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Lancet ; 390(10102): 1585-1594, 2017 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28755782


BACKGROUND: Previous bisphosphonate treatment attenuates the bone-forming effect of teriparatide. We compared the effects of 12 months of romosozumab (AMG 785), a sclerostin monoclonal antibody, versus teriparatide on bone mineral density (BMD) in women with postmenopausal osteoporosis transitioning from bisphosphonate therapy. METHODS: This randomised, phase 3, open-label, active-controlled study was done at 46 sites in North America, Latin America, and Europe. We enrolled women (aged ≥55 to ≤90 years) with postmenopausal osteoporosis who had taken an oral bisphosphonate for at least 3 years before screening and alendronate the year before screening; an areal BMD T score of -2·5 or lower at the total hip, femoral neck, or lumbar spine; and a history of fracture. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1) via an interactive voice response system to receive subcutaneous romosozumab (210 mg once monthly) or subcutaneous teriparatide (20 µg once daily). The primary endpoint was percentage change from baseline in areal BMD by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry at the total hip through month 12 (mean of months 6 and 12), which used a linear mixed effects model for repeated measures and represented the mean treatment effect at months 6 and 12. All randomised patients with a baseline measurement and at least one post-baseline measurement were included in the efficacy analysis. This trial is registered with, number NCT01796301. FINDINGS: Between Jan 31, 2013, and April 29, 2014, 436 patients were randomly assigned to romosozumab (n=218) or teriparatide (n=218). 206 patients in the romosozumab group and 209 in the teriparatide group were included in the primary efficacy analysis. Through 12 months, the mean percentage change from baseline in total hip areal BMD was 2·6% (95% CI 2·2 to 3·0) in the romosozumab group and -0·6% (-1·0 to -0·2) in the teriparatide group; difference 3·2% (95% CI 2·7 to 3·8; p<0·0001). The frequency of adverse events was generally balanced between treatment groups. The most frequently reported adverse events were nasopharyngitis (28 [13%] of 218 in the romosozumab group vs 22 [10%] of 214 in the teriparatide group), hypercalcaemia (two [<1%] vs 22 [10%]), and arthralgia (22 [10%] vs 13 [6%]). Serious adverse events were reported in 17 (8%) patients on romosozumab and in 23 (11%) on teriparatide; none were judged treatment related. There were six (3%) patients in the romosozumab group compared with 12 (6%) in the teriparatide group with adverse events leading to investigational product withdrawal. INTERPRETATION: Transition to a bone-forming agent is common practice in patients treated with bisphosphonates, such as those who fracture while on therapy. In such patients, romosozumab led to gains in hip BMD that were not observed with teriparatide. These data could inform clinical decisions for patients at high risk of fracture. FUNDING: Amgen, Astellas, and UCB Pharma.

Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol ; 5(7): 513-523, 2017 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28546097


BACKGROUND: Long-term safety and efficacy of osteoporosis treatment are important because of the chronic nature of the disease. We aimed to assess the long-term safety and efficacy of denosumab, which is widely used for the treatment of postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. METHODS: In the multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 FREEDOM trial, postmenopausal women aged 60-90 years with osteoporosis were enrolled in 214 centres in North America, Europe, Latin America, and Australasia and were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive 60 mg subcutaneous denosumab or placebo every 6 months for 3 years. All participants who completed the FREEDOM trial without discontinuing treatment or missing more than one dose of investigational product were eligible to enrol in the open-label, 7-year extension, in which all participants received denosumab. The data represent up to 10 years of denosumab exposure for women who received 3 years of denosumab in FREEDOM and continued in the extension (long-term group), and up to 7 years for women who received 3 years of placebo and transitioned to denosumab in the extension (crossover group). The primary outcome was safety monitoring, comprising assessments of adverse event incidence and serious adverse event incidence, changes in safety laboratory analytes (ie, serum chemistry and haematology), and participant incidence of denosumab antibody formation. Secondary outcomes included new vertebral, hip, and non-vertebral fractures as well as bone mineral density (BMD) at the lumbar spine, total hip, femoral neck, and one-third radius. Analyses were done according to the randomised FREEDOM treatment assignments. All participants who received at least one dose of investigational product in FREEDOM or the extension were included in the combined safety analyses. All participants who enrolled in the extension with observed data were included in the efficacy analyses. The FREEDOM trial (NCT00089791) and its extension (NCT00523341) are both registered with FINDINGS: Between Aug 3, 2004, and June 1, 2005, 7808 women were enrolled in the FREEDOM study. 5928 (76%) women were eligible for enrolment in the extension, and of these, 4550 (77%) were enrolled (2343 long-term, 2207 crossover) between Aug 7, 2007, and June 20, 2008. 2626 women (1343 long-term; 1283 crossover) completed the extension. The yearly exposure-adjusted participant incidence of adverse events for all individuals receiving denosumab decreased from 165·3 to 95·9 per 100 participant-years over the course of 10 years. Serious adverse event rates were generally stable over time, varying between 11·5 and 14·4 per 100 participant-years. One atypical femoral fracture occurred in each group during the extension. Seven cases of osteonecrosis of the jaw were reported in the long-term group and six cases in the crossover group. The yearly incidence of new vertebral fractures (ranging from 0·90% to 1·86%) and non-vertebral fractures (ranging from 0·84% to 2·55%) remained low during the extension, similar to rates observed in the denosumab group during the first three years of the FREEDOM study, and lower than rates projected for a virtual long-term placebo cohort. In the long-term group, BMD increased from FREEDOM baseline by 21·7% at the lumbar spine, 9·2% at total hip, 9·0% at femoral neck, and 2·7% at the one-third radius. In the crossover group, BMD increased from extension baseline by 16·5% at the lumbar spine, 7·4% at total hip, 7·1% at femoral neck, and 2·3% at one-third radius. INTERPRETATION: Denosumab treatment for up to 10 years was associated with low rates of adverse events, low fracture incidence compared with that observed during the original trial, and continued increases in BMD without plateau. FUNDING: Amgen.

Conservadores da Densidade Óssea/uso terapêutico , Densidade Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Denosumab/uso terapêutico , Osteoporose Pós-Menopausa/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Estudos Cross-Over , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Fatores de Tempo
BMC Musculoskelet Disord ; 18(1): 174, 2017 04 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28449657


BACKGROUND: Denosumab treatment for up to 8 years in the FREEDOM study and Extension was associated with low fracture incidence. It was not clear whether subjects who discontinued during the study conduct had a higher risk of fracture than those who remained enrolled, thereby underestimating the true fracture risk for the entire trial cohort. Thus, we explored the influence of early withdrawals on nonvertebral fracture incidence during the Extension study. METHODS: To understand the potential effect of depletion of susceptible subjects on fracture incidence, we first evaluated subject characteristics in patients who were enrolled in the Extension vs those who were not. We subsequently employed a Kaplan-Meier multiple imputation (KMMI) approach to consider subjects who discontinued as if they remained enrolled with a 0%, 20%, 50%, and 100% increase in fracture risk compared with participants remaining on study. RESULTS: Extension enrollees were generally similar to nonparticipants in median age (71.9 and 73.1 years, respectively), mean total hip bone mineral density T-score (-1.9 and -2.0, respectively), and probability of fracture risk by Fracture Risk Assessment Tool (FRAX®) at FREEDOM baseline (16.9% and 17.7% for major osteoporotic fracture and 6.7% and 7.4% for hip fracture, respectively). When we assumed a doubled fracture risk (100% increase) after discontinuation in KMMI analyses, nonvertebral fracture rate estimates were only marginally higher than the observed rates for both the crossover group (10.32% vs 9.16%, respectively) and the long-term group (7.63% vs 6.63%, respectively). CONCLUSION: The observation of continued denosumab efficacy over 8 years of treatment was robust and does not seem to be explained by depletion of susceptible subjects. TRIAL REGISTRATION: registration number NCT00523341 ; registered August 30, 2007.

Conservadores da Densidade Óssea/uso terapêutico , Denosumab/uso terapêutico , Fraturas do Quadril/tratamento farmacológico , Fraturas por Osteoporose/tratamento farmacológico , Pacientes Desistentes do Tratamento , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Fraturas do Quadril/diagnóstico por imagem , Fraturas do Quadril/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fraturas por Osteoporose/diagnóstico por imagem , Fraturas por Osteoporose/epidemiologia , Resultado do Tratamento
J Bone Miner Res ; 32(7): 1481-1485, 2017 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28277603


Denosumab is a fully human monoclonal antibody against receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL) that decreases osteoclast formation, function and survival, and is approved for the treatment of postmenopausal women with osteoporosis at increased or high risk for fracture, among other indications. During the pivotal 3-year fracture trial FREEDOM, denosumab 60 mg subcutaneously every 6 months significantly reduced new vertebral (68%), hip (40%), and nonvertebral (20%) fractures; increased bone mineral density (BMD); and reduced bone turnover markers compared with placebo in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. Questions have arisen regarding imbalances of certain low-frequency adverse events (AEs) observed in FREEDOM, as well as the top 5 most frequent adverse reactions listed in the United States prescribing information (USPI; back pain, pain in extremity, musculoskeletal pain, hypercholesterolemia, and cystitis). We examined the incidences of these AEs in women who originally received placebo during FREEDOM and then received denosumab for up to 3 years during the FREEDOM Extension (Crossover Group). This provided a unique opportunity for comparison with the original 3-year denosumab FREEDOM observations. We also examined the incidences of these AEs over 6 years of denosumab treatment (Long-term Group; ie, comparing a second 3 years of treatment with findings in the first 3 years). There was no indication of increasing trends regarding the imbalances of either low-frequency AEs or common AEs observed in FREEDOM. © 2017 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

Denosumab/administração & dosagem , Osteoporose Pós-Menopausa/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Denosumab/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Osteoporose Pós-Menopausa/epidemiologia , Osteoporose Pós-Menopausa/metabolismo , Osteoporose Pós-Menopausa/patologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
J Bone Miner Res ; 29(2): 450-7, 2014 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23873632


Atherosclerosis and osteoporosis are chronic diseases that progress with age, and studies suggest aortic calcification, an indicator of atherosclerosis, is inversely associated with bone mineral density (BMD). The osteoprotegerin (OPG)/receptor activator of NF-κB (RANK)/RANK ligand (RANKL) system has been proposed as a shared regulatory system for bone and vasculature. Denosumab (DMAb), a monoclonal antibody against RANKL, improved BMD and reduced fracture risk in the Fracture Reduction Evaluation of Denosumab in Osteoporosis Every 6 Months (FREEDOM) trial. We evaluated whether or not treatment with DMAb influenced progression of aortic calcification (AC) and incidence of cardiovascular (CV) adverse events. We included 2363 postmenopausal women with osteoporosis (1142 placebo, 1221 DMAb), selected from 7808 participants in the FREEDOM trial (3906 placebo, 3902 DMAb), at high risk of CV events according to modified Raloxifene Use for the Heart (RUTH) criteria. CV adverse events were reported by participants. AC scores were assessed using a semiquantitative method from lateral spine X-rays. Change in AC score from baseline to 12 (n = 1377), 24 (n = 1231), and 36 months (n = 1045) was calculated as AC score at follow-up minus AC score at baseline. AC progression was defined as change in AC score >0. Baseline characteristics, CV risk factors, and AC scores were similar between treatment groups. Mean age of participants was 74 years (range, 60-90), 88% were white, and 77% had AC score >0 at baseline. Frequency of AC progression over 3 years did not differ between women in placebo (22%) and DMAb (22%) groups (p = 0.98). AC progression did not differ between treatment groups when analyzed by baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate or by baseline AC scores. Frequency of CV adverse events did not differ between placebo (40%) and DMAb (38%) groups (p = 0.26). In conclusion, DMAb treatment had no effect on progression of AC or incidence of CV adverse events compared to placebo.

Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/administração & dosagem , Doenças da Aorta/tratamento farmacológico , Osteoporose Pós-Menopausa/tratamento farmacológico , Ligante RANK/antagonistas & inibidores , Calcificação Vascular/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/efeitos adversos , Doenças da Aorta/complicações , Doenças da Aorta/patologia , Denosumab , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Osteoporose Pós-Menopausa/complicações , Osteoporose Pós-Menopausa/patologia , Calcificação Vascular/complicações , Calcificação Vascular/patologia
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 98(11): 4483-92, 2013 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23979955


CONTEXT: The Fracture Reduction Evaluation of Denosumab in Osteoporosis Every 6 Months (FREEDOM) extension is evaluating the long-term efficacy and safety of denosumab for up to 10 years. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to report results from the first 3 years of the extension, representing up to 6 years of denosumab exposure. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: This was a multicenter, international, open-label study of 4550 women. INTERVENTION: Women from the FREEDOM denosumab group received 3 more years of denosumab for a total of 6 years (long-term) and women from the FREEDOM placebo group received 3 years of denosumab (crossover). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Bone turnover markers (BTMs), bone mineral density (BMD), fracture, and safety data are reported. RESULTS: Reductions in BTMs were maintained (long-term) or achieved rapidly (crossover) after denosumab administration. In the long-term group, BMD further increased for cumulative 6-year gains of 15.2% (lumbar spine) and 7.5% (total hip). During the first 3 years of denosumab treatment, the crossover group had significant gains in lumbar spine (9.4%) and total hip (4.8%) BMD, similar to the long-term group during the 3-year FREEDOM trial. In the long-term group, fracture incidences remained low and below the rates projected for a virtual placebo cohort. In the crossover group, 3-year incidences of new vertebral and nonvertebral fractures were similar to those of the FREEDOM denosumab group. Incidence rates of adverse events did not increase over time. Six participants had events of osteonecrosis of the jaw confirmed by adjudication. One participant had a fracture adjudicated as consistent with atypical femoral fracture. CONCLUSION: Denosumab treatment for 6 years remained well tolerated, maintained reduced bone turnover, and continued to increase BMD. Fracture incidence remained low.

Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/administração & dosagem , Fraturas Ósseas/prevenção & controle , Osteoporose Pós-Menopausa/tratamento farmacológico , Ligante RANK/antagonistas & inibidores , Idoso , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/efeitos adversos , Densidade Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Estudos Cross-Over , Denosumab , Feminino , Fraturas Ósseas/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Osteoporose Pós-Menopausa/epidemiologia , Placebos , Fatores de Risco , Tempo