo de Espécimes/classificação , Manejo de Espécimes/ética , Manejo de Espécimes/normas , Participação dos Interessados , Terminologia como Assunto
3.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(10)2021 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34068368

RESUMO

The clinical relevance of circulating tumor cell clusters (CTC-clusters) in breast cancer (BC) has been mostly studied using the CellSearch®, a marker-dependent method detecting only epithelial-enriched clusters. However, due to epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, resorting to marker-independent approaches can improve CTC-cluster detection. Blood samples collected from healthy donors and spiked-in with tumor mammospheres, or from BC patients, were processed for CTC-cluster detection with 3 technologies: CellSearch®, CellSieve™ filters, and ScreenCell® filters. In spiked-in samples, the 3 technologies showed similar recovery capability, whereas, in 19 clinical samples processed in parallel with CellSearch® and CellSieve™ filters, filtration allowed us to detect more CTC-clusters than CellSearch® (median number = 7 versus 1, p = 0.0038). Next, samples from 37 early BC (EBC) and 23 metastatic BC (MBC) patients were processed using ScreenCell® filters for attaining both unbiased enrichment and marker-independent identification (based on cytomorphological criteria). At baseline, CTC-clusters were detected in 70% of EBC cases and in 20% of MBC patients (median number = 2, range 0-20, versus 0, range 0-15, p = 0.0015). Marker-independent approaches for CTC-cluster assessment improve detection and show that CTC-clusters are more frequent in EBC than in MBC patients, a novel finding suggesting that dissemination of CTC-clusters is an early event in BC natural history.

4.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(5)2021 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33801186

RESUMO

Since the beginning of the COVID-19 outbreak, Cancer Centers adopted specific procedures both to protect patients and to monitor the possible spread of SARS-CoV-2 among healthcare personnel (HCP). In April 2020 at Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori, Milano, one of the three oncologic hubs in Lombardy where the Health Regional Authorities referred all the cancer patients of the region, we implemented a prospective longitudinal study aimed at monitoring the serological response to SARS-Cov-2 in HCP. One hundred and ten HCP answered a questionnaire and were screened by nasopharyngeal swabs as well as for IgM/IgG levels; seropositive HCPs were further screened every 40-45 days using SARS-CoV-2-specific serology. We identified a fraction of HCP with long-term anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody responses, though negative for viral RNA, and thus probably able to safely approach fragile cancer patients. Monitoring asymptomatic HCP might provide useful information to organize the healthcare service in a Cancer Center, while waiting for the effectiveness of the active immunization by SARS-CoV-2 vaccines, which will provide protection from infection.

5.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(6)2021 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33808748

RESUMO

Circulating tumor microemboli (CTMs) are clusters of cancer cells detached from solid tumors, whose study can reveal mechanisms underlying metastatization. As they frequently comprise unknown fractions of leukocytes, the analysis of copy number alterations (CNAs) is challenging. To address this, we titrated known numbers of leukocytes into cancer cells (MDA-MB-453 and MDA-MB-36, displaying high and low DNA content, respectively) generating tumor fractions from 0-100%. After low-pass sequencing, ichorCNA was identified as the best algorithm to build a linear mixed regression model for tumor fraction (TF) prediction. We then isolated 53 CTMs from blood samples of six early-stage breast cancer patients and predicted the TF of all clusters. We found that all clusters harbor cancer cells between 8 and 48%. Furthermore, by comparing the identified CNAs of CTMs with their matched primary tumors, we noted that only 31-71% of aberrations were shared. Surprisingly, CTM-private alterations were abundant (30-63%), whereas primary tumor-private alterations were rare (4-12%). This either indicates that CTMs are disseminated from further progressed regions of the primary tumor or stem from cancer cells already colonizing distant sites. In both cases, CTM-private mutations may inform us about specific metastasis-associated functions of involved genes that should be explored in follow-up and mechanistic studies.

6.
J Minim Invasive Gynecol ; 28(8): 1519-1525, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33373728

RESUMO

STUDY OBJECTIVE: There are growing concerns regarding the potential risk of coronavirus disease transmission during surgery and in particular during minimally invasive procedures owing to the aerosolization of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) particles. However, no study has demonstrated this hypothesis. Here, we aimed to investigate the presence of SARS-CoV-2 in surgical smoke. DESIGN: A prospective pilot study. SETTING: A tertiary cancer center in northern Italy. PATIENTS: Overall, 17 patients underwent laparoscopic procedures for the management of suspected or documented gynecologic malignancies. The median age was 57 years (range 26-77). The surgical indications included endometrial cancer (n = 11), borderline ovarian tumor (n = 3), early-stage ovarian cancer (n = 1), stage IA cervical cancer after diagnostic conization (n = 1), and an ovarian cyst that turned out to be benign at final histologic examination (n = 1). INTERVENTIONS: We evaluated all consecutive women scheduled to have laparoscopic procedures for suspected or documented gynecologic cancers. The patients underwent planned laparoscopic surgery. At the end of the laparoscopic procedures (after extubation), we performed reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) tests for the detection of SARS-CoV-2 from both the endotracheal tube and the filter applied on the trocar valve. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: In 1 patient, both swab tests (endotracheal tube and trocar valve filter) showed amplification of the N gene on RT-PCR analysis. This case was considered to be a presumptive positive case. In another case, the RT-PCR analysis showed an amplification curve for the N gene only in the swab test performed on the filter. No ORF1ab amplification was detected. CONCLUSION: Our study suggested the proof of principle that SARS-CoV-2 might be transmitted through surgical smoke and aerosolized native fluid from the abdominal cavity.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Laparoscopia , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos Piloto , Estudos Prospectivos , SARS-CoV-2 , Fumaça/efeitos adversos
7.
Breast Cancer Res ; 22(1): 115, 2020 10 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33109233

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Obesity is a risk factor for breast cancer (BC) development, recurrence, and death. In view of this, we aimed to investigate the clinical value of obesity in BC patients treated with anti-HER2 therapies in the NeoALTTO trial, which randomized 455 patients to neo-adjuvant lapatinib, trastuzumab, or their combination plus paclitaxel. METHODS: Patients were classified according to their basal body mass index (BMI) into underweight (< 18.5 kg/m2), normal (≥ 18.5; < 25 kg/m2), overweight (≥ 25; < 30 kg/m2), and obese (≥ 30 kg/m2) WHO categories. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed using BMI as a categorical variable. Pathological complete response (pCR) and event-free survival (EFS) were the NeoALTTO primary and secondary outcomes, respectively. RESULTS: Among 454 patients analyzed, 14 (3%), 220 (48%), 137 (30%), and 83 (18%) were classified as underweight, normal weight, overweight, and obese, respectively; 231 (51%) and 223 (49%) had hormone receptor (HR)-positive and HR-negative primary tumors; 160 (35%) achieved pCR. In the overall patient population, no association was found between BMI groups and pCR, as we reported pCR rates of 57.1%, 35%, 30.7%, and 39.8% in underweight, normal weight, overweight, and obese cases, respectively. In contrast, in HR-positive tumors, overweight or obesity was generally associated with decreased likelihood of achieving a pCR independently of other clinical variables, including planned surgery, nodal status, and tumor size (odds ratio [OR] = 0.55, 95%CI 0.30-1.01, as compared to normal or underweight; p = 0.053); notably, no differential effect of BMI with respect to pCR was observed in HR-negative cases (odds ratio [OR] = 1.30, 95%CI 0.76-2.23, as compared to normal or underweight; p = 0.331), resulting in a statistically significant interaction between BMI and HR status (p = 0.036). There was no association between BMI and EFS neither in the overall nor in the HR-positive population, but this analysis was under-powered. CONCLUSIONS: NeoALTTO patients overweight or obese at baseline and with HR-positive primary BC appeared less likely to achieve pCR after neo-adjuvant anti-HER2 therapies. This finding paves the way to future research in targeting the interplay between HER2/HR signaling and metabolism.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Índice de Massa Corporal , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Terapia Neoadjuvante/métodos , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Sobrepeso/fisiopatologia , Receptor ErbB-2/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Receptor alfa de Estrogênio/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptor alfa de Estrogênio/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Lapatinib/administração & dosagem , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Paclitaxel/administração & dosagem , Receptor ErbB-2/antagonistas & inibidores , Fatores de Risco , Taxa de Sobrevida , Trastuzumab/administração & dosagem , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
Cells ; 9(10)2020 10 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33023194

RESUMO

Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is an aggressive disease with poor prognosis and limited therapeutic options. Recent advances in the immunotherapy field have enabled the development of new treatment strategies, among which the use of bispecific antibodies (BsAbs), able to redirect T cells against tumors, has shown promising results. In particular, a BsAb that uses TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand receptor 2 (TRAIL-R2) as a target was constructed and demonstrated good results in redirecting CD3+ T cells to kill TRAIL-R2-expressing TNBC cells. In the present study, we investigated whether treatment with selinexor, a selective inhibitor of nuclear export (SINE) targeting exportin-1/chromosome maintenance protein 1 (XPO1/CRM1), could potentiate the antitumor activity of this BsAb. In combination experiments, we found that selinexor-exposed TNBC cells exhibited greater growth inhibition when treated with the TRAIL-R2xCD3 BsAb than that expected by simple additivity. Similarly, the apoptosis rate in selinexor/TRAIL-R2xCD3 BsAb-treated TNBC cells was significantly higher than that observed after exposure to either single agent. Together, our results suggest that the combination of selinexor and TRAIL-R2xCD3 BsAb can be a viable anticancer strategy and indicate this treatment as a promising therapeutic option for TNBC patients.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Biespecíficos/fisiologia , Hidrazinas/uso terapêutico , Triazóis/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/tratamento farmacológico , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Feminino , Humanos , Hidrazinas/farmacologia , Triazóis/farmacologia
9.
NPJ Breast Cancer ; 6: 26, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32577501

RESUMO

Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) is a non-invasive type of breast cancer with highly variable potential of becoming invasive and affecting mortality. Currently, many patients with DCIS are overtreated due to the lack of specific biomarkers that distinguish low risk lesions from those with a higher risk of progression. In this study, we analyzed 57 pure DCIS and 313 invasive breast cancers (IBC) from different patients. Three levels of genomic data were obtained; gene expression, DNA methylation, and DNA copy number. We performed subtype stratified analyses and identified key differences between DCIS and IBC that suggest subtype specific progression. Prominent differences were found in tumors of the basal-like subtype: Basal-like DCIS were less proliferative and showed a higher degree of differentiation than basal-like IBC. Also, core basal tumors (characterized by high correlation to the basal-like centroid) were not identified amongst DCIS as opposed to IBC. At the copy number level, basal-like DCIS exhibited fewer copy number aberrations compared with basal-like IBC. An intriguing finding through analysis of the methylome was hypermethylation of multiple protocadherin genes in basal-like IBC compared with basal-like DCIS and normal tissue, possibly caused by long range epigenetic silencing. This points to silencing of cell adhesion-related genes specifically in IBC of the basal-like subtype. Our work confirms that subtype stratification is essential when studying progression from DCIS to IBC, and we provide evidence that basal-like DCIS show less aggressive characteristics and question the assumption that basal-like DCIS is a direct precursor of basal-like invasive breast cancer.

10.
Tumori ; : 300891620923790, 2020 May 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32364028

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The rapid spread of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is affecting many countries. While healthcare systems need to cope with the need to treat a large number of people with different degrees of respiratory failure, actions to preserve aliquots of the healthcare system to guarantee treatment to patients are mandatory. METHODS: In order to protect the Fondazione IRCCS-Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori di Milano from the spread of COVID-19, a number of to-hospital and within-hospital filters were applied. Among others, a triage process to detect severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) positivity in patients with cancer was developed consisting of high-resolution low-dose computed tomography (CT) scan followed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) detection of SARS-CoV-2 in nose-throat swabs whenever CT was suggestive of lung infection. To serve symptomatic patients who were already admitted to the hospital or in need of hospitalization while waiting for RT-PCR laboratory confirmation of infection, a COVID-19 surveillance zone was set up. RESULTS: A total of 301 patients were screened between March 6 and April 3, 2020. Of these, 47 were hospitalized, 53 needed a differential diagnosis to continue with their cancer treatment, and 201 were about to undergo surgery. RT-PCR was positive in 13 of 40 hospitalized patients (32%), 14 of 52 day hospital patients (27%), and 6 of 201 surgical patients (3%). CONCLUSION: Applying filters to protect our comprehensive cancer center from COVID-19 spread contributed to guaranteeing cancer care during the COVID-19 crisis in Milan. A surveillance area and surgical triage allowed us to protect the hospital from as many as 33 patients infected with SARS-CoV-2.

11.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1220: 81-91, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32304081

RESUMO

In metastatic breast cancer the role of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) enumeration for predicting clinical outcome is supported by many studies, most of them dealing with strictly epithelial cells. However, it is becoming clear that CTCs are a heterogeneous cell population characterized by plasticity and including also cells which have lost the epithelial phenotype. Here we review literature data on CTC heterogeneity both at phenotype and at molecular level and discuss the possible contribute of single cell analyses in precision medicine. We conclude with some remarks about the steps still necessary to achieve clinical validity and utility when considering also CTC phenotypic and molecular heterogeneity beyond a simple enumeration.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Metástase Neoplásica/patologia , Células Neoplásicas Circulantes/patologia , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Humanos , Células Neoplásicas Circulantes/metabolismo , Fenótipo , Medicina de Precisão , Análise de Célula Única
12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(4)2020 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32098246

RESUMO

Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are promising biomarkers for prognosis, therapeutic response prediction, and treatment monitoring in cancer patients. Despite its epithelial origin, renal cell carcinoma (RCC) shows low expression of epithelial markers hindering CTC-enrichment approaches exploiting epithelial cell surface proteins. In 21 blood samples serially collected from 10 patients with metastatic RCC entering the TARIBO trial, we overcame this limitation using the marker-independent Parsortix™ approach for CTC-enrichment coupled with positive and negative selection with the DEPArray™ with single cell recovery and analysis for copy number alterations (CNA) by next generation sequencing NGS. Two CTC subpopulations were identified: epithelial CTC (eCTC) and non-conventional CTC (ncCTC) lacking epithelial and leukocyte markers. With a threshold ≥1CTC/10 mL of blood, the positivity rates were 28% for eCTC, 62% for ncCTCs, and 71% considering both CTC types. In two patients with detectable eCTCs at baseline, progression free survival was less than 5 months. In an index case, hierarchical structure by translational oncology (TRONCO) identified three clones among 14 CTCs collected at progression and at baseline, each containing cells with a 9p21.3loss, a well-known metastasis driving subclonal alteration. CTCs detection in RCC can be increased by marker-independent approaches, and CTC molecular characterization can allow detection of subclonal events possibly related to tumor progression.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais , Carcinoma de Células Renais , Deleção Cromossômica , Cromossomos Humanos Par 9/genética , Neoplasias Renais , Células Neoplásicas Circulantes , Análise de Célula Única , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Células Renais/genética , Carcinoma de Células Renais/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Células Renais/patologia , Feminino , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Neoplasias Renais/genética , Neoplasias Renais/metabolismo , Neoplasias Renais/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Células Neoplásicas Circulantes/metabolismo , Células Neoplásicas Circulantes/patologia
13.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(4)2020 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32085669

RESUMO

Circulating microRNA (ct-miRNAs) are able to identify patients with differential response to HER2-targeted therapy. However, their dynamics are largely unknown. We assessed 752 miRNAs from 52 NeoALTTO patients with plasma pairs prior and two weeks after trastuzumab. Increased levels of ct-miR-148a-3p and ct-miR-374a-5p were significantly associated with pathological complete response (pCR) (p = 0.008 and 0.048, respectively). At a threshold ≥ the upper limit of the 95%CI of the mean difference, pCR resulted 45% (95%CI 24%-68%), and 44% (95%CI 22%-69%) for ct-miR-148a-3p and ct-miR-374a-5p, respectively. Notably, ct-miR-148a-3p retained its predictive value (OR 3.42, 95%CI 1.23-9.46, p = 0.018) in bivariate analysis along with estrogen receptor status. Combined information from ct-miR-148a-3p and ct-miR140-5p, which we previously reported to identify trastuzumab-responsive patients, resulted in greater predictive capability over each other, with pCR of 54% (95%CI 25%-81%) and 0% (95%CI 0%-31%) in ct-miR-148a/ct-miR-140-5p high/present and low/absent, respectively. GO and KEGG analyses showed common enriched terms between the targets of these ct-miRNAs, including cell metabolism regulation, AMPK and MAPK signaling, and HCC progression. In conclusion, early modulated ct-miR-148-3p may inform on the functional processes underlying treatment response, integrate the information from already available predictive biomarkers, and identify patients likely to respond to single agent trastuzumab-based neoadjuvant therapy.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/sangue , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , MicroRNA Circulante/sangue , Terapia Neoadjuvante , Receptor ErbB-2/metabolismo , Trastuzumab/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada
14.
Semin Cancer Biol ; 60: 344-350, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31626958

RESUMO

The presence in the blood of patients with solid tumors of circulating cells expressing both epithelial and leukocyte markers (dual-positive cells, DPcells), has often been reported, though it has never been investigated in detail. A recent study suggested that DPcells are hybrid cells derived from the fusion of tumor cells with macrophages. Such fusion hybrids acquire macrophage-associated features endowing them with accelerated growth, increased motility, enhanced invasion activity and thus, a higher efficiency in metastasis formation. However, no direct evidence proving the tumor origin of circulating DPcells was provided in patients. Here we contribute a review of literature data on DPcells and on the hybrid theory with the aim of putting the current evidence both in a biological and clinical perspective and to generate new hypotheses on the mechanisms underlying tumor progression. To add further biological and clinical context to our literature review, we also report some preliminary data from our laboratory on the identification of DPcells in several solid tumors and confirmation of their malignant genotype, thus classifying them as DP-CTCs.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Células Neoplásicas Circulantes/metabolismo , Células Neoplásicas Circulantes/patologia , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Testes Genéticos/métodos , Humanos , Biópsia Líquida/métodos , Neoplasias/etiologia
15.
Cancers (Basel) ; 11(11)2019 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31717320

RESUMO

Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) patients not attaining pathological Complete Response (pCR) after neo-adjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) have poor prognosis. We characterized 19 patients for somatic mutations in primary tumor biopsy and residual disease (RD) at surgery by 409 cancer-related gene sequencing (IonAmpliSeqTM Comprehensive Cancer Panel). A median of four (range 1-66) genes was mutated in each primary tumor biopsy, and the most common mutated gene was TP53 followed by a long tail of low frequency mutations. There were no recurrent mutations significantly associated with pCR. However, half of patients with RD had primary tumor biopsy with mutations in genes related to the immune system compared with none of those achieving pCR. Overall, the number of mutations showed a downward trend in post- as compared to pre-NAC samples. PIK3CA was the most common altered gene after NAC. The mutational profile of TNBC during treatment as inferred from patterns of mutant allele frequencies in matched pre-and post-NAC samples showed that RD harbored alterations of cell cycle progression, PI3K/Akt/mTOR, and EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor-resistance pathways. Our findings support the use of targeted-gene sequencing for TNBC therapeutic development, as patients without pCR may present mutations of immune-related pathways in their primary tumor biopsy, or actionable targets in the RD.

17.
Eur J Cancer ; 118: 1-9, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31284184

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dual HER2-inhibition combined with neoadjuvant chemotherapy allows increased pathological complete response (pCR) rate. However, with the addition of new agents, there is a growing need to select patients to minimise overtreatment. Herein, we evaluated the 41-gene classifier TRAR to predict pCR to anti-HER2 therapies in the NeoALTTO trial. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Gene expression data were obtained using RNA from 226 pretreatment tumour biopsies. Logistic regression analysis and the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC) were used to evaluate TRAR predictive and discriminatory capabilities. RESULTS: TRAR levels were associated with pCR (odds ratio, OR: 0.25, 95% confidence interval, CI: 0.15-0.42). The ROC analysis showed AUC values of 0.73 (95% CI: 0.67-0.80) overall; 0.70 (0.59-0.81) and 0.71 (0.62-0.80) for positive and negative oestrogen receptor cases and 0.74 (0.60-0.88), 0.76 (0.65-0.87) and 0.71 (0.59-0.83) for trastuzumab, lapatinib and combined treatment arms, respectively. TRAR provided reliable predictive information beyond established clinicopathological variables (OR: 0.26, 95% CI: 0.14-0.47). Furthermore, addition of TRAR to these variables provided greater predictive capability than the addition of PAM50: AUC 0.78 (0.72-0.84) versus 0.74 (0.67-0.81), p = 0.04. CONCLUSION: TRAR represents a promising tool to refine the ability to identify patients sensitive to anti-HER2 (including trastuzumab-only)-based therapy and eligible for de-escalated treatment strategies.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Lapatinib/uso terapêutico , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Receptor ErbB-2/antagonistas & inibidores , Transcriptoma , Trastuzumab/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/efeitos adversos , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias da Mama/enzimologia , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Quimioterapia Adjuvante , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Ensaios Clínicos Fase III como Assunto , Feminino , Humanos , Lapatinib/efeitos adversos , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto , Terapia Neoadjuvante , Seleção de Pacientes , Medicina de Precisão , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/efeitos adversos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Receptor ErbB-2/metabolismo , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Trastuzumab/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
Cancers (Basel) ; 11(7)2019 Jul 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31337040

RESUMO

Enzalutamide and abiraterone have been shown to improve progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) patients. Moreover, some patients may not benefit from the inhibition of androgen receptor (AR) activity or, alternatively, may develop secondary resistance. Detection in patients' circulating tumor cells (CTCs) of ARV7, a splicing variant of AR lacking the ligand-binding domain, showed a link with treatment failure. Independent confirmation of the predictive role of CTC status combined with ARV7 detection is, therefore, a priority for extending personalized biomarker-driven treatments to all patients. In this prospective observational study, CTC status and the expression of AR and ARV7 were measured in 37 mCRPC patients, before starting treatment with enzalutamide or abiraterone, by employing commercially available kits. CTC status was positive in 21/37 patients: 46% and 24% of CTC-positive patients were defined as AR- and ARV7-positive, respectively. Kaplan-Meier estimates showed that positivity for each variable was significantly associated with poorer radiological PFS, PSA-PFS, and OS. All considered treatment outcomes worsened when going from CTC-negative to CTC-positive/ARV7-negative to CTC-positive/ARV7-positive patients, both in the global case series and in patients stratified into three groups based on basal PSA levels. Presently, technical approaches appear to be mature for introducing CTC/ARV7 tests in clinical practice.

19.
Cells ; 8(7)2019 07 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31284534

RESUMO

Hematogenous dissemination may occur early in breast cancer (BC). Experimental models could clarify mechanisms, but in their development, the heterogeneity of this neoplasia must be considered. Here, we describe circulating tumor cells (CTCs) and the metastatic behavior of several BC cell lines in xenografts. MDA-MB-231, BT-474, MDA-MB-453 and MDA-MB-468 cells were injected at the orthotopic level in immunocompromised mice. CTCs were isolated using a size-based method and identified by cytomorphological criteria. Metastases were detected by COX IV immunohistochemistry. CTCs were detected in 90% of animals in each model. In MDA-MB-231, CTCs were observed after 5 weeks from the injection and step wisely increased at later time points. In animals injected with less aggressive cell lines, the load of single CTCs (mean ± SD CTCs/mL: 1.8 ± 1.3 in BT-474, 122.2 ± 278.5 in MDA-MB-453, 3.4 ± 2.5 in MDA-MB468) and the frequency of CTC clusters (overall 38%) were lower compared to MDA-MB231 (946.9 ± 2882.1; 73%). All models had lung metastases, MDA-MB-453 and MDA-MB468 had ovarian foci too, whereas lymph nodal involvement was observed in MDA-MB231 and MDA-MB-468 only. Interestingly, CTCs showed morphological heterogeneity and were rarely associated to host cells. Orthotopic xenograft of BC cell lines offers valid models of hematogenous dissemination and a possible experimental setting to study CTC-blood microenvironment interactions.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/secundário , Células Neoplásicas Circulantes , Animais , Neoplasias da Mama/sangue , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Feminino , Humanos , Camundongos , Transplante Heterólogo , Microambiente Tumoral , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
20.
Clin Cancer Res ; 25(13): 3887-3895, 2019 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30814109

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate the potential of circulating-miRNAs (ct-miRNA) as noninvasive biomarkers to predict the efficacy of single/dual HER2-targeted therapy in the NeoALTTO study. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Patients with plasma samples at baseline (T0) and/or after 2 weeks (T1) of treatment were randomized into training (n = 183) and testing (n = 246) sets. RT-PCR-based high-throughput miRNA profiling was employed in the training set. After normalization, ct-miRNAs associated with pathologic complete response (pCR) were identified by univariate analysis. Multivariate logistic regression models were implemented to generate treatment-specific signatures at T0 and T1, which were evaluated by RT-PCR in the testing set. Event-free survival (EFS) according to ct-miRNA signatures was estimated by Kaplan-Meier method and Cox regression model. RESULTS: In the training set, starting from 51 ct-miRNAs associated with pCR, six signatures with statistically significant predictive capability in terms of area under the ROC curve (AUC) were identified. Four signatures were confirmed in the testing set: lapatinib at T0 and T1 [AUC 0.86; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.73-0.98 and 0.71 (0.55-0.86)], respectively; trastuzumab at T1 (0.81; 0.70-0.92); lapatinib + trastuzumab at T1 (0.67; 0.51-0.83). These signatures were confirmed predictive after adjusting for known variables, including estrogen receptor status. ct-miRNA signatures failed to correlate with EFS. However, the levels of ct-miR-140-5p, included in the trastuzumab signature, were associated with EFS (HR 0.43; 95% CI, 0.22-0.84). CONCLUSIONS: ct-miRNAs discriminate patients with and without pCR after neoadjuvant lapatinib- and/or trastuzumab-based therapy. ct-miRNAs at week two could be valuable to identify patients responsive to trastuzumab, to avoid unnecessary combination with other anti-HER2 agents, and finally to assist deescalating treatment strategies.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , MicroRNA Circulante , Receptor ErbB-2/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Neoplasias da Mama/mortalidade , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Terapia Neoadjuvante , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Prognóstico , Curva ROC , Receptor ErbB-2/antagonistas & inibidores , Trastuzumab/administração & dosagem , Trastuzumab/efeitos adversos , Trastuzumab/uso terapêutico , Resultado do Tratamento , Carga Tumoral
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