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1.
Am J Epidemiol ; 188(6): 991-1012, 2019 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31155658

RESUMO

The Consortium of Metabolomics Studies (COMETS) was established in 2014 to facilitate large-scale collaborative research on the human metabolome and its relationship with disease etiology, diagnosis, and prognosis. COMETS comprises 47 cohorts from Asia, Europe, North America, and South America that together include more than 136,000 participants with blood metabolomics data on samples collected from 1985 to 2017. Metabolomics data were provided by 17 different platforms, with the most frequently used labs being Metabolon, Inc. (14 cohorts), the Broad Institute (15 cohorts), and Nightingale Health (11 cohorts). Participants have been followed for a median of 23 years for health outcomes including death, cancer, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and others; many of the studies are ongoing. Available exposure-related data include common clinical measurements and behavioral factors, as well as genome-wide genotype data. Two feasibility studies were conducted to evaluate the comparability of metabolomics platforms used by COMETS cohorts. The first study showed that the overlap between any 2 different laboratories ranged from 6 to 121 metabolites at 5 leading laboratories. The second study showed that the median Spearman correlation comparing 111 overlapping metabolites captured by Metabolon and the Broad Institute was 0.79 (interquartile range, 0.56-0.89).

2.
Int J Epidemiol ; 48(3): 849-860, 2019 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31062029

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Short and long sleep duration have been linked with poorer cognitive outcomes, but it remains unclear whether these associations are causal. METHODS: We conducted the first Mendelian randomization (MR) study with 77 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for sleep duration using individual-participant data from the UK Biobank cohort (N = 395 803) and summary statistics from the International Genomics of Alzheimer's Project (N cases/controls = 17 008/37 154) to investigate the potential impact of sleep duration on cognitive outcomes. RESULTS: Linear MR suggested that each additional hour/day of sleep was associated with 1% [95% confidence interval (CI) = 0-2%; P = 0.008] slower reaction time and 3% more errors in visual-memory test (95% CI = 0-6%; P = 0.05). There was little evidence to support associations of increased sleep duration with decline in visual memory [odds ratio (OR) per additional hour/day of sleep = 1.10 (95% CI = 0.76-1.57); P = 0.62], decline in reaction time [OR = 1.28 (95% CI = 0.49-3.35); P = 0.61], all-cause dementia [OR = 1.19 (95% CI = 0.65-2.19); P = 0.57] or Alzheimer's disease risk [OR = 0.89 (95% CI = 0.67-1.18); P = 0.41]. Non-linear MR suggested that both short and long sleep duration were associated with poorer visual memory (P for non-linearity = 3.44e-9) and reaction time (P for non-linearity = 6.66e-16). CONCLUSIONS: Linear increase in sleep duration has a small negative effect on reaction time and visual memory, but the true association might be non-linear, with evidence of associations for both short and long sleep duration. These findings suggest that sleep duration may represent a potential causal pathway for cognition.

3.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 5141, 2018 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30510157

RESUMO

Carotid artery intima media thickness (cIMT) and carotid plaque are measures of subclinical atherosclerosis associated with ischemic stroke and coronary heart disease (CHD). Here, we undertake meta-analyses of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in 71,128 individuals for cIMT, and 48,434 individuals for carotid plaque traits. We identify eight novel susceptibility loci for cIMT, one independent association at the previously-identified PINX1 locus, and one novel locus for carotid plaque. Colocalization analysis with nearby vascular expression quantitative loci (cis-eQTLs) derived from arterial wall and metabolic tissues obtained from patients with CHD identifies candidate genes at two potentially additional loci, ADAMTS9 and LOXL4. LD score regression reveals significant genetic correlations between cIMT and plaque traits, and both cIMT and plaque with CHD, any stroke subtype and ischemic stroke. Our study provides insights into genes and tissue-specific regulatory mechanisms linking atherosclerosis both to its functional genomic origins and its clinical consequences in humans.

4.
Genet Epidemiol ; 2018 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30478852

RESUMO

Observational studies find an association between increased body mass index (BMI) and short self-reported sleep duration in adults. However, the underlying biological mechanisms that underpin these associations are unclear. Recent findings from the UK Biobank suggest a weak genetic correlation between BMI and self-reported sleep duration. However, the potential shared genetic aetiology between these traits has not been examined using a comprehensive approach. To investigate this, we created a polygenic risk score (PRS) of BMI and examined its association with self-reported sleep duration in a combination of individual participant data and summary-level data, with a total sample size of 142,209 individuals. Although we observed a nonsignificant genetic correlation between BMI and sleep duration, using LD score regression (rg = -0.067 [SE = 0.039], P = 0.092) we found that a PRS of BMI is associated with a decrease in sleep duration (unstandardized coefficient = -1.75 min [SE = 0.67], P = 6.13 × 10-7 ), but explained only 0.02% of the variance in sleep duration. Our findings suggest that BMI and self-reported sleep duration possess a small amount of shared genetic aetiology and other mechanisms must underpin these associations.

5.
Lancet ; 391(10129): 1513-1523, 2018 04 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29676281

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Low-risk limits recommended for alcohol consumption vary substantially across different national guidelines. To define thresholds associated with lowest risk for all-cause mortality and cardiovascular disease, we studied individual-participant data from 599 912 current drinkers without previous cardiovascular disease. METHODS: We did a combined analysis of individual-participant data from three large-scale data sources in 19 high-income countries (the Emerging Risk Factors Collaboration, EPIC-CVD, and the UK Biobank). We characterised dose-response associations and calculated hazard ratios (HRs) per 100 g per week of alcohol (12·5 units per week) across 83 prospective studies, adjusting at least for study or centre, age, sex, smoking, and diabetes. To be eligible for the analysis, participants had to have information recorded about their alcohol consumption amount and status (ie, non-drinker vs current drinker), plus age, sex, history of diabetes and smoking status, at least 1 year of follow-up after baseline, and no baseline history of cardiovascular disease. The main analyses focused on current drinkers, whose baseline alcohol consumption was categorised into eight predefined groups according to the amount in grams consumed per week. We assessed alcohol consumption in relation to all-cause mortality, total cardiovascular disease, and several cardiovascular disease subtypes. We corrected HRs for estimated long-term variability in alcohol consumption using 152 640 serial alcohol assessments obtained some years apart (median interval 5·6 years [5th-95th percentile 1·04-13·5]) from 71 011 participants from 37 studies. FINDINGS: In the 599 912 current drinkers included in the analysis, we recorded 40 310 deaths and 39 018 incident cardiovascular disease events during 5·4 million person-years of follow-up. For all-cause mortality, we recorded a positive and curvilinear association with the level of alcohol consumption, with the minimum mortality risk around or below 100 g per week. Alcohol consumption was roughly linearly associated with a higher risk of stroke (HR per 100 g per week higher consumption 1·14, 95% CI, 1·10-1·17), coronary disease excluding myocardial infarction (1·06, 1·00-1·11), heart failure (1·09, 1·03-1·15), fatal hypertensive disease (1·24, 1·15-1·33); and fatal aortic aneurysm (1·15, 1·03-1·28). By contrast, increased alcohol consumption was log-linearly associated with a lower risk of myocardial infarction (HR 0·94, 0·91-0·97). In comparison to those who reported drinking >0-≤100 g per week, those who reported drinking >100-≤200 g per week, >200-≤350 g per week, or >350 g per week had lower life expectancy at age 40 years of approximately 6 months, 1-2 years, or 4-5 years, respectively. INTERPRETATION: In current drinkers of alcohol in high-income countries, the threshold for lowest risk of all-cause mortality was about 100 g/week. For cardiovascular disease subtypes other than myocardial infarction, there were no clear risk thresholds below which lower alcohol consumption stopped being associated with lower disease risk. These data support limits for alcohol consumption that are lower than those recommended in most current guidelines. FUNDING: UK Medical Research Council, British Heart Foundation, National Institute for Health Research, European Union Framework 7, and European Research Council.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/mortalidade , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos
6.
BioData Min ; 10: 25, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28770004

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The genetic etiology of human lipid quantitative traits is not fully elucidated, and interactions between variants may play a role. We performed a gene-centric interaction study for four different lipid traits: low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), total cholesterol (TC), and triglycerides (TG). RESULTS: Our analysis consisted of a discovery phase using a merged dataset of five different cohorts (n = 12,853 to n = 16,849 depending on lipid phenotype) and a replication phase with ten independent cohorts totaling up to 36,938 additional samples. Filters are often applied before interaction testing to correct for the burden of testing all pairwise interactions. We used two different filters: 1. A filter that tested only single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with a main effect of p < 0.001 in a previous association study. 2. A filter that only tested interactions identified by Biofilter 2.0. Pairwise models that reached an interaction significance level of p < 0.001 in the discovery dataset were tested for replication. We identified thirteen SNP-SNP models that were significant in more than one replication cohort after accounting for multiple testing. CONCLUSIONS: These results may reveal novel insights into the genetic etiology of lipid levels. Furthermore, we developed a pipeline to perform a computationally efficient interaction analysis with multi-cohort replication.

7.
Circulation ; 135(24): 2373-2388, 2017 Jun 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28500271

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The implications of different adiposity measures on cardiovascular disease etiology remain unclear. In this article, we quantify and contrast causal associations of central adiposity (waist-to-hip ratio adjusted for body mass index [WHRadjBMI]) and general adiposity (body mass index [BMI]) with cardiometabolic disease. METHODS: Ninety-seven independent single-nucleotide polymorphisms for BMI and 49 single-nucleotide polymorphisms for WHRadjBMI were used to conduct Mendelian randomization analyses in 14 prospective studies supplemented with coronary heart disease (CHD) data from CARDIoGRAMplusC4D (Coronary Artery Disease Genome-wide Replication and Meta-analysis [CARDIoGRAM] plus The Coronary Artery Disease [C4D] Genetics; combined total 66 842 cases), stroke from METASTROKE (12 389 ischemic stroke cases), type 2 diabetes mellitus from DIAGRAM (Diabetes Genetics Replication and Meta-analysis; 34 840 cases), and lipids from GLGC (Global Lipids Genetic Consortium; 213 500 participants) consortia. Primary outcomes were CHD, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and major stroke subtypes; secondary analyses included 18 cardiometabolic traits. RESULTS: Each one standard deviation (SD) higher WHRadjBMI (1 SD≈0.08 U) associated with a 48% excess risk of CHD (odds ratio [OR] for CHD, 1.48; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.28-1.71), similar to findings for BMI (1 SD≈4.6 kg/m2; OR for CHD, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.22-1.52). Only WHRadjBMI increased risk of ischemic stroke (OR, 1.32; 95% CI, 1.03-1.70). For type 2 diabetes mellitus, both measures had large effects: OR, 1.82 (95% CI, 1.38-2.42) and OR, 1.98 (95% CI, 1.41-2.78) per 1 SD higher WHRadjBMI and BMI, respectively. Both WHRadjBMI and BMI were associated with higher left ventricular hypertrophy, glycemic traits, interleukin 6, and circulating lipids. WHRadjBMI was also associated with higher carotid intima-media thickness (39%; 95% CI, 9%-77% per 1 SD). CONCLUSIONS: Both general and central adiposity have causal effects on CHD and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Central adiposity may have a stronger effect on stroke risk. Future estimates of the burden of adiposity on health should include measures of central and general adiposity.


Assuntos
Adiposidade/genética , Distribuição da Gordura Corporal/métodos , Doença das Coronárias/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana/métodos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/genética , Doença das Coronárias/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto/métodos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Estudos Prospectivos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia
8.
BMJ ; 356: j909, 2017 Mar 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28331015

RESUMO

Objectives To investigate the association between alcohol consumption and cardiovascular disease at higher resolution by examining the initial lifetime presentation of 12 cardiac, cerebrovascular, abdominal, or peripheral vascular diseases among five categories of consumption.Design Population based cohort study of linked electronic health records covering primary care, hospital admissions, and mortality in 1997-2010 (median follow-up six years).Setting CALIBER (ClinicAl research using LInked Bespoke studies and Electronic health Records).Participants 1 937 360 adults (51% women), aged ≥30 who were free from cardiovascular disease at baseline.Main outcome measures 12 common symptomatic manifestations of cardiovascular disease, including chronic stable angina, unstable angina, acute myocardial infarction, unheralded coronary heart disease death, heart failure, sudden coronary death/cardiac arrest, transient ischaemic attack, ischaemic stroke, intracerebral and subarachnoid haemorrhage, peripheral arterial disease, and abdominal aortic aneurysm.Results 114 859 individuals received an incident cardiovascular diagnosis during follow-up. Non-drinking was associated with an increased risk of unstable angina (hazard ratio 1.33, 95% confidence interval 1.21 to 1.45), myocardial infarction (1.32, 1.24 to1.41), unheralded coronary death (1.56, 1.38 to 1.76), heart failure (1.24, 1.11 to 1.38), ischaemic stroke (1.12, 1.01 to 1.24), peripheral arterial disease (1.22, 1.13 to 1.32), and abdominal aortic aneurysm (1.32, 1.17 to 1.49) compared with moderate drinking (consumption within contemporaneous UK weekly/daily guidelines of 21/3 and 14/2 units for men and women, respectively). Heavy drinking (exceeding guidelines) conferred an increased risk of presenting with unheralded coronary death (1.21, 1.08 to 1.35), heart failure (1.22, 1.08 to 1.37), cardiac arrest (1.50, 1.26 to 1.77), transient ischaemic attack (1.11, 1.02 to 1.37), ischaemic stroke (1.33, 1.09 to 1.63), intracerebral haemorrhage (1.37, 1.16 to 1.62), and peripheral arterial disease (1.35; 1.23 to 1.48), but a lower risk of myocardial infarction (0.88, 0.79 to 1.00) or stable angina (0.93, 0.86 to 1.00).Conclusions Heterogeneous associations exist between level of alcohol consumption and the initial presentation of cardiovascular diseases. This has implications for counselling patients, public health communication, and clinical research, suggesting a more nuanced approach to the role of alcohol in prevention of cardiovascular disease is necessary.Registration clinicaltrails.gov (NCT01864031).


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , Inglaterra/epidemiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Fatores Sexuais
9.
Heart ; 102(20): 1640-7, 2016 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27365493

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We investigated discrimination and calibration of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk scores when genotypic was added to phenotypic information. The potential of genetic information for those at intermediate risk by a phenotype-based risk score was assessed. METHODS: Data were from seven prospective studies including 11 851 individuals initially free of CVD or diabetes, with 1444 incident CVD events over 10 years' follow-up. We calculated a score from 53 CVD-related single nucleotide polymorphisms and an established CVD risk equation 'QRISK-2' comprising phenotypic measures. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC), detection rate for given false-positive rate (FPR) and net reclassification improvement (NRI) index were estimated for gene scores alone and in addition to the QRISK-2 CVD risk score. We also evaluated use of genetic information only for those at intermediate risk according to QRISK-2. RESULTS: The AUROC was 0.635 for QRISK-2 alone and 0.623 with addition of the gene score. The detection rate for 5% FPR improved from 11.9% to 12.0% when the gene score was added. For a 10-year CVD risk cut-off point of 10%, the NRI was 0.25% when the gene score was added to QRISK-2. Applying the genetic risk score only to those with QRISK-2 risk of 10%-<20% and prescribing statins where risk exceeded 20% suggested that genetic information could prevent one additional event for every 462 people screened. CONCLUSION: The gene score produced minimal incremental population-wide utility over phenotypic risk prediction of CVD. Tailored prediction using genetic information for those at intermediate risk may have clinical utility.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Adulto , Área Sob a Curva , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Reações Falso-Positivas , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Marcadores Genéticos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Prospectivos , Curva ROC , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
10.
Child Abuse Negl ; 58: 119-28, 2016 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27376651

RESUMO

Evidence suggests that the quality of fathers' parenting has an impact on psychological outcomes during adolescence, but less is known about which aspects of fathering have the strongest effects. This study, using the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), considers which paternal attitudes towards and experiences of child care in infancy are most strongly associated with depressive symptoms in adolescence, and whether father effects are independent of maternal influence and other risk factors. Primary exposures were fathers' attitudes to and experiences of child care at 8 weeks, 8 months and 21 months coded as continuous scores; the primary outcome was self-reported depressive symptoms at 16 years (Short Moods and Feelings Questionnaire score ≥11). Multivariable logistic regression models showed reasonably strong evidence that parental reports indicating potential paternal abuse when children were toddlers were associated with a 22% increased odds of depressive symptoms at age 16 (odds ratio [OR] 1.22 [95% CI 1.11, 1.34] per SD). There was some evidence for an interaction with social class (p=0.04): for children living in higher social class households (professional, managerial and technical classes), an increase in the potential abuse scale increased the odds of depressive symptoms by 31% (OR 1.31 [1.13, 1.53] per SD), whereas there was no effect in the lower social class categories. The potential paternal abuse measure needs to be validated and research is needed on what circumstances predict anger and frustration with child care. Effective interventions are needed to help fathers cope better with parenting stress.


Assuntos
Depressão/psicologia , Pai/psicologia , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Adaptação Psicológica , Adolescente , Adulto , Atitude Frente a Saúde , Criança , Maus-Tratos Infantis/psicologia , Transtornos do Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Pré-Escolar , Emoções , Inglaterra , Relações Pai-Filho , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Acontecimentos que Mudam a Vida , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Razão de Chances , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários
11.
PLoS One ; 11(6): e0156914, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27280446

RESUMO

Red blood cell (RBC) traits are routinely measured in clinical practice as important markers of health. Deviations from the physiological ranges are usually a sign of disease, although variation between healthy individuals also occurs, at least partly due to genetic factors. Recent large scale genetic studies identified loci associated with one or more of these traits; further characterization of known loci and identification of new loci is necessary to better understand their role in health and disease and to identify potential molecular mechanisms. We performed meta-analysis of Metabochip association results for six RBC traits-hemoglobin concentration (Hb), hematocrit (Hct), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and red blood cell count (RCC)-in 11 093 Europeans from seven studies of the UCL-LSHTM-Edinburgh-Bristol (UCLEB) Consortium. We identified 394 non-overlapping SNPs in five loci at genome-wide significance: 6p22.1-6p21.33 (with HFE among others), 6q23.2 (with HBS1L among others), 6q23.3 (contains no genes), 9q34.3 (only ABO gene) and 22q13.1 (with TMPRSS6 among others), replicating previous findings of association with RBC traits at these loci and extending them by imputation to 1000 Genomes. We further characterized associations between ABO SNPs and three traits: hemoglobin, hematocrit and red blood cell count, replicating them in an independent cohort. Conditional analyses indicated the independent association of each of these traits with ABO SNPs and a role for blood group O in mediating the association. The 15 most significant RBC-associated ABO SNPs were also associated with five cardiometabolic traits, with discordance in the direction of effect between groups of traits, suggesting that ABO may act through more than one mechanism to influence cardiometabolic risk.


Assuntos
Sistema do Grupo Sanguíneo ABO/genética , Replicação do DNA/genética , Eritrócitos/fisiologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Grupos Étnicos , Europa (Continente) , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos
12.
Circ Cardiovasc Genet ; 9(3): 231-9, 2016 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27114411

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Plasma triglyceride levels have been implicated in atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease. Apolipoprotein C-III (APOC3) plays a key role in the hydrolysis of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins to remnant particles by lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and their uptake by the liver. A rare variant in APOC3(rs138326449) has been associated with triglyceride, very low-density lipoprotein, and high-density lipoprotein levels, as well as risk of coronary heart disease. We aimed to characterize the impact of this locus across a broad set of mainly lipids-focused metabolic measures. METHODS AND RESULTS: A high-throughput serum nuclear magnetic resonance metabolomics platform was used to quantify 225 metabolic measures in 13 285 participants from 2 European population cohorts. We analyzed the effect of the APOC3 variant on the metabolic measures and used the common LPL(rs12678919) polymorphism to test for LPL-independent effects. Eighty-one metabolic measures showed evidence of association with APOC3(rs138326449). In addition to previously reported triglyceride and high-density lipoprotein associations, the variant was also associated with very low-density lipoprotein and high-density lipoprotein composition measures, other cholesterol measures, and fatty acids. Comparison of the APOC3 and LPL associations revealed that APOC3 association results for medium and very large very low-density lipoprotein composition are unlikely to be solely predictable by the action of APOC3 through LPL. CONCLUSIONS: We characterized the effects of the rare APOC3(rs138326449) loss of function mutation in lipoprotein metabolism, as well as the effects of LPL(rs12678919). Our results improve our understanding of the role of APOC3 in triglyceride metabolism, its LPL independent action, and the complex and correlated nature of human metabolites.


Assuntos
Apolipoproteína C-III/genética , Aterosclerose/genética , Dislipidemias/genética , Lipase Lipoproteica/metabolismo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Aterosclerose/sangue , Aterosclerose/enzimologia , Aterosclerose/prevenção & controle , Biomarcadores/sangue , Criança , Dislipidemias/sangue , Dislipidemias/tratamento farmacológico , Dislipidemias/enzimologia , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Genótipo , Ensaios de Triagem em Larga Escala , Humanos , Hipolipemiantes/uso terapêutico , Lipase Lipoproteica/genética , Lipoproteínas HDL/sangue , Lipoproteínas VLDL/sangue , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Metabolômica/métodos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ressonância Magnética Nuclear Biomolecular , Oligonucleotídeos/uso terapêutico , Fenótipo , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Reino Unido
13.
Thorax ; 71(6): 501-9, 2016 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26917578

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Several regions of the genome have shown to be associated with COPD in genome-wide association studies of common variants. OBJECTIVE: To determine rare and potentially functional single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with the risk of COPD and severity of airflow limitation. METHODS: 3226 current or former smokers of European ancestry with lung function measures indicative of Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) 2 COPD or worse were genotyped using an exome array. An analysis of risk of COPD was carried out using ever smoking controls (n=4784). Associations with %predicted FEV1 were tested in cases. We followed-up signals of interest (p<10(-5)) in independent samples from a subset of the UK Biobank population and also undertook a more powerful discovery study by meta-analysing the exome array data and UK Biobank data for variants represented on both arrays. RESULTS: Among the associated variants were two in regions previously unreported for COPD; a low frequency non-synonymous SNP in MOCS3 (rs7269297, pdiscovery=3.08×10(-6), preplication=0.019) and a rare SNP in IFIT3, which emerged in the meta-analysis (rs140549288, pmeta=8.56×10(-6)). In the meta-analysis of % predicted FEV1 in cases, the strongest association was shown for a splice variant in a previously unreported region, SERPINA12 (rs140198372, pmeta=5.72×10(-6)). We also confirmed previously reported associations with COPD risk at MMP12, HHIP, GPR126 and CHRNA5. No associations in novel regions reached a stringent exome-wide significance threshold (p<3.7×10(-7)). CONCLUSIONS: This study identified several associations with the risk of COPD and severity of airflow limitation, including novel regions MOCS3, IFIT3 and SERPINA12, which warrant further study.


Assuntos
Obstrução das Vias Respiratórias/genética , Obstrução das Vias Respiratórias/fisiopatologia , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/genética , Nucleotidiltransferases/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/genética , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/fisiopatologia , Serpinas/genética , Sulfurtransferases/genética , Idoso , Exoma , Feminino , Volume Expiratório Forçado/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medição de Risco , Fumar/epidemiologia
14.
Nat Commun ; 7: 10494, 2016 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26833098

RESUMO

Leptin is an adipocyte-secreted hormone, the circulating levels of which correlate closely with overall adiposity. Although rare mutations in the leptin (LEP) gene are well known to cause leptin deficiency and severe obesity, no common loci regulating circulating leptin levels have been uncovered. Therefore, we performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of circulating leptin levels from 32,161 individuals and followed up loci reaching P<10(-6) in 19,979 additional individuals. We identify five loci robustly associated (P<5 × 10(-8)) with leptin levels in/near LEP, SLC32A1, GCKR, CCNL1 and FTO. Although the association of the FTO obesity locus with leptin levels is abolished by adjustment for BMI, associations of the four other loci are independent of adiposity. The GCKR locus was found associated with multiple metabolic traits in previous GWAS and the CCNL1 locus with birth weight. Knockdown experiments in mouse adipose tissue explants show convincing evidence for adipogenin, a regulator of adipocyte differentiation, as the novel causal gene in the SLC32A1 locus influencing leptin levels. Our findings provide novel insights into the regulation of leptin production by adipose tissue and open new avenues for examining the influence of variation in leptin levels on adiposity and metabolic health.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica/fisiologia , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Leptina/sangue , Leptina/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Animais , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Leptina/genética , Masculino , Camundongos , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Técnicas de Cultura de Tecidos
15.
Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol ; 4(4): 327-36, 2016 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26781229

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Increased circulating plasma urate concentration is associated with an increased risk of coronary heart disease, but the extent of any causative effect of urate on risk of coronary heart disease is still unclear. In this study, we aimed to clarify any causal role of urate on coronary heart disease risk using Mendelian randomisation analysis. METHODS: We first did a fixed-effects meta-analysis of the observational association of plasma urate and risk of coronary heart disease. We then used a conventional Mendelian randomisation approach to investigate the causal relevance using a genetic instrument based on 31 urate-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). To account for potential pleiotropic associations of certain SNPs with risk factors other than urate, we additionally did both a multivariable Mendelian randomisation analysis, in which the genetic associations of SNPs with systolic and diastolic blood pressure, HDL cholesterol, and triglycerides were included as covariates, and an Egger Mendelian randomisation (MR-Egger) analysis to estimate a causal effect accounting for unmeasured pleiotropy. FINDINGS: In the meta-analysis of 17 prospective observational studies (166 486 individuals; 9784 coronary heart disease events) a 1 SD higher urate concentration was associated with an odds ratio (OR) for coronary heart disease of 1·07 (95% CI 1·04-1·10). The corresponding OR estimates from the conventional, multivariable adjusted, and Egger Mendelian randomisation analysis (58 studies; 198 598 individuals; 65 877 events) were 1·18 (95% CI 1·08-1·29), 1·10 (1·00-1·22), and 1·05 (0·92-1·20), respectively, per 1 SD increment in plasma urate. INTERPRETATION: Conventional and multivariate Mendelian randomisation analysis implicates a causal role for urate in the development of coronary heart disease, but these estimates might be inflated by hidden pleiotropy. Egger Mendelian randomisation analysis, which accounts for pleiotropy but has less statistical power, suggests there might be no causal effect. These results might help investigators to determine the priority of trials of urate lowering for the prevention of coronary heart disease compared with other potential interventions. FUNDING: UK National Institute for Health Research, British Heart Foundation, and UK Medical Research Council.


Assuntos
Doença das Coronárias/sangue , Doença das Coronárias/etiologia , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana/métodos , Ácido Úrico/efeitos adversos , Ácido Úrico/sangue , Humanos , Metanálise como Assunto , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , Fatores de Risco
16.
Int J Epidemiol ; 45(6): 1927-1937, 2016 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25979724

RESUMO

Background: We investigated causal effect of completed growth, measured by adult height, on coronary heart disease (CHD), stroke and cardiovascular traits, using instrumental variable (IV) Mendelian randomization meta-analysis. Methods: We developed an allele score based on 69 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with adult height, identified by the IBCCardioChip, and used it for IV analysis against cardiovascular risk factors and events in 21 studies and 60 028 participants. IV analysis on CHD was supplemented by summary data from 180 height-SNPs from the GIANT consortium and their corresponding CHD estimates derived from CARDIoGRAMplusC4D. Results: IV estimates from IBCCardioChip and GIANT-CARDIoGRAMplusC4D showed that a 6.5-cm increase in height reduced the odds of CHD by 10% [odds ratios 0.90; 95% confidence intervals (CIs): 0.78 to 1.03 and 0.85 to 0.95, respectively],which agrees with the estimate from the Emerging Risk Factors Collaboration (hazard ratio 0.93; 95% CI: 0.91 to 0.94). IV analysis revealed no association with stroke (odds ratio 0.97; 95% CI: 0.79 to 1.19). IV analysis showed that a 6.5-cm increase in height resulted in lower levels of body mass index ( P < 0.001), triglycerides ( P < 0.001), non high-density (non-HDL) cholesterol ( P < 0.001), C-reactive protein ( P = 0.042), and systolic blood pressure ( P = 0.064) and higher levels of forced expiratory volume in 1 s and forced vital capacity ( P < 0.001 for both). Conclusions: Taller individuals have a lower risk of CHD with potential explanations being that taller people have a better lung function and lower levels of body mass index, cholesterol and blood pressure.


Assuntos
Estatura/genética , Doença das Coronárias/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Pressão Sanguínea , Índice de Massa Corporal , Colesterol/sangue , Doença das Coronárias/sangue , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana/métodos , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Testes de Função Respiratória , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/sangue , Triglicerídeos/sangue
17.
BMJ Open ; 5(8): e008808, 2015 Aug 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26264275

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To investigate, using a Mendelian randomisation approach, whether heavier smoking is associated with a range of regional adiposity phenotypes, in particular those related to abdominal adiposity. DESIGN: Mendelian randomisation meta-analyses using a genetic variant (rs16969968/rs1051730 in the CHRNA5-CHRNA3-CHRNB4 gene region) as a proxy for smoking heaviness, of the associations of smoking heaviness with a range of adiposity phenotypes. PARTICIPANTS: 148,731 current, former and never-smokers of European ancestry aged ≥ 16 years from 29 studies in the consortium for Causal Analysis Research in Tobacco and Alcohol (CARTA). PRIMARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Waist and hip circumferences, and waist-hip ratio. RESULTS: The data included up to 66,809 never-smokers, 43,009 former smokers and 38,913 current daily cigarette smokers. Among current smokers, for each extra minor allele, the geometric mean was lower for waist circumference by -0.40% (95% CI -0.57% to -0.22%), with effects on hip circumference, waist-hip ratio and body mass index (BMI) being -0.31% (95% CI -0.42% to -0.19), -0.08% (-0.19% to 0.03%) and -0.74% (-0.96% to -0.51%), respectively. In contrast, among never-smokers, these effects were higher by 0.23% (0.09% to 0.36%), 0.17% (0.08% to 0.26%), 0.07% (-0.01% to 0.15%) and 0.35% (0.18% to 0.52%), respectively. When adjusting the three central adiposity measures for BMI, the effects among current smokers changed direction and were higher by 0.14% (0.05% to 0.22%) for waist circumference, 0.02% (-0.05% to 0.08%) for hip circumference and 0.10% (0.02% to 0.19%) for waist-hip ratio, for each extra minor allele. CONCLUSIONS: For a given BMI, a gene variant associated with increased cigarette consumption was associated with increased waist circumference. Smoking in an effort to control weight may lead to accumulation of central adiposity.


Assuntos
Fumar/genética , Circunferência da Cintura , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade Abdominal/complicações , Fatores Sexuais , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Relação Cintura-Quadril , Adulto Jovem
18.
PLoS One ; 10(4): e0115446, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25884834

RESUMO

Low adiposity has been linked to elevated mortality from several causes including respiratory disease. However, this could arise from confounding or reverse causality. We explore the association between two measures of adiposity (BMI and WHR) with COPD in the British Women's Heart and Health Study including a detailed assessment of the potential for confounding and reverse causality for each adiposity measure. Low BMI was found to be associated with increased COPD risk while low WHR was not (OR = 2.2; 95% CI 1.3-3.1 versus OR = 1.2; 95% CI 0.7-1.6). Potential confounding variables (e.g. smoking) and markers of ill-health (e.g. unintentional weight loss) were found to be higher in low BMI but not in low WHR. Women with low BMI have a detrimental profile across a broad range of health markers compared to women with low WHR, and women with low WHR do not appear to have an elevated COPD risk, lending support to the hypothesis that WHR is a less confounded measure of adiposity than BMI. Low adiposity does not in itself appear to increase the risk of respiratory disease, and the apparent adverse consequences of low BMI may be due to reverse causation and confounding.


Assuntos
Adiposidade/fisiologia , Obesidade/diagnóstico , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/complicações , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/complicações , Razão de Chances , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/mortalidade , Fatores de Risco , Fumar , Inquéritos e Questionários , Reino Unido , Relação Cintura-Quadril
19.
Diabetes ; 64(5): 1830-40, 2015 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25475436

RESUMO

We developed a 65 type 2 diabetes (T2D) variant-weighted gene score to examine the impact on T2D risk assessment in a U.K.-based consortium of prospective studies, with subjects initially free from T2D (N = 13,294; 37.3% women; mean age 58.5 [38-99] years). We compared the performance of the gene score with the phenotypically derived Framingham Offspring Study T2D risk model and then the two in combination. Over the median 10 years of follow-up, 804 participants developed T2D. The odds ratio for T2D (top vs. bottom quintiles of gene score) was 2.70 (95% CI 2.12-3.43). With a 10% false-positive rate, the genetic score alone detected 19.9% incident cases, the Framingham risk model 30.7%, and together 37.3%. The respective area under the receiver operator characteristic curves were 0.60 (95% CI 0.58-0.62), 0.75 (95% CI 0.73 to 0.77), and 0.76 (95% CI 0.75 to 0.78). The combined risk score net reclassification improvement (NRI) was 8.1% (5.0 to 11.2; P = 3.31 × 10(-7)). While BMI stratification into tertiles influenced the NRI (BMI ≤24.5 kg/m(2), 27.6% [95% CI 17.7-37.5], P = 4.82 × 10(-8); 24.5-27.5 kg/m(2), 11.6% [95% CI 5.8-17.4], P = 9.88 × 10(-5); >27.5 kg/m(2), 2.6% [95% CI -1.4 to 6.6], P = 0.20), age categories did not. The addition of the gene score to a phenotypic risk model leads to a potentially clinically important improvement in discrimination of incident T2D.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Envelhecimento , Índice de Massa Corporal , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais
20.
Age Ageing ; 44(2): 275-82, 2015 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25349151

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To develop and validate a prediction model for incident locomotor disability after 7 years in older adults. SETTING: Prospective British cohort studies: British Women's Heart and Health Study (BWHHS) for development and the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA) for validation. SUBJECTS: Community-dwelling older adults. METHODS: Multivariable logistic regression models after selection of predictors with backward elimination. Model performance was assessed using metrics of discrimination and calibration. Models were internally and externally validated. RESULTS: Locomotor disability was reported in BWHHS by 861 of 1,786 (48%) women after 7 years. Age, a history of arthritis and low physical activity levels were the most important predictors of locomotor disability. Models using routine measures as predictors had satisfactory calibration and discrimination (c-index 0.73). Addition of 31 blood markers did not increase the predictive performance. External validation in ELSA showed reduced discrimination (c-index 0.65) and an underestimation of disability risks. A web-based calculator for locomotor disability is available (http://www.sealedenvelope.com/trials/bwhhsmodel/). CONCLUSIONS: We developed and externally validated a prediction model for incident locomotor disability in older adults based on routine measures available to general practitioners, patients and public health workers, and showed an adequate discrimination. Addition of blood markers from major biological pathways did not improve the performance of the model. Further replication in additional data sets may lead to further enhancement of the current model.


Assuntos
Atividades Cotidianas , Técnicas de Apoio para a Decisão , Pessoas com Deficiência/estatística & dados numéricos , Atividade Motora , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Artrite/epidemiologia , Avaliação da Deficiência , Feminino , Avaliação Geriátrica , Humanos , Incidência , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Análise Multivariada , Razão de Chances , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Prospectivos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Fatores de Risco , Comportamento Sedentário , Fatores de Tempo , Reino Unido
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