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1.
J Assoc Physicians India ; 69(6): 11-12, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34472787

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The present study intended to estimate the comorbidities and risk factors among patients with hypertension in India. Further, the current practice of hypertension management was evaluated and the choice of therapy was assessed based on hypertension grade, risk factors, and comorbidities. METHODS: Electronic medical record data (June 2017-June 2019) of Indian adult hypertensive patients (≥140/90 mmHg) who had two blood pressure (BP) readings were retrospectively analyzed. Demographic characteristics, BP readings, comorbidities, medications and co-medications, and laboratory data were collected at baseline. Grids based on hypertension grade (I, II, and III), demographic factors, risk factors, and comorbidities were created and prescribed antihypertensive drugs (AHDs) in each grid were evaluated. RESULTS: Among 100,075 patients, the proportion of patients in 18-40 year, 40-65 year, and >65 year age groups were 11.4%, 65.1%, and 23.4%, respectively. Proportion of men and women was similar (52.0% vs 47.9%). Proportion of patients with BMI <25 Kg/m2 was 8.1%, 25-29.9 Kg/m2 was 11.9%, and >30 Kg/m2 was 8.8%. Mean BP of patients with hypertension was: grade I (145.05/90.73 mmHg), grade II (160.07/95.64 mmHg), and grade III (180.82/102.76 mmHg). Mean low density lipoprotein (113.26 mg/dL), serum creatinine (2.28 mg/dL), mean HbA1c (8.7%) levels were highest among patients with grade III hypertension. Commonly observed comorbidities were type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM: 51.5%), dyslipidemia (36.4%), and chronic kidney disease (CKD: 4.4%). Top concomitant medications included anti-diabetic therapies (34.6%), drugs for dyslipidemia (30.0%), and anti-platelet therapies (6.9%). CONCLUSION: Most prescribed AHD monotherapies were angiotensin receptor II blockers (ARBs) and calcium channel blockers (CCBs) and most prescribed combination therapies were ARBs + diuretics and ARBs + CCBs. Telmisartan and amlodipine+telmisartan for patients with comorbid T2DM or dyslipidemia and metoprolol for those with coronary artery disease were the commonly prescribed AHDs.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Hipertensão , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/farmacologia , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina , Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Pressão Sanguínea , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Índia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Morbidade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
2.
J Hum Genet ; 66(10): 983-993, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33864011

RESUMO

Familial Hypercholesterolemia (FH) is an autosomal, dominant, inherited disorder characterized by severely elevated LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) levels with high risk for Coronary Artery Disease (CAD). There are limited genetic studies especially on genes other than Low Density Lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) conducted in Indian population. Thus, our aim was to screen the entire Proprotein Convertase Subtilisin/Kexin type 9 gene (PCSK9) gene & hotspot exons 3, 4 and 9 of LDLR gene in FH cases and controls. 50 FH cases were categorized into definite, probable and possible cases according to Dutch Lipid Network Criteria (DLNC) who were gender matched with 50 healthy controls. All 12 exons of PCSK9, and hotspot exons 3, 4 & 9 of LDLR gene were screened through High Resolution Melt (HRM) curve analysis. Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay was performed to measure circulating PCSK9 levels. Total cholesterol and LDL-C were significantly high in all three groups of cases. Total 8 nonpathogenic variants in exon 1, 5, 7 and 9 of the PCSK9 gene were detected. In LDLR gene, 3 known pathogenic and 1 benign variant were found in exon 3 & 4. In FH cases, PCSK9 levels were significantly high compared to controls (P = 0.0001), and were directly correlated to LDL-C (P = 0.0001) and Total Cholesterol (P = 0.0001). Our study is first to screen the entire PCSK9 gene in western part of India. Since no pathogenic variants were identified, it is possible that PCSK9 variants are clinically less relevant. However, 3 known pathogenic variants were found in the LDLR gene. These findings support our understanding of the genetic spectrum of FH in India.

3.
Indian Heart J ; 73(1): 135-137, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33714401

RESUMO

RESULTS: of the efficAcy and safety of Trimetazidine in patients with angina pectoris having been treated by Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (ATPCI) study showed no significant difference in the incidence of primary endpoint events between trimetazidine and placebo group in angina patients who recently underwent percutaneous coronary intervention. However, the study had limitations specific to both, design and selection of patient population. Here, we present some explanations for the null effects of trimetazidine in the ATPCI study and their relevance in routine clinical practice.


Assuntos
Angina Pectoris/terapia , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/métodos , Trimetazidina/farmacologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva , Vasodilatadores/farmacologia
13.
Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol ; 16(9): 837-851, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32729743

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Statins have been established as the standard of care for dyslipidemia and preventing cardiovascular diseases while posing few safety concerns. However, misconceptions about statin intolerance lead to their underuse, indicating a need to improve the understanding of the safety of this treatment. AREAS COVERED: We searched PubMed and reviewed literatures related to statin intolerance published between February 2015 and February 2020. Important large-scale or landmark studies published before 2015 were also cited as key evidence. EXPERT OPINION: Optimal lowering of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol with statins substantially reduces the risk of cardiovascular events. Muscle adverse events (AEs) were the most frequently reported AEs by statin users in clinical practice, but they usually occurred at a similar rate with statins and placebo in randomized controlled trials and had a spurious causal relationship with statin treatment. We proposed a rigorous definition for identifying true statin intolerance and present the criteria for defining different forms of muscle AEs and an algorithm for their management. True statin intolerance is uncommon, and every effort should be made to exclude false statin intolerance and ensure optimal use of statins. For the management of statin intolerance, statin-based approaches should be prioritized over non-statin approaches.


Assuntos
Dislipidemias/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/administração & dosagem , Doenças Musculares/induzido quimicamente , Algoritmos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Dislipidemias/complicações , Humanos , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/efeitos adversos , Doenças Musculares/diagnóstico
14.
J Assoc Physicians India ; 68(4): 73-79, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32610855

RESUMO

Introduction: Hypertension (HTN) is a rapidly growing epidemic in India. It is no larger restricted to older adults as more young Indians are being diagnosed with HTN. Despite its significant prevalence, the awareness, treatment, and control of HTN remain low in India. Thus, early diagnosis is essential to control HTN and prevent future complications. Screening for HTN can help identify undiagnosed and asymptomatic HTN, and thereby the early use of interventions to control the blood pressure (BP). However, no comprehensive guidelines have been established for effective HTN screening in asymptomatic individuals in an Indian setting. Objective: To provide consensus recommendations for hypertension screening in India. Consensus recommendations: Screening for HTN can provide more effective control of HTN and reduce the complications. Experts recommended that the initial age at screening should be 18 years. In individuals at a high risk of HTN, targeted screening can be undertaken. BP measurement using an electronic BP recorder (with at least two readings) are required for identifying HTN during screening. In asymptomatic adults with BP <130/85 mmHg and BP of 130-139/85- 89 mmHg, rescreening should be conducted every 3-5 years and at least every year, respectively. Screening for HTN can be cost effective even when universal screening of the entire population is undertaken. Conclusion: The consensus recommendations would increase the awareness of HTN screening. Screening for HTN can provide more effective control of HTN and reduce the complications.


Assuntos
Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Idoso , Pressão Sanguínea , Consenso , Humanos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Índia/epidemiologia , Prevalência
15.
J Hypertens ; 38(7): 1262-1270, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32195821

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: India Heart Study (IHS) is aimed at investigating the agreement between office blood pressure measurement (OBPM) and self (S)BPM in a hypertension-naive population. METHODS: A total of 18 918 individuals (aged 42.6 ±â€Š11.7 years, 62.7% men), visiting 1237 primary care physicians across India, underwent OBPM. They performed SBPM for a period of 1 week using a validated oscillometric BP monitor that was preprogrammed to adhere to a guideline-based SBPM-schedule and blinded to the results. Thereafter, individuals underwent a second OBPM. Available laboratory results were obtained. Thresholds for elevated OBPM and SBPM were 140/90 and 135/85 mmHg, respectively. RESULTS: On the basis of first-visit OBPM and SBPM, there were 5787 (30.6%) individuals with normotension; 5208 (27.5%) with hypertension; 4485 (23.7%) with white-coat hypertension (WCH) and 3438 (18.2%) with masked hypertension. Thus, a diagnosis contradiction between SBPM and first-visit OBPM was seen in 9870 (41.9%) individuals. On the basis of second-visit OBPM, the normotension, hypertension, WCH and masked hypertension prevalence values were 7875 (41.6%); 4857 (25.7%); 2397 (12.7%) and 3789 (20.0%). There was poor agreement (kappa value 0.37) between OBPM of visit 1 and 2 with a diagnosis difference in 6027 (31.8%) individuals. The majority of masked hypertension and WCH individuals had BP values close to thresholds. CONCLUSION: There was a poor agreement between OBPM of visit1 and visit 2. Likewise, the agreement between OBPM at both visits and SBPM was poor. SBPM being considered to have a better correlation with patient prognosis should be the preferred method for diagnosing hypertension.


Assuntos
Determinação da Pressão Arterial/métodos , Pressão Sanguínea , Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Autocuidado , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Índia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Hipertensão Mascarada/diagnóstico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Visita a Consultório Médico , Oscilometria , Prevalência , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Hipertensão do Jaleco Branco/diagnóstico
16.
J Clin Lipidol ; 14(2): e1-e13, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32089456

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rates of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) are strikingly high in India compared to Western countries and are increasing. Moreover, ASCVD events occur at a younger age with only modest hypercholesterolemia, most commonly with low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. The course of ASCVD also appears to be more fulminant with higher mortality. OBJECTIVE: In light of these issues, the Lipid Association of India (LAI) endeavored to develop revised guidelines with more aggressive low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) goals in secondary prevention and for patients with familial hypercholesterolemia compared to guidelines in the United States and other countries. METHODS: Owing to the paucity of clinical outcomes data in India, it was necessary to place major emphasis on expert opinion as a complement to randomized placebo-controlled data generated mostly in non-Indian cohorts. To facilitate this process, the LAI conducted a series of 19 meetings among 162 lipid specialists in 13 cities throughout India over a period of 11 months before formulating this expert consensus statement. RESULTS: The LAI recommends an LDL-C goal <50 mg/dL in all patients in secondary prevention or very high-risk primary prevention but proposes an optional goal ≤30 mg/dL in category A extreme-risk patients (eg, coronary artery disease + familial hypercholesterolemia) and a recommended goal ≤30 mg/dL in category B extreme-risk patients [coronary artery disease + (1) diabetes and polyvascular disease/≥3 major ASCVD risk factors/end organ damage, or (2) recurrent acute coronary syndrome within 12 months despite LDL-C <50 mg/dL, or (3) homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia]. CONCLUSIONS: More aggressive LDL-C goals are needed for prevention of ASCVD in India, as described in this expert consensus statement. Use of statins and ezetimibe needs to increase in India in combination with improved control of other ASCVD risk factors. Proprotein convertase subtilisin kexin type 9 inhibitors can improve LDL-C goal achievement in patients with refractory hypercholesterolemia.

17.
Int J Cardiol ; 293: 39-44, 2019 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31178223

RESUMO

Abnormalities of myocardial energy metabolism appear as a common background of the two major cardiac disorders: ischemic heart disease (IHD) and heart failure (HF). Myocardial ischemia has been recently conceived as a multifaceted syndrome that can be precipitated by a number of mechanisms including metabolic abnormalities. HF is a progressive disorder characterised by a complex interaction of haemodynamic, neurohormonal and metabolic disturbances. HF may further promote metabolic changes, generating a vicious cycle. Thus, targeting cardiac metabolism in IHD patients may prevent the deterioration of left ventricular function, stopping the progression to HF. For these reasons, several studies have explored the potential benefits of trimetazidine (TMZ), an inhibitor of free fatty acids oxidation that shifts cardiac and muscle metabolism to glucose utilization. Because of its mechanism of action, TMZ has been found to provide a cardioprotective effect in patients with angina, diabetes mellitus, and left ventricular (LV) dysfunction, and those undergoing revascularization procedures, without relevant side effects. In addition, the lack of interference with heart rate, arterial pressure, and most of frequent comorbidities, makes TMZ an attractive option for patients and clinicians as well. The impact of TMZ on long term mortality and morbidity in ischemic syndromes and in heart failure need to be conclusively confirmed in properly designed RCT.


Assuntos
Cardiologia/métodos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/metabolismo , Trimetazidina/uso terapêutico , Vasodilatadores/uso terapêutico , Cardiologia/tendências , Cardiotônicos/farmacologia , Cardiotônicos/uso terapêutico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/fisiopatologia , Metabolismo Energético/efeitos dos fármacos , Metabolismo Energético/fisiologia , Humanos , Trimetazidina/farmacologia , Vasodilatadores/farmacologia
18.
Int J Hypertens ; 2019: 2087064, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30915238

RESUMO

Heart rate (HR) is strongly associated with both peripheral and central blood pressures. This association has implications in hypertension (HTN) prognosis and management. Elevated HR in HTN further elevates the risk of adverse outcomes. Evidence suggests that HR is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular (CV) and total mortality in patients with HTN. With objective to engage physicians and researchers in India to identify and discuss the implications related to HR management in HTN, experts in the HTN management provided consensus recommendations. The key expert recommendations included the following. (i) Heart rate (HR) has inverse relationship with the central aortic pressure, whereby reduction in HR is associated with an increase in central aortic pressure. This counter-balances the benefit of HR reduction with the harmful effects of rising central aortic pressure. (ii) Increase in the resting HR is associated with increased risk of incident HTN. A linear association between the two is observed especially in individuals with HR >80 bpm. (iii) A reduced HR variability further adds to the propensity for the development of HTN, especially in men. (iv) Each 10 beats per minute increase in the resting HR can substantially increase the risk of adverse CV and mortality outcomes. On treatment HR provides a better prognostic guide. (v) Ambulatory HR with day-time and night-time HR evaluation may also suggest different impact on outcomes. (vi) Target HR in patients with HTN remains unclear. Generally, HR<70 bpm on beta blocker (BB) treatment is advised which may be further lowered in patients with comorbidities like heart failure and coronary artery disease. (vii) Adopting healthy lifestyle approaches to keep check on BP and HR is essential. (viii) Use selective beta-1 blocker in symptomatic cases with elevated HR beyond 80-85 mmHg. BBs are expected to benefit by lowering HR by nearly 10 bpm. Preference should be given to newer beta-blockers which reduce HR and both peripheral and central blood pressure to derive comprehensive advantage of this dual action. (ix) It still remains unclear whether reducing HR in HTN without comorbidities alters the CV and mortality outcomes.

19.
Indian Heart J ; 70(6): 822-827, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30580851

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Soluble suppression of tumorigenicity-2 (sST2) is a novel biomarker shown to be useful for prognostic assessment in heart failure (HF). However, very limited data exists about its prognostic utility in patients with HF in India. METHODS: We studied 150 patients [mean age 67.7 ± 13.3, 93 (62%) males], hospitalized with clinical HF, irrespective of their left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). HF was confirmed by N-terminal probrain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) value above 125 ng/L. Primary end point was death or cardiac transplant at 1-year follow-up, with additional telephonic follow-up performed at 2 years. The clinical outcomes were correlated with the sST2 values obtained at the time of initial hospitalization. RESULTS: HF was ischemic in origin in 82.0% patients. The primary outcome occurred in 9.3% patients at the end of 1-year follow-up and in 16.7% patients at the end of 2 years. The patients who had events had significantly higher NT-proBNP and sST2 values, but there was no difference in the clinical characteristics, cause of HF, baseline LVEF, or serum creatinine. The patients with elevated sST2 levels (>35 ng/mL) had substantially higher event rates than those with normal sST2 levels (13.7% vs 0.0% at 1-year, P = 0.005; 22.5% vs 4.2% at 2-years, P = 0.004). On multivariate analysis, sST2 was the strongest predictor of adverse outcomes at both 1-year and 2-year follow-ups. CONCLUSION: In patients hospitalized for HF, elevated sST2 >35 ng/mL at the time of initial hospitalization was associated with significantly high mortality over a 2-year period. The prognostic value of sST2 was incremental to that of NT-proBNP. These findings suggest that a single elevated sST2 value at the time of hospitalization should alert the physicians about the high risk of adverse outcomes and should help facilitate timely intensification of HF treatment.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca/sangue , Proteína 1 Semelhante a Receptor de Interleucina-1/sangue , Volume Sistólico/fisiologia , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Feminino , Seguimentos , Insuficiência Cardíaca/mortalidade , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Peptídeo Natriurético Encefálico/sangue , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/sangue , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Precursores de Proteínas , Receptores de Interleucina-1 , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Taxa de Sobrevida/tendências , Fatores de Tempo
20.
Int J Hypertens ; 2018: 8681792, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29887996

RESUMO

Calcium channel blockers are among the first-line drugs for treatment of hypertension (HTN). S-amlodipine (S-AM), an S-enantiomer of amlodipine, is available in India and in other countries like China, Korea, Russia, Ukraine, and Nepal. Being clinically researched for nearly two decades, we performed in-depth review of S-AM. This review discusses clinical evidence from total 42 studies (26 randomized controlled trials, 14 observational studies, and 2 meta-analyses) corroborating over 7400 patients treated with S-AM. Efficacy and safety of S-AM in HTN in comparison to racemic amlodipine, used as monotherapy and in combination with other antihypertensives, efficacy in angina, and pleiotropic benefits with S-AM, are discussed in this review.

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