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1.
J Magn Reson Imaging ; 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33644939

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diffusion-weighted (DW) echo-planar imaging (EPI) is prone to geometric distortions due to B0 inhomogeneities. Both prospective and retrospective approaches have been developed to decrease and correct such distortions. PURPOSE: The purpose of this work was to evaluate the performance of reduced-field-of-view (FOV) acquisition and retrospective distortion correction methods in decreasing distortion artifacts for breast imaging. Coverage of the axilla in reduced-FOV DW magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and residual distortion were also assessed. STUDY TYPE: Retrospective. POPULATION/PHANTOM: Breast phantom and 169 women (52.4 ± 13.4 years old) undergoing clinical breast MRI. FIELD STRENGTH/SEQUENCE: A 3.0 T/ full- and reduced-FOV DW gradient-echo EPI sequence. ASSESSMENT: Performance of reversed polarity gradient (RPG) and FSL topup in correcting breast full- and reduced-FOV EPI data was evaluated using the mutual information (MI) metric between EPI and anatomical images. Two independent breast radiologists determined if coverage on both EPI data sets was adequate to evaluate axillary nodes and identified residual nipple distortion artifacts. STATISTICAL TESTS: Two-way repeated-measures analyses of variance and post hoc tests were used to identify differences between EPI modality and distortion correction method. Generalized linear mixed effects models were used to evaluate differences in axillary coverage and residual nipple distortion. RESULTS: In a breast phantom, residual distortions were 0.16 ± 0.07 cm and 0.22 ± 0.13 cm in reduced- and full-FOV EPI with both methods, respectively. In patients, MI significantly increased after distortion correction of full-FOV (11 ± 5% and 18 ± 9%, RPG and topup) and reduced-FOV (8 ± 4% both) EPI data. Axillary nodes were observed in 99% and 69% of the cases in full- and reduced-FOV EPI images. Residual distortion was observed in 93% and 0% of the cases in full- and reduced-FOV images. DATA CONCLUSION: Minimal distortion was achieved with RPG applied to reduced-FOV EPI data. RPG improved distortions for full-FOV images but with more modest improvements and limited correction near the nipple. EVIDENCE LEVEL: 3 TECHNICAL EFFICACY: Stage 1.

2.
J Magn Reson Imaging ; 2021 Mar 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33786915

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is integral to detection of prostate cancer (PCa), but conventional apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) cannot capture the complexity of prostate tissues and tends to yield noisy images that do not distinctly highlight cancer. A four-compartment restriction spectrum imaging (RSI4 ) model was recently found to optimally characterize pelvic diffusion signals, and the model coefficient for the slowest diffusion compartment, RSI4 -C1 , yielded greatest tumor conspicuity. PURPOSE: To evaluate the slowest diffusion compartment of a four-compartment spectrum imaging model (RSI4 -C1 ) as a quantitative voxel-level classifier of PCa. STUDY TYPE: Retrospective. SUBJECTS: Forty-six men who underwent an extended MRI acquisition protocol for suspected PCa. Twenty-three men had benign prostates, and the other 23 men had PCa. FIELD STRENGTH/SEQUENCE: A 3 T, multishell diffusion-weighted and axial T2-weighted sequences. ASSESSMENT: High-confidence cancer voxels were delineated by expert consensus, using imaging data and biopsy results. The entire prostate was considered benign in patients with no detectable cancer. Diffusion images were used to calculate RSI4 -C1 and conventional ADC. Classifier images were also generated. STATISTICAL TESTS: Voxel-level discrimination of PCa from benign prostate tissue was assessed via receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves generated by bootstrapping with patient-level case resampling. RSI4 -C1 was compared to conventional ADC for two metrics: area under the ROC curve (AUC) and false-positive rate for a sensitivity of 90% (FPR90 ). Statistical significance was assessed using bootstrap difference with two-sided α = 0.05. RESULTS: RSI4 -C1 outperformed conventional ADC, with greater AUC (mean 0.977 [95% CI: 0.951-0.991] vs. 0.922 [0.878-0.948]) and lower FPR90 (0.032 [0.009-0.082] vs. 0.201 [0.132-0.290]). These improvements were statistically significant (P < 0.05). DATA CONCLUSION: RSI4 -C1 yielded a quantitative, voxel-level classifier of PCa that was superior to conventional ADC. RSI classifier images with a low false-positive rate might improve PCa detection and facilitate clinical applications like targeted biopsy and treatment planning. EVIDENCE LEVEL: 3 TECHNICAL EFFICACY: Stage 2.

3.
Transl Psychiatry ; 11(1): 182, 2021 Mar 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33753722

RESUMO

Low-frequency 1q21.1 distal deletion and duplication copy number variant (CNV) carriers are predisposed to multiple neurodevelopmental disorders, including schizophrenia, autism and intellectual disability. Human carriers display a high prevalence of micro- and macrocephaly in deletion and duplication carriers, respectively. The underlying brain structural diversity remains largely unknown. We systematically called CNVs in 38 cohorts from the large-scale ENIGMA-CNV collaboration and the UK Biobank and identified 28 1q21.1 distal deletion and 22 duplication carriers and 37,088 non-carriers (48% male) derived from 15 distinct magnetic resonance imaging scanner sites. With standardized methods, we compared subcortical and cortical brain measures (all) and cognitive performance (UK Biobank only) between carrier groups also testing for mediation of brain structure on cognition. We identified positive dosage effects of copy number on intracranial volume (ICV) and total cortical surface area, with the largest effects in frontal and cingulate cortices, and negative dosage effects on caudate and hippocampal volumes. The carriers displayed distinct cognitive deficit profiles in cognitive tasks from the UK Biobank with intermediate decreases in duplication carriers and somewhat larger in deletion carriers-the latter potentially mediated by ICV or cortical surface area. These results shed light on pathobiological mechanisms of neurodevelopmental disorders, by demonstrating gene dose effect on specific brain structures and effect on cognitive function.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33723363

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Clinical variables-age, family history, genetics-are used for prostate cancer risk stratification. Recently, polygenic hazard scores (PHS46, PHS166) were validated as associated with age at prostate cancer diagnosis. While polygenic scores are associated with all prostate cancer (not specific for fatal cancers), PHS46 was also associated with age at prostate cancer death. We evaluated if adding PHS to clinical variables improves associations with prostate cancer death. METHODS: Genotype/phenotype data were obtained from a nested case-control Cohort of Swedish Men (n = 3279; 2163 with prostate cancer, 278 prostate cancer deaths). PHS and clinical variables (family history, alcohol intake, smoking, heart disease, hypertension, diabetes, body mass index) were tested via univariable Cox proportional hazards models for association with age at prostate cancer death. Multivariable Cox models with/without PHS were compared with log-likelihood tests. RESULTS: Median age at last follow-up/prostate cancer death was 78.0 (IQR: 72.3-84.1) and 81.4 (75.4-86.3) years, respectively. On univariable analysis, PHS46 (HR 3.41 [95% CI 2.78-4.17]), family history (HR 1.72 [1.46-2.03]), alcohol (HR 1.74 [1.40-2.15]), diabetes (HR 0.53 [0.37-0.75]) were each associated with prostate cancer death. On multivariable analysis, PHS46 (HR 2.45 [1.99-2.97]), family history (HR 1.73 [1.48-2.03]), alcohol (HR 1.45 [1.19-1.76]), diabetes (HR 0.62 [0.42-0.90]) all remained associated with fatal disease. Including PHS46 or PHS166 improved multivariable models for fatal prostate cancer (p < 10-15). CONCLUSIONS: PHS had the most robust association with fatal prostate cancer in a multivariable model with common risk factors, including family history. Adding PHS to clinical variables may improve prostate cancer risk stratification strategies.

5.
Genetics ; 217(3)2021 Mar 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33789345

RESUMO

We propose an extended Gaussian mixture model for the distribution of causal effects of common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for human complex phenotypes that depends on linkage disequilibrium (LD) and heterozygosity (H), while also allowing for independent components for small and large effects. Using a precise methodology showing how genome-wide association studies (GWASs) summary statistics (z-scores) arise through LD with underlying causal SNPs, we applied the model to GWAS of multiple human phenotypes. Our findings indicated that causal effects are distributed with dependence on total LD and H, whereby SNPs with lower total LD and H are more likely to be causal with larger effects; this dependence is consistent with models of the influence of negative pressure from natural selection. Compared with the basic Gaussian mixture model it is built on, the extended model-primarily through quantification of selection pressure-reproduces with greater accuracy the empirical distributions of z-scores, thus providing better estimates of genetic quantities, such as polygenicity and heritability, that arise from the distribution of causal effects.

6.
Alzheimers Dement ; 2021 Feb 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33580733

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The locus coeruleus (LC) undergoes extensive neurodegeneration in early Alzheimer's disease (AD). The LC is implicated in regulating the sleep-wake cycle, modulating cognitive function, and AD progression. METHODS: Participants were 481 men (ages 62 to 71.7) from the Vietnam Era Twin Study of Aging. LC structural integrity was indexed by neuromelanin-sensitive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast-to-noise ratio (LCCNR ). We examined LCCNR , cognition, amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI), and daytime dysfunction. RESULTS: Heritability of LCCNR was .48. Participants with aMCI showed greater daytime dysfunction. Lower LCCNR was associated with poorer episodic memory, general verbal fluency, semantic fluency, and processing speed, as well as increased odds of aMCI and greater daytime dysfunction. DISCUSSION: Reduced LC integrity is associated with widespread differences across cognitive domains, daytime sleep-related dysfunction, and risk for aMCI. These findings in late-middle-aged adults highlight the potential of MRI-based measures of LC integrity in early identification of AD risk.

7.
Hum Brain Mapp ; 2021 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33615640

RESUMO

The Enhancing NeuroImaging Genetics through Meta-Analysis copy number variant (ENIGMA-CNV) and 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome Working Groups (22q-ENIGMA WGs) were created to gain insight into the involvement of genetic factors in human brain development and related cognitive, psychiatric and behavioral manifestations. To that end, the ENIGMA-CNV WG has collated CNV and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data from ~49,000 individuals across 38 global research sites, yielding one of the largest studies to date on the effects of CNVs on brain structures in the general population. The 22q-ENIGMA WG includes 12 international research centers that assessed over 533 individuals with a confirmed 22q11.2 deletion syndrome, 40 with 22q11.2 duplications, and 333 typically developing controls, creating the largest-ever 22q11.2 CNV neuroimaging data set. In this review, we outline the ENIGMA infrastructure and procedures for multi-site analysis of CNVs and MRI data. So far, ENIGMA has identified effects of the 22q11.2, 16p11.2 distal, 15q11.2, and 1q21.1 distal CNVs on subcortical and cortical brain structures. Each CNV is associated with differences in cognitive, neurodevelopmental and neuropsychiatric traits, with characteristic patterns of brain structural abnormalities. Evidence of gene-dosage effects on distinct brain regions also emerged, providing further insight into genotype-phenotype relationships. Taken together, these results offer a more comprehensive picture of molecular mechanisms involved in typical and atypical brain development. This "genotype-first" approach also contributes to our understanding of the etiopathogenesis of brain disorders. Finally, we outline future directions to better understand effects of CNVs on brain structure and behavior.

8.
Hum Brain Mapp ; 2021 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33570244

RESUMO

Age has a major effect on brain volume. However, the normative studies available are constrained by small sample sizes, restricted age coverage and significant methodological variability. These limitations introduce inconsistencies and may obscure or distort the lifespan trajectories of brain morphometry. In response, we capitalized on the resources of the Enhancing Neuroimaging Genetics through Meta-Analysis (ENIGMA) Consortium to examine age-related trajectories inferred from cross-sectional measures of the ventricles, the basal ganglia (caudate, putamen, pallidum, and nucleus accumbens), the thalamus, hippocampus and amygdala using magnetic resonance imaging data obtained from 18,605 individuals aged 3-90 years. All subcortical structure volumes were at their maximum value early in life. The volume of the basal ganglia showed a monotonic negative association with age thereafter; there was no significant association between age and the volumes of the thalamus, amygdala and the hippocampus (with some degree of decline in thalamus) until the sixth decade of life after which they also showed a steep negative association with age. The lateral ventricles showed continuous enlargement throughout the lifespan. Age was positively associated with inter-individual variability in the hippocampus and amygdala and the lateral ventricles. These results were robust to potential confounders and could be used to examine the functional significance of deviations from typical age-related morphometric patterns.

9.
Hum Brain Mapp ; 2021 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33595143

RESUMO

Delineating the association of age and cortical thickness in healthy individuals is critical given the association of cortical thickness with cognition and behavior. Previous research has shown that robust estimates of the association between age and brain morphometry require large-scale studies. In response, we used cross-sectional data from 17,075 individuals aged 3-90 years from the Enhancing Neuroimaging Genetics through Meta-Analysis (ENIGMA) Consortium to infer age-related changes in cortical thickness. We used fractional polynomial (FP) regression to quantify the association between age and cortical thickness, and we computed normalized growth centiles using the parametric Lambda, Mu, and Sigma method. Interindividual variability was estimated using meta-analysis and one-way analysis of variance. For most regions, their highest cortical thickness value was observed in childhood. Age and cortical thickness showed a negative association; the slope was steeper up to the third decade of life and more gradual thereafter; notable exceptions to this general pattern were entorhinal, temporopolar, and anterior cingulate cortices. Interindividual variability was largest in temporal and frontal regions across the lifespan. Age and its FP combinations explained up to 59% variance in cortical thickness. These results may form the basis of further investigation on normative deviation in cortical thickness and its significance for behavioral and cognitive outcomes.

10.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 13(3): 3218-3238, 2021 01 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33510046

RESUMO

Normal brain aging is characterized by declining neuronal integrity, yet it remains unclear how microstructural injury influences cognitive aging and whether such mechanisms differ between sexes. Using restriction spectrum imaging (RSI), we examined sex differences in associations between brain microstructure and cognitive function in 147 community-dwelling older men and women (56-99 years). Gray and white matter microstructure correlated with global cognition, executive function, visuospatial memory, episodic memory, and logical memory, with the strongest associations for restricted, hindered and free isotropic diffusion. Associations were stronger for women than for men, a difference likely due to greater age-related variability in cognitive scores and microstructure in women. Isotropic diffusion mediated effects of age on cognition for both sexes, though distinct mediation patterns were present for women and men. For women, hippocampal and corpus callosum microstructure mediated age effects on verbal and visuospatial memory, respectively, whereas for men fiber microstructure (mainly fornix and corpus callosum) mediated age effects on executive function and visuospatial memory. These findings implicate sex-specific pathways by which changing brain cytoarchitecture contributes to cognitive aging, and suggest that RSI may be useful for evaluating risk for cognitive decline or monitoring efficacy of interventions to preserve brain health in later life.

11.
Hypertension ; 77(3): 938-947, 2021 Mar 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33461315

RESUMO

Midlife vascular disease increases risk for dementia and effects of vascular dysfunction on brain health differ between men and women. Elevated pulse pressure, a surrogate for arterial stiffness, contributes to cerebrovascular pathology and white matter damage that may advance cognitive aging; however, it remains unclear how associations between pulse pressure and neural integrity differ by sex and age. This study used restriction spectrum imaging to examine associations between pulse pressure and brain microstructure in community-dwelling women (N=88) and men (N=55), aged 56 to 97 (mean, 76.3) years. Restricted isotropic (presumed intracellular), hindered isotropic (presumed extracellular), neurite density, and free water diffusion were computed in white matter tracts and subcortical regions. After adjustment for age and sex, higher pulse pressure correlated with lower restricted isotropic diffusion in global white matter, with more pronounced associations in parahippocampal cingulum, as well as in thalamus and hippocampus. Subgroup analyses demonstrated stronger correlations between pulse pressure and restricted isotropic diffusion in association fibers for participants ≤75 years than for older participants, with stronger effects for women than men of this age group. Microstructure in parahippocampal cingulum and thalamus differed by pulse pressure level regardless of antihypertensive treatment. Increased pulse pressure may lead to widespread injury to white matter and subcortical structures, with greatest vulnerability for women in late middle to early older age. Restriction spectrum imaging could be useful for monitoring microstructural changes indicative of neuronal loss or shrinkage, demyelination, or inflammation that accompany age-related cerebrovascular dysfunction.

12.
Transl Psychiatry ; 11(1): 3, 2021 01 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33414458

RESUMO

Clinical and epidemiological evidence suggest that loneliness is associated with severe mental disorders (SMDs) and increases the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, the mechanisms underlying the relationship between loneliness, SMDs, and CVD risk factors remain unknown. Here we explored overlapping genetic architecture and genetic loci shared between SMDs, loneliness, and CVD risk factors. We analyzed large independent genome-wide association study data on schizophrenia (SCZ), bipolar disorder (BD), major depression (MD), loneliness and CVD risk factors using bivariate causal mixture mode (MiXeR), which estimates the total amount of shared variants, and conditional false discovery rate to evaluate overlap in specific loci. We observed substantial genetic overlap between SMDs, loneliness and CVD risk factors, beyond genetic correlation. We identified 149 loci jointly associated with loneliness and SMDs (MD n = 67, SCZ n = 54, and BD n = 28), and 55 distinct loci jointly associated with loneliness and CVD risk factors. A total of 153 novel loneliness loci were found. Most of the shared loci possessed concordant effect directions, suggesting that genetic risk for loneliness may increase the risk of both SMDs and CVD. Functional analyses of the shared loci implicated biological processes related to the brain, metabolic processes, chromatin and immune system. Altogether, the study revealed polygenic overlap between loneliness, SMDs and CVD risk factors, providing new insights into their shared genetic architecture and common genetic mechanisms.

13.
Psychol Med ; : 1-11, 2021 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33431106

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Clarifying the relationship between depression symptoms and cardiometabolic and related health could clarify risk factors and treatment targets. The objective of this study was to assess whether depression symptoms in midlife are associated with the subsequent onset of cardiometabolic health problems. METHODS: The study sample comprised 787 male twin veterans with polygenic risk score data who participated in the Harvard Twin Study of Substance Abuse ('baseline') and the longitudinal Vietnam Era Twin Study of Aging ('follow-up'). Depression symptoms were assessed at baseline [mean age 41.42 years (s.d. = 2.34)] using the Diagnostic Interview Schedule, Version III, Revised. The onset of eight cardiometabolic conditions (atrial fibrillation, diabetes, erectile dysfunction, hypercholesterolemia, hypertension, myocardial infarction, sleep apnea, and stroke) was assessed via self-reported doctor diagnosis at follow-up [mean age 67.59 years (s.d. = 2.41)]. RESULTS: Total depression symptoms were longitudinally associated with incident diabetes (OR 1.29, 95% CI 1.07-1.57), erectile dysfunction (OR 1.32, 95% CI 1.10-1.59), hypercholesterolemia (OR 1.26, 95% CI 1.04-1.53), and sleep apnea (OR 1.40, 95% CI 1.13-1.74) over 27 years after controlling for age, alcohol consumption, smoking, body mass index, C-reactive protein, and polygenic risk for specific health conditions. In sensitivity analyses that excluded somatic depression symptoms, only the association with sleep apnea remained significant (OR 1.32, 95% CI 1.09-1.60). CONCLUSIONS: A history of depression symptoms by early midlife is associated with an elevated risk for subsequent development of several self-reported health conditions. When isolated, non-somatic depression symptoms are associated with incident self-reported sleep apnea. Depression symptom history may be a predictor or marker of cardiometabolic risk over decades.

14.
Nat Hum Behav ; 2021 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33462475

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified several common genetic variants influencing major depression and general cognitive abilities, but little is known about whether the two share any of their genetic aetiology. Here we investigate shared genomic architectures between major depression (MD) and general intelligence (INT) with the MiXeR statistical tool and their overlapping susceptibility loci with conjunctional false discovery rate (conjFDR), which evaluate the level of overlap in genetic variants and improve the power for gene discovery between two phenotypes. We analysed GWAS data on MD (n = 480,359) and INT (n = 269,867) to characterize polygenic architecture and identify genetic loci shared between these phenotypes. Despite non-significant genetic correlation (rg = -0.0148, P = 0.50), we observed large polygenic overlap and identified 92 loci shared between MD and INT at conjFDR < 0.05. Among the shared loci, 69 and 64 are new for MD and INT, respectively. Our study demonstrates polygenic overlap between these phenotypes with a balanced mixture of effect.

15.
Int J Cancer ; 148(1): 99-105, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32930425

RESUMO

Polygenic hazard score (PHS) models are associated with age at diagnosis of prostate cancer. Our model developed in Europeans (PHS46) showed reduced performance in men with African genetic ancestry. We used a cross-validated search to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that might improve performance in this population. Anonymized genotypic data were obtained from the PRACTICAL consortium for 6253 men with African genetic ancestry. Ten iterations of a 10-fold cross-validation search were conducted to select SNPs that would be included in the final PHS46+African model. The coefficients of PHS46+African were estimated in a Cox proportional hazards framework using age at diagnosis as the dependent variable and PHS46, and selected SNPs as predictors. The performance of PHS46 and PHS46+African was compared using the same cross-validated approach. Three SNPs (rs76229939, rs74421890 and rs5013678) were selected for inclusion in PHS46+African. All three SNPs are located on chromosome 8q24. PHS46+African showed substantial improvements in all performance metrics measured, including a 75% increase in the relative hazard of those in the upper 20% compared to the bottom 20% (2.47-4.34) and a 20% reduction in the relative hazard of those in the bottom 20% compared to the middle 40% (0.65-0.53). In conclusion, we identified three SNPs that substantially improved the association of PHS46 with age at diagnosis of prostate cancer in men with African genetic ancestry to levels comparable to Europeans.

16.
Clin Cancer Res ; 2020 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33148675

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI) is a contrast-free modality that has demonstrated ability to discriminate between pre-defined benign and malignant breast lesions. However, how well DW-MRI discriminates cancer from all other breast tissue voxels in a clinical setting is unknown. Here we explore the voxel-wise ability to distinguish cancer from healthy breast tissue using signal contributions from the newly developed three-component multi-b-value DW-MRI model. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Pathology-proven breast cancer patients from two datasets (n=81 and n=25) underwent multi-b-value DW-MRI. The three-component signal contributions C1 and C2 and their product, C1C2, and signal fractions F1, F2 and F1F2 were compared to the image defined on maximum b-value (DWImax), conventional apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), and apparent diffusion kurtosis (Kapp). The ability to discriminate between cancer and healthy breast tissue was assessed by the false positive rate given a sensitivity of 80% (FPR80) and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) area under the curve (AUC). RESULTS: Mean FPR80 for both datasets was 0.016 (95%CI=0.008-0.024) for C1C2, 0.136 (95%CI=0.092-0.180) for C1, 0.068 (95%CI=0.049-0.087) for C2, 0.462 (95%CI=0.425-0.499) for F1F2, 0.832 (95%CI=0.797-0.868) for F1, 0.176 (95%CI=0.150-0.203) for F2, 0.159 (95%CI=0.114-0.204) for DWImax, 0.731 (95%CI=0.692-0.770) for ADC and 0.684 (95%CI=0.660-0.709) for Kapp Mean ROC AUC for C1C2 was 0.984 (95%CI=0.977-0.991). CONCLUSIONS: The C1C2 parameter of the three-component model yields a clinically useful discrimination between cancer and healthy breast tissue, superior to other DW-MRI methods and obliviating pre-defining lesions. This novel DW-MRI method may serve as non-contrast alternative to standard-of-care dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI).

17.
J Magn Reson Imaging ; 2020 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33131186

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Multicompartmental modeling outperforms conventional diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in the assessment of prostate cancer. Optimized multicompartmental models could further improve the detection and characterization of prostate cancer. PURPOSE: To optimize multicompartmental signal models and apply them to study diffusion in normal and cancerous prostate tissue in vivo. STUDY TYPE: Retrospective. SUBJECTS: Forty-six patients who underwent MRI examination for suspected prostate cancer; 23 had prostate cancer and 23 had no detectable cancer. FIELD STRENGTH/SEQUENCE: 3T multishell diffusion-weighted sequence. ASSESSMENT: Multicompartmental models with 2-5 tissue compartments were fit to DWI data from the prostate to determine optimal compartmental apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs). These ADCs were used to compute signal contributions from the different compartments. The Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC) and model-fitting residuals were calculated to quantify model complexity and goodness-of-fit. Tumor contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and tumor-to-background signal intensity ratio (SIR) were computed for conventional DWI and multicompartmental signal-contribution maps. STATISTICAL TESTS: Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and two-sample t-tests (α = 0.05) were used to compare fitting residuals between prostate regions and between multicompartmental models. T-tests (α = 0.05) were also used to assess differences in compartmental signal-fraction between tissue types and CNR/SIR between conventional DWI and multicompartmental models. RESULTS: The lowest BIC was observed from the 4-compartment model, with optimal ADCs of 5.2e-4, 1.9e-3, 3.0e-3, and >3.0e-2 mm2 /sec. Fitting residuals from multicompartmental models were significantly lower than from conventional ADC mapping (P < 0.05). Residuals were lowest in the peripheral zone and highest in tumors. Tumor tissue showed the largest reduction in fitting residual by increasing model order. Tumors had a greater proportion of signal from compartment 1 than normal tissue (P < 0.05). Tumor CNR and SIR were greater on compartment-1 signal maps than conventional DWI (P < 0.05) and increased with model order. DATA CONCLUSION: The 4-compartment signal model best described diffusion in the prostate. Compartmental signal contributions revealed by this model may improve assessment of prostate cancer. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 3 TECHNICAL EFFICACY STAGE: 3.

18.
Cereb Cortex ; 2020 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33145600

RESUMO

Despite its central role in revealing the neurobiological mechanisms of behavior, neuroimaging research faces the challenge of producing reliable biomarkers for cognitive processes and clinical outcomes. Statistically significant brain regions, identified by mass univariate statistical models commonly used in neuroimaging studies, explain minimal phenotypic variation, limiting the translational utility of neuroimaging phenotypes. This is potentially due to the observation that behavioral traits are influenced by variations in neuroimaging phenotypes that are globally distributed across the cortex and are therefore not captured by thresholded, statistical parametric maps commonly reported in neuroimaging studies. Here, we developed a novel multivariate prediction method, the Bayesian polyvertex score, that turns a unthresholded statistical parametric map into a summary score that aggregates the many but small effects across the cortex for behavioral prediction. By explicitly assuming a globally distributed effect size pattern and operating on the mass univariate summary statistics, it was able to achieve higher out-of-sample variance explained than mass univariate and popular multivariate methods while still preserving the interpretability of a generative model. Our findings suggest that similar to the polygenicity observed in the field of genetics, the neural basis of complex behaviors may rest in the global patterning of effect size variation of neuroimaging phenotypes, rather than in localized, candidate brain regions and networks.

19.
Alzheimers Dement (N Y) ; 6(1): e12071, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32999917

RESUMO

Introduction: Selecting individuals at high risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD) dementia and using the most sensitive outcome measures are important aspects of trial design. Methods: We divided participants from Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative at the 50th percentile of the predicted absolute risk of the polygenic hazard score (PHS). Outcome measures were the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Schedule-Cognitive Subscale (ADAS-Cog), ADNI-Mem, Clinical Dementia Rating-Sum of Boxes (CDR SB), and Cognitive Function Composite 2 (CFC2). In addition to modeling, we use a power analysis compare numbers needed with each technique. Results: Data from 188 cognitively normal and 319 mild cognitively impaired (MCI) participants were analyzed. Using the ADAS-Cog to estimate sample sizes, without stratification over 24 months, would require 930 participants with MCI, while using the CFC2 and restricting participants to those in the upper 50th percentile would require only 284 participants. Discussion: Combining stratification by PHS and selection of a sensitive combined outcome measure in a cohort of patients with MCI can allow trial design that is more efficient, potentially less burdensome on participants, and more cost effective.

20.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(43): 26977-26984, 2020 10 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33046629

RESUMO

The prevalence of obesity in children and adolescents worldwide has quadrupled since 1975 and is a key predictor of obesity later in life. Previous work has consistently observed relationships between macroscale measures of reward-related brain regions (e.g., the nucleus accumbens [NAcc]) and unhealthy eating behaviors and outcomes; however, the mechanisms underlying these associations remain unclear. Recent work has highlighted a potential role of neuroinflammation in the NAcc in animal models of diet-induced obesity. Here, we leverage a diffusion MRI technique, restriction spectrum imaging, to probe the microstructure (cellular density) of subcortical brain regions. More specifically, we test the hypothesis that the cell density of reward-related regions is associated with obesity-related metrics and early weight gain. In a large cohort of nine- and ten-year-olds enrolled in the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) study, we demonstrate that cellular density in the NAcc is related to individual differences in waist circumference at baseline and is predictive of increases in waist circumference after 1 y. These findings suggest a neurobiological mechanism for pediatric obesity consistent with rodent work showing that high saturated fat diets increase gliosis and neuroinflammation in reward-related brain regions, which in turn lead to further unhealthy eating and obesity.

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