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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31540965

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Reported prevalence of vasculitic neuropathy (VN) in antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis (AAV) is highly variable, and associations with other organ manifestations have not been studied systematically while accounting for diagnostic certainty of VN. METHODS: Data of all patients with AAV within the Diagnostic and Classification criteria for primary systemic VASculitis study were analyzed cross-sectionally. VN was categorized as definite (histology proven), probable (multiple mononeuropathy or nerve biopsy consistent with vasculitis), or possible (all others). Associations with other organ manifestations were compared in patients with and without VN. RESULTS: Nine hundred fifty-five patients (mean age 57 years, range 18-91 years, 51% female) were identified. Of these, 572 had granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA), 218 microscopic polyangiitis (MPA), and 165 eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA). The prevalence of VN was 65% in EGPA, 23% in MPA, and 19% in GPA. Nerve biopsy was performed in 32/269 (12%) patients, demonstrating definite vasculitis in 17/32 (53%) of patients. VN was associated with myeloperoxidase-ANCA positivity (p = 0.004) and skin (p < 0.001), musculoskeletal, (p < 0.001) and cardiovascular (p = 0.005) involvement. Patients with VN were less likely to have renal (p < 0.001), eye (p < 0.001), and gastrointestinal (p = 0.023) involvement. CONCLUSIONS: Our study provides comprehensive insights into the prevalence and organ associations of VN in a large, systematically collected AAV cohort. VN is most commonly associated with skin, musculoskeletal, and cardiovascular manifestations. In routine clinical practice, diagnosis of VN is infrequently confirmed by the gold standard of nerve biopsy but rather supported by the clinical setting of active systemic AAV.

2.
Swiss Med Wkly ; 149: w20121, 2019 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31476243

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To characterise adherence and treat-to-target (T2T) strategy in gout patients within a Swiss tertiary hospital. METHODS: Consecutive presenting patients with proven gout were prospectively included in this cohort. Symptoms, comorbidities, medication and laboratory values were assessed (during hospitalisation and at planned 3- and 12-month follow-up assessments). RESULTS: 116 patients (98 men) with a mean age of 67 (range 23–94 years) were included, 74% of whom had active arthritis. Comorbidities were frequent: hypertension, renal impairment, and obesity were present in 72, 55 and 35% of patients, respectively. Thirty-five percent of patients received urate-lowering treatment at inclusion. Only 62 and 50% attended the 3- and 12-month follow-up. The target serum uric acid level of <360 μmol/l was achieved in 22 and 57% of patients by the 3- and 12-month follow-up visits, respectively. Patients followed up by rheumatologists reached the target serum uric acid at follow-up more often than those that were not (p = 0.033). Median daily allopurinol dose at 12-month follow-up was 300 mg in those achieving T2T and 100 mg in the others (p = 0.033). Flares occurred during the first 3 months in 52% and during the subsequent 9 months in 47% of patients. CONCLUSION: Only half of patients attended the planned follow-up visits, indicating low awareness for gout. Of those attending follow-up, only approximately 50% had achieved the serum urate target at 12 months. Although new treatments are available, care for gout patients remains insufficient, notably in difficult-to-treat multimorbid patient subsets as described in this cohort.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31436837

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: [18F]Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-PET/CT and US are both well established for diagnosing GCA. The present study investigates their accuracy and whether they provide overlapping or complementary information in a cohort of patients presenting with suspicion of GCA. METHODS: We selected consecutive patients from our cohort of suspected GCA cases that underwent both extended vascular US and PET/CT for diagnostic work-up between December 2006 and August 2012. RESULTS: A total of 102 patients were included. Diagnosis of GCA was confirmed in 68 patients and excluded in 34 patients (controls). Vasculitic changes in US were most often found in the temporal artery with 32 positive findings on each side, followed by the popliteal artery (10 right, 9 left) and the subclavian/axillary artery (7 right, 8 left). By contrast, PET/CT showed vasculitis most frequently in the vertebral (23 right, 33 left) and common carotid arteries (32 right, 24 left), followed by the subclavian arteries (16 right, 18 left), and the thoracic (17) and abdominal aorta (23). In 37/68 GCA patients PET/CT and US both revealed vasculitic findings, 11/68 had positive findings in US only and 14/68 in PET/CT only. Specificity of US was higher (one false-positive vs five false-positive in PET/CT). On a single segment level, only 20 of 136 positive segments were positive in both imaging modalities. CONCLUSION: PET/CT measuring vessel wall metabolism and US vessel wall morphology showed a comparable diagnostic accuracy for GCA. However PET/CT and US were often discrepant within single vascular regions. Thus PET/CT and US should be considered as complementary methods, with a second imaging modality increasing the diagnostic yield by 16-20%.

6.
Rheumatology (Oxford) ; 58(5): 792-797, 2019 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30544199

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To assess changes of arterial vessel wall morphology in large vessel GCA patients (LV-GCA) by repeated US. METHODS: Patients with LV-GCA on US examination were followed up 6, 12 and 24 months after diagnosis by US of the temporal, vertebral, carotid (common, internal, external), subclavian, axillary, femoral (deep, superficial and common) and popliteal arteries. Clinical and laboratory data were assessed at each visit. Vessel wall thickening was classified as moderate, marked or arteriosclerotic. RESULTS: A total of 42 patients (26 female) with a median age of 75 years at diagnosis had in median 2 (range 1-3) US follow-up exams. Twenty-eight had both LV and temporal artery involvement and 14 had LV-GCA only. The common carotid, subclavian, axillary, popliteal and/or superficial femoral artery were most commonly involved. Reduction of LV wall thickening occurred in 45% of patients during follow-up, corresponding to 71 of the 284 (25%) initially 'vasculitic' LV segments. In contrast, a reduction of vessel wall thickening in the temporal artery was found in 85% of patients. Of the LVs, the vertebral, axillary, subclavian and deep femoral arteries were most likely to improve. There was no difference in relapses or the received cumulative steroid dose between patients with or without a reduction of vessel wall thickening (temporal artery or LV) during follow-up. CONCLUSION: Regression of wall thickening within the LV is significantly less common than in the temporal artery and irrespective of clinical remission. Morphological regression does not seem to be a useful predictor for relapses.

7.
PLoS One ; 13(10): e0202105, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30273933

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), cardiac manifestations, e.g. coronary artery disease (CAD) and myocarditis are leading causes of morbidity and mortality. The prevalence of subclinical heart disease in SLE is unknown. We studied whether a comprehensive cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) protocol may be useful for early diagnosis of heart disease in SLE patients without known CAD. METHODS: In this prospective, observational, cross-sectional study CMR including cine, late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) and stress perfusion sequences, ECG, and blood sampling were performed in 30 consecutive SLE patients without known CAD. All patients fulfilled at least 4/11 American College of Rheumatology (ACR) Criteria for the classification of SLE. RESULTS: 30 patients (83% female) were enrolled, mean age was 45±14 years and mean SLE disease duration was 10±8 years. 80% had low to moderate disease activity. All had a low SLE damage index. CMR was abnormal in 13/30 (43%), showing LGE in 9/13, stress perfusion deficits in 5/13 and pericardial effusion (PE) in 7/13. Patients with non-ischemic LGE had more often microalbuminuria while patients with stress perfusion deficits a history of hypertension, renal disorder as ACR criterion, repolarisation abnormalities on ECG and larger LV enddiastolic volume index. There was no correlation between clinical symptoms and CMR results. CONCLUSION: Our study shows that cardiac involvement as observed by CMR is frequent in SLE and not necessarily associated with typical symptoms. CMR may thus help to detect subclinical cardiac involvement, which could lead to earlier treatment. Additionally we identify possible risk factors associated with cardiac involvement.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30242987

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore potential subclinical involvement of the axial skeleton by MRI of the sacroiliac joints (SIJ) and entire spine in patients with skin psoriasis without clinical evidence of peripheral or axial inflammation. METHODS: Twenty patients with skin psoriasis but no clinical evidence of peripheral or axial inflammation and 22 healthy controls underwent standardized dermatologic and rheumatologic clinical examination and unenhanced 1.5T MRI of the SIJ and the entire spine. Two blinded readers globally assessed the presence or absence of SIJ inflammation simultaneously on T1-weighted and STIR MRI sequences with a confidence estimate. Bone marrow edema, fat metaplasia, erosion and ankylosis of the SIJ, and vertebral corner inflammatory and fat lesions were recorded using standardized modules. The prevalence of each lesion type was calculated in both groups averaged across 2 readers. The number of subjects with ≥1/2/3/4/5 lesions in the SIJ and spine as concordantly assessed by both readers was recorded. RESULTS: Median duration of skin psoriasis was 23.0 years, median age of patients 48.5 years. 25.0% of patients and 9.1% of healthy controls were concordantly classified by both readers as having SIJ inflammation (p=0.23). Prevalence of bone marrow edema and structural lesions was comparable across patients and controls both on SIJ and spine MRI. CONCLUSION: In this controlled study, patients with skin psoriasis, but no clinical arthritis or spondylitis showed limited evidence of concomitant subclinical axial involvement by SIJ and spine MRI. These findings do not support routine screening for subclinical axial inflammation in patients with longstanding skin psoriasis. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

9.
Swiss Med Wkly ; 148: w14661, 2018 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30141518

RESUMO

Historically, giant cell arteritis (GCA) was considered to be synonymous with temporal arteritis. However, the disease spectrum of GCA extends much further, and includes vasculitis of the aorta and its branches with or without involvement of the temporal arteries. Imaging is crucial for the diagnosis and follow-up of GCA patients. Large vessel GCA (LV-GCA) often presents as an inflammatory syndrome and is only detected by imaging modalities such as: colour duplex sonography (CDS), computed tomography (CT) / CT angiography (CTA), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) / CT. Deciding which imaging modality to use in different clinical situations remains a matter of debate. CDS and MRI enable assessment of the temporal arteries with a presumably higher sensitivity than histology. In the context of a typical presentation, CDS can replace a biopsy. In about a third of patients, the temporal arteries are not involved, thus PET/CT, MRI, CT, or CDS of larger arteries is needed to diagnose GCA. The sensitivity of all modalities is affected by glucocorticoid therapy. Therefore, without delaying therapy, imaging should be performed within a few days of treatment initiation. The use of PET/CT for the work-up of inflammatory syndromes in the elderly reveals vasculitis in approximately 20% of examined patients and uncover relevant diagnoses in the majority of remaining patients. The aorta should be routinely assessed in all GCA patients at diagnosis and during follow-up. MRA or CTA are best suited to characterise structural damage of larger arteries. The role of imaging in monitoring GCA disease activity still needs to be further defined.

10.
Respir Med Case Rep ; 24: 138-142, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29977782

RESUMO

A 25 year old woman was referred to our center for further evaluation of an exercise-induced dyspnea. Moreover, the patient suffered from hoarseness and recurrent sinusitis and otitis. After initially finding nothing suspicious, a spiro-ergometry was performed. Interestingly, we saw a relevant limitation of the inspiratory flow-volume curve under maximal exercise load. Further evaluation (in particular the bronchoscopy and the resulting biopsies) led us to the final diagnosis of a granulomatosis with polyangiitis. After 4 weeks of an established therapy regime with prednisone and rituximab the prior detected subglottic stenosis and the inspiratory flow-volume curve limitation could no longer detected. We describe a rare differential diagnosis of an exercise-induced asthma and we underline the importance of a multimodal therapy concept. We highlight the critical nature of the flow-volume curve in spiro-ergometry under maximal exercise load. We recommend frequent follow-up control visits to monitor the subglottic stenosis.

13.
Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging ; 19(8): 933-940, 2018 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29126277

RESUMO

Aims: The usefulness of [18F] fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography ([18F]FDG-PET/CT) for diagnosing giant cell arteritis (GCA) has been previously reported. Yet, the interpretation of PET scans is not clear-cut. The present study aimed at determining the best method to analyse PET/CT in a large, real-life cohort of patients presenting with suspicion of GCA. Methods and results: One hundred and three patients with clinical suspicion of GCA undergoing PET/CT between 2006 and 2012 were included. Clinical data were retrieved from patients' charts. PET/CT was categorized by visual scoring of the uptake and by the artery/liver standardized uptake values (SUV) ratios. Diagnosis of GCA was confirmed in 68 patients and excluded in 35 patients, which served as the controls. GCA patients were older (median age 75 vs. 68 years), and presented more often with ischaemic symptoms. The best discrimination between GCA patients and controls was achieved for PET/CT findings within the supra-aortic arteries (sensitivity 0.71, specificity 0.91 for a SUV/LE cut-off value of 1.0). Specificity of PET/CT for the aorta and the iliofemoral arteries was lower (<0.34). Visual scoring correlated poorly to SUV measurements (Kendall Tau-b 0.13-0.55) and had a lower diagnostic accuracy (sensitivity 0.77, specificity 0.75). Prednisone treatment for ≥10 days significantly reduced PET/CT sensitivity (P = 0.009). Conclusion: SUV based analysis of PET/CT enhances diagnostic accuracy with best discrimination in the supra-aortic region, particularly in steroid naïve patients. For discrimination based on the aorta and the iliofemoral region, higher cut-off values have to be applied, resulting in lower sensitivities for diagnosing GCA.

20.
Am J Hum Genet ; 100(1): 64-74, 2017 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28041642

RESUMO

Giant cell arteritis (GCA) is the most common form of vasculitis in individuals older than 50 years in Western countries. To shed light onto the genetic background influencing susceptibility for GCA, we performed a genome-wide association screening in a well-powered study cohort. After imputation, 1,844,133 genetic variants were analyzed in 2,134 case subjects and 9,125 unaffected individuals from ten independent populations of European ancestry. Our data confirmed HLA class II as the strongest associated region (independent signals: rs9268905, p = 1.94 × 10-54, per-allele OR = 1.79; and rs9275592, p = 1.14 × 10-40, OR = 2.08). Additionally, PLG and P4HA2 were identified as GCA risk genes at the genome-wide level of significance (rs4252134, p = 1.23 × 10-10, OR = 1.28; and rs128738, p = 4.60 × 10-9, OR = 1.32, respectively). Interestingly, we observed that the association peaks overlapped with different regulatory elements related to cell types and tissues involved in the pathophysiology of GCA. PLG and P4HA2 are involved in vascular remodelling and angiogenesis, suggesting a high relevance of these processes for the pathogenic mechanisms underlying this type of vasculitis.


Assuntos
Alelos , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Variação Genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Arterite de Células Gigantes/genética , Plasminogênio/genética , Prolil Hidroxilases/genética , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Europa (Continente)/etnologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Neovascularização Fisiológica , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Risco
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