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1.
Obes Surg ; 2020 May 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32451918

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Obesity affects approximately 45-55% of persons with schizophrenia and is more difficult to manage in these individuals than in the general population, apart from being an additional factor for morbidity and premature mortality. Although bariatric surgery is considered the most effective long-term treatment for severe obesity, there are few reports on the outcomes of this procedure in persons with schizophrenia. This study aimed to evaluate weight loss and psychiatric symptoms in persons with obesity and schizophrenia after bariatric surgery. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Five persons with schizophrenia and moderate to severe obesity who underwent bariatric surgery were followed up for 2 years. Anthropometric data were collected, and psychiatric symptoms were evaluated using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), which assessed the pre- and postoperative occurrence and severity of symptoms of schizophrenia. RESULTS: The mean body mass index before surgery was 43.5 ± 5.2 kg/m2 and decreased to 28.1 ± 1.9 kg/m2 1 year postoperatively. The mean percentage of total postoperative weight loss was 30.7 ± 6.8% after 6 months, 34.7 ± 7.9% after 1 year, and 34.3 ± 5.5% after 2 years. Before surgery, all subjects were in remission based on the PANSS. Postoperative evaluations showed that the participants had no relapse of psychiatric symptoms (p > 0.05 for the three PANSS dimensions throughout the follow-up period). There were no considerable changes in their medication regimens. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that bariatric surgery may be a viable treatment option for stable patients with schizophrenia if they have a preoperative assessment and close management and involvement by mental health professionals throughout the course of treatment.

3.
Front Neurol ; 9: 539, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30042724

RESUMO

Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) represent a complex group of neurodevelopmental conditions characterized by deficits in communication and social behaviors. We examined the functional connectivity (FC) of the default mode network (DMN) and its relation to multimodal morphometry to investigate superregional, system-level alterations in a group of 22 adolescents and young adults with high-functioning autism compared to age-, and intelligence quotient-matched 29 healthy controls. The main findings were that ASD patients had gray matter (GM) reduction, decreased cortical thickness and larger cortical surface areas in several brain regions, including the cingulate, temporal lobes, and amygdala, as well as increased gyrification in regions associated with encoding visual memories and areas of the sensorimotor component of the DMN, more pronounced in the left hemisphere. Moreover, patients with ASD had decreased connectivity between the posterior cingulate cortex, and areas of the executive control component of the DMN and increased FC between the anteromedial prefrontal cortex and areas of the sensorimotor component of the DMN. Reduced cortical thickness in the right inferior frontal lobe correlated with higher social impairment according to the scores of the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R). Reduced cortical thickness in left frontal regions, as well as an increased cortical thickness in the right temporal pole and posterior cingulate, were associated with worse scores on the communication domain of the ADI-R. We found no association between scores on the restrictive and repetitive behaviors domain of ADI-R with structural measures or FC. The combination of these structural and connectivity abnormalities may help to explain some of the core behaviors in high-functioning ASD and need to be investigated further.

4.
BMC Med Genet ; 19(1): 65, 2018 05 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29716536

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dopamine is involved in several cerebral physiological processes, and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in the dopamine D2 receptor gene (DRD2) have been associated with numerous neurological and mental disorders, including those involving alterations in cognitive and emotional processes. METHODS: The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between the SNPs c.957C > T (rs6277) and c.-585A > G (rs1799978) in the DRD2 gene and behavioral characteristics of children and adolescents based on an inventory of the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). Children and adolescents between 8 and 20 years old who were clinically followed-up were genotyped for the SNPs c.957C > T and c.-585A > G, and related to data of the CBCL/6-18 scale assessment performed with the help of caregivers. The chi-squared test was used to assess the differences in the frequencies of the C and T alleles in the polymorphism c.957C > T and of the A and G alleles in the polymorphism c.-585A > G with respect to the grouped CBCL scores at a significance level of 5%. Multiple logistic regression models were performed, to control whether sex and/or ethnicity could influence the results. RESULTS: Eighty-five patients were assessed overall, and the presence of the T allele (C/T and T/T) of DRD2 c.957C > T polymorphism was found to be significantly associated with the occurrence of defiant and oppositional problems and with attention and hyperactivity problems. There were no associations detected with polymorphism DRD2 c.-585A > G polymorphism. Both SNPs were in Hardy-Weinberg-equilibrium. CONCLUSIONS: Although the findings of this study are preliminary, due to its small number of participants, the presence of T allele (C/T, T/T) in c.957C > T SNP was associated with difficulty in impulse control, self-control of emotions, and conduct adjustment, which can contribute to improving the identification of mental and behavioral phenotypes associated with gene expression.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Emoções , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Receptores de Dopamina D2/genética , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente/etnologia , Alelos , Criança , Comportamento Infantil/etnologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Humanos , Masculino , Tamanho da Amostra
8.
Rev. latinoam. psicopatol. fundam ; 19(3): 527-543, jul.-set. 2016.
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-845349

RESUMO

O artigo apresenta um debate sobre a natureza do objeto da psiquiatria. Apresentam-se duas perspectivas de abordagem da questão — o realismo e o pragmatismo. Segundo o realismo, as condições denominadas transtornos mentais existiriam de forma autônoma, a despeito da conceitualização humana. Já as perspectivas pragmáticas pressuporiam que transtornos mentais não são suficientemente explicados como tipos naturais, porque normas e interesses humanos sempre estariam presentes em classificações psiquiátricas. São descritas as características, diferenças e pontos de limitação dessas abordagens.


This paper presents a debate on the nature of the object of Psychiatry. Two approaches to the issue are discussed: realism and pragmatism. According to realism, would exist autonomously the conditions known as mental disorders regardless of human conceptualization. Pragmatist perspectives assume that mental disorders are not sufficiently explained as natural types, since human norms and interests are always at stake in the making of psychiatric classifications. The specific features, differences, and limitations of both approaches are described.


Les auteurs présentent une réflexion critique à propos de la nature de l’objet de la psychiatrie. D’emblée, ils postulent deux voies [approches] majeures permettant d’explorer cette question fondamentale: le réalisme et le pragmatisme. Selon le réalisme, les troubles mentaux existent comme des entites autonomes, de facon independant d’une structuration conceptuelle. D’autre part, l’approche pragmatique met en avant les enjeux sociaux ce qui permet d’en déduire et d’affirmer que les troubles mentaux ne sont pas réductible à de types naturels. Enfin, les auteurs examinent brièvement et mettent en évidence les caractéristiques et limites de ces différentes approches dans la clinique psychiatrique.


El artículo presenta un debate sobre la naturaleza del objeto de la psiquiatría. Son discutidas dos perspectivas del problema: realismo y pragmatismo. Para el realismo, los trastornos mentales existen autónomamente, a pesar de la conceptua-lización humana. Las perspectivas pragmáticas suponen que los trastornos mentales no pueden ser explicados suficientemente como tipos naturales, pues las clasificaciones psiquiátricas son siempre atravesadas por normas e intereses humanos. Son descritas las características, diferencias y límites de ambos enfoques.


In diesem Artikel präsentieren wir eine Debatte über die Natur des Objektes in der Psychiatrie. Wir bieten somit zwei perspektiven bezüglich dieser Problematik- den Realismus einerseits, und den Pragmatismus als gegen Stellung. Für den Realismus würden die sogenannten Bedingungen der Psychiatrischen Störungen auf autonomer Weise vorhanden sein, und dies trotz menschlicher Konstruktionen. Pragmatische Perspektiven setzten voraus das Psychische Störungen nicht genügend durch ‘natural kinds’ erklärt werden können, weil menschliche Normen und sonstige Interessen sonst immer in Psychiatrischen Klassifikationen zu finden sind. Die Charakteristiken, Unterschiede und Einschränkungen werden dieser Perspektiven werden hier beschrieben.

9.
Hist Psychiatry ; 27(4): 472-481, 2016 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27402771

RESUMO

Our aim is to investigate two major tendencies in nineteenth-century Brazilian alienism: mentalism and organicism, by conducting a descriptive study of original Brazilian documents on medical health treatments in the 1830s, 1840s and 1850s. Primary sources of Brazilian alienism were theses, memoirs, official reports, and documents written by clinicians and asylum directors. We analysed early mental treatment in Brazilian lunatic asylums, exploring the relative contributions of two main theoretical orientations: moral treatment (based on Pinel and Esquirol) and 'medical-organicist therapeutic orientation'. Intertextuality was used to assess reports of medical organicist treatment in Brazil. We concluded that contemporaneous textual sources indicate that mid-nineteenth-century alienism in Brazil was predominantly influenced by organicism exported from European countries. Pinel's mentalist view, nevertheless, remained the reference point for clinical issues associated with the doctor-patient relationship.


Assuntos
Historiografia , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Psicoterapia/história , Brasil , História do Século XIX , Humanos
10.
Int J Endocrinol ; 2016: 5872423, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26880915

RESUMO

Objective. To identify the frequency of obesity and metabolic complications in child and adolescent users of risperidone. Potential associations with clinical parameters and SNPs of the HTR2C, DRD2, LEP, LEPR, MC4R, and CYP2D6 genes were analyzed. Methods. Samples from 120 risperidone users (8-20 years old) were collected and SNPs were analyzed, alongside assessment of chronological and bone ages, prescribed and weight-adjusted doses, use of other psychotropic drugs, waist circumference, BMI z-scores, blood pressure, HOMA-IR index, fasting levels of serum glucose, insulin, cholesterol, triglycerides, transaminases, and leptin. Results. Thirty-two (26.7%) patients were overweight and 5 (4.2%) obese. Hypertension was recorded in 8 patients (6.7%), metabolic syndrome in 6 (5%), and increased waist circumference in 20 (16.7%). The HOMA-IR was high for 22 patients (18.3%), while total cholesterol and triglycerides were high in 20 (16.7%) and 41 (34.2%) patients, respectively. SNP associations were found for LEP, HTR2C, and CYP2D6 with BMI; CYP2D6 with blood pressure, ALT, and HOMA-IR; HTR2C and LEPR with leptin levels; MC4R and DRD2 with HOMA-IR; HTR2C with WC; and LEP with ALT. Conclusions. Although not higher than in the general pediatric population, a high frequency of patients was overweight/obese, with abnormalities in metabolic parameters and some pharmacogenetic associations.

11.
J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol ; 25(10): 738-48, 2015 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26682995

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: In children and adolescents treated with risperidone, hyperprolactinemia is a frequent complication that may have clinical repercussions. Several genes have been associated with this occurrence. The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of hyperprolactinemia in children and adolescents treated with risperidone, and its associations with clinical and pharmacological data and certain polymorphisms of the following genes: Dopamine receptor D2 (DRD2), 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin) receptor 2C (HTR2C), cytochrome P450, family 2, subfamily D, polypeptide 6 (CYP2D6), leptin (LEP), leptin receptor (LEPR), melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R), and scavenger receptor class B, member 2 (SCARB2). METHODS: The study included patients using risperidone (8-20 years old) and healthy subjects not exposed to the medication. Psychopathological symptoms, doses, and duration of treatment with risperidone, sex, skin color, body mass index (BMI), use of other psychotropic drugs, and polymorphisms of DRD2, HTR2C, CYP2D6, LEP, LEPR, MC4R, and SCARB2 genes were evaluated. RESULTS: There were 120 patients and 197 individuals not exposed to risperidone who were evaluated. Among patients, hyperprolactinemia was found in 79 (65.8%) cases, with no differences regarding sex, skin color, or being in monotherapy with risperidone (26.7% of total patients) or not. The level of prolactin was not correlated, either in case or control groups, with chronological age, bone age, prescribed dose of risperidone, weight-adjusted dose of risperidone, or BMI (p > 0.05), but was negatively correlated with the treatment duration (r = -0.352, p = 0.001 among cases; and r = -0.324, p = 0.039 among controls). There were significant differences in use of risperidone between patients and healthy subjects without the medication in the frequency of the polymorphisms of the DRD2, HTR2C, and LEP genes. Considering both sexes together and also specifically among females, the occurrence of hyperprolactinemia was higher in the presence of the C allele of the rs6318 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) of the HTR2C gene. CONCLUSIONS: This group of children and adolescents with or without isolated use of risperidone presented with a high frequency of hyperprolactinemia, although asymptomatic, and associated, when considering only females or both sexes together, with being a carrier of the C allele of the rs6318 SNP of the HTR2C gene.


Assuntos
Antipsicóticos/efeitos adversos , Hiperprolactinemia/genética , Receptor 5-HT2C de Serotonina/genética , Risperidona/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Alelos , Antipsicóticos/uso terapêutico , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Hiperprolactinemia/induzido quimicamente , Masculino , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Prolactina/sangue , Risperidona/uso terapêutico
12.
Oxf Med Case Reports ; 2015(3): 229-31, 2015 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26634131

RESUMO

Priapism is a urological emergency that results in a penile or clitoral engorgement, having several triggers by the use of medications, including psychiatric drugs, such as antipsychotics and antidepressants. The most common priapism presentation is the ischemic type that can result in the fibrosis of corporus cavernosus, with a significant risk of persistent erectile dysfunction. It is believed that, in the case of antipsychotic use, priapism is mediated by an imbalance in alpha-1-adrenergic blocking, with large variation affinity for alpha-1-adrenergic receptors among antipsychotics. This case report contributes to the study of this rare but severe side effect. Priapism can limit both treatment adherence and the reproductive future of our patients. We describe a case report of a patient with a delusional hypochondriac syndrome who had multiple priapism episodes using clozapine 50 mg/daily. In conclusion, we make brief comments on priapism management, a hard clinical dilemma.

13.
Evol Psychol ; 12(1): 223-44, 2014 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25299761

RESUMO

The purpose of the study was to develop a new ethogram for the assessment of children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and intellectual developmental disorder (IDD) and to test whether this instrument accurately distinguishes ASD participants (n = 61) from IDD participants (n = 61). An ethogram with 88 behavior elements was generated, including body postures, verbalizations, facial expressions, motor stereotypies, head postures, gaze behavior, gestures, and interpersonal distance. Significant differences were detected between both groups in classic ASD behaviors; in behaviors that are deficient in ASD according to established theoretical models, such as symbolic play, gaze direction, gaze following, and use of mental state language; in atypical behaviors that have also been described previously in ethological studies with ASD; and in the nonspecific behaviors of ASD, such as walk, look own body, explore, and cry. The predictive success of a diagnosis of ASD in the logistic regression model with the ethogram's factors was 98.4%. The results suggest that this ethogram is a powerful and useful tool for both the detailed study of the social behaviors of autistic children and adolescents, and for discriminating ASD and IDD.


Assuntos
Transtornos Globais do Desenvolvimento Infantil/diagnóstico , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/diagnóstico , Deficiência Intelectual/diagnóstico , Psiquiatria/métodos , Comportamento Social , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Etologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
14.
Rev. latinoam. psicopatol. fundam ; 17(2): 328-341, 06/2014.
Artigo em Português | Index Psicologia - Periódicos técnico-científicos | ID: psi-63478

RESUMO

O artigo explora os pressupostos epistemológicos do Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) - projeto de investigação empírica dos transtornos mentais, dentro de uma plataforma biológica - promovido pelo National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH). Discute-se o ataque feito ao sistema DSM, pouco antes do lançamento de sua quinta versão, a partir da perspectiva neurocientífica adotada pelo RDoC. A aposta na patofisiologia, combinada com a exclusão da experiência descrita em primeira pessoa, aponta um cenário em que a pesquisa e a clínica se divorciam, com o risco do advento de uma estranha psiquiatria sem psique e sem pathos.(AU)


This article explores the epistemological underpinnings of the Research Domain Criteria (RDoC), launched by the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) - USA. The project has the objective of empirically investigating mental disorders in a biological framework. We discuss the sharp criticism received by the DSM shortly before its fifth edition came out, based as it was on the neuroscientific approach adopted by the RDoC. The preference for pathophysiology, combined with the exclusion of first-person experience, points to a scenario where research and clinical work are irrevocably divorced, and runs the risk of fostering an odd psychiatry with neither psyche nor pathos.(AU)


Cet article examine les présupposés épistémologiques de l'initiative dénommée Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) proposée aux Etats-Unis par le National Institute of Mental Health (NIHM). Ce projet s'inscrit dans le cadre d'une approche des troubles mentaux ancrée dans une perspective essentielment biologique et empirique. Il faut remarquer que ce programme a été lancé à la veille de la presentation de la cinquième version du système DSM. On s'interroge si la mise en ouvre d'un tel projet, largement fondé sur l'axe de recherche neuroscientifique et physiopathologique - divorcée des toutes complexités de l'expérience vécue en première personne - ne donneront pas naissance à une étrange créature: la psychiatrie sans pathos et sans psyché.(AU)


El artículo examina los presupuestos epistemológicos del Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) - proyecto de investigación empírica de los transtornos mentales, dentro de una plataforma biológica - promovido pelo National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH). Discute el ataque dirigido al sistema DSM, poco antes de la publicación de su quinta edición, desde una perspectiva neurocientífica adoptada pelo RDoC. La apuesta por la fisiopatología, combinada con la exclusión de la experiencia descrita en la primera persona, apunta para un escenario en el cual investigación y clínica se divorciam con el riesgo del adviento de una psiquiatría extraña, sin psiquis y sin pathos.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Transtornos Mentais , Diagnóstico , Psiquiatria
15.
Rev. latinoam. psicopatol. fundam ; 17(2): 328-341, 06/2014.
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: lil-718501

RESUMO

O artigo explora os pressupostos epistemológicos do Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) - projeto de investigação empírica dos transtornos mentais, dentro de uma plataforma biológica - promovido pelo National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH). Discute-se o ataque feito ao sistema DSM, pouco antes do lançamento de sua quinta versão, a partir da perspectiva neurocientífica adotada pelo RDoC. A aposta na patofisiologia, combinada com a exclusão da experiência descrita em primeira pessoa, aponta um cenário em que a pesquisa e a clínica se divorciam, com o risco do advento de uma estranha psiquiatria sem psique e sem pathos.


This article explores the epistemological underpinnings of the Research Domain Criteria (RDoC), launched by the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) - USA. The project has the objective of empirically investigating mental disorders in a biological framework. We discuss the sharp criticism received by the DSM shortly before its fifth edition came out, based as it was on the neuroscientific approach adopted by the RDoC. The preference for pathophysiology, combined with the exclusion of first-person experience, points to a scenario where research and clinical work are irrevocably divorced, and runs the risk of fostering an odd psychiatry with neither psyche nor pathos.


Cet article examine les présupposés épistémologiques de l'initiative dénommée Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) proposée aux Etats-Unis par le National Institute of Mental Health (NIHM). Ce projet s'inscrit dans le cadre d'une approche des troubles mentaux ancrée dans une perspective essentielment biologique et empirique. Il faut remarquer que ce programme a été lancé à la veille de la presentation de la cinquième version du système DSM. On s'interroge si la mise en ouvre d'un tel projet, largement fondé sur l'axe de recherche neuroscientifique et physiopathologique - divorcée des toutes complexités de l'expérience vécue en première personne - ne donneront pas naissance à une étrange créature: la psychiatrie sans pathos et sans psyché.


El artículo examina los presupuestos epistemológicos del Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) - proyecto de investigación empírica de los transtornos mentales, dentro de una plataforma biológica - promovido pelo National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH). Discute el ataque dirigido al sistema DSM, poco antes de la publicación de su quinta edición, desde una perspectiva neurocientífica adoptada pelo RDoC. La apuesta por la fisiopatología, combinada con la exclusión de la experiencia descrita en la primera persona, apunta para un escenario en el cual investigación y clínica se divorciam con el riesgo del adviento de una psiquiatría extraña, sin psiquis y sin pathos.


Assuntos
Humanos , Diagnóstico , Transtornos Mentais , Psiquiatria
16.
J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 90(2): 155-160, Mar-Apr/2014. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-709809

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: this study aimed to investigate the cognitive and behavioral profiles, as well as the psychiatric symptoms and disorders in children with three different genetic syndromes with similar sociocultural and socioeconomic backgrounds. METHODS: thirty-four children aged 6 to 16 years, with Williams-Beuren syndrome (n = 10), Prader-Willi syndrome (n = 11), and Fragile X syndrome (n = 13) from the outpatient clinics of Child Psychiatry and Medical Genetics Department were cognitively assessed through the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-III). Afterwards, a full-scale intelligence quotient (IQ), verbal IQ, performance IQ, standard subtest scores, as well as frequency of psychiatric symptoms and disorders were compared among the three syndromes. RESULTS: significant differences were found among the syndromes concerning verbal IQ and verbal and performance subtests. Post-hoc analysis demonstrated that vocabulary and comprehension subtest scores were significantly higher in Williams-Beuren syndrome in comparison with Prader-Willi and Fragile X syndromes, and block design and object assembly scores were significantly higher in Prader-Willi syndrome compared with Williams-Beuren and Fragile X syndromes. Additionally, there were significant differences between the syndromes concerning behavioral features and psychiatric symptoms. The Prader-Willi syndrome group presented a higher frequency of hyperphagia and self-injurious behaviors. The Fragile X syndrome group showed a higher frequency of social interaction deficits; such difference nearly reached statistical significance. CONCLUSION: the three genetic syndromes exhibited distinctive cognitive, behavioral, and psychiatric patterns. .


OBJETIVO: investigar o perfil cognitivo e comportamental, sintomas e transtornos psiquiátricos em crianças com três diferentes síndromes genéticas, com antecedentes socioculturais e socioeconômicos semelhantes. MÉTODOS: trinta e quatro crianças, entre 6 e 16 anos, com as síndromes de Williams-Beuren (n = 10), de Prader-Willi (n = 11) e do X-Frágil (n = 13), dos ambulatórios de Psiquiatria Infantil e Genética Médica, foram avaliadas cognitivamente pela Escala Wechsler de Inteligência para Crianças (WISC-III). Posteriormente, o QI total, o QI Verbal, o QI de Execução, os escores ponderados dos subtestes e a frequência de sintomas e transtornos psiquiátricos foram comparados entre as síndromes. RESULTADOS: diferenças significativas foram encontradas entre as síndromes quanto ao QI Verbal e os subtestes verbais e de execução. A análise Post-hoc demonstrou que os escores dos subtestes vocabulário e compreensão foram significativamente superiores na síndrome de Williams-Beuren em relação às síndromes de Prader-Willi e do X-Frágil, e os escores dos subtestes cubos e armar objetos foram significativamente superiores na síndrome de Prader-Willi em relação às síndromes de Williams-Beuren e do X-Frágil. Além disso, houve diferença significativa entre as síndromes quanto às características comportamentais e os sintomas psiquiátricos. O grupo com síndrome de Prader-Willi apresentou maior frequência de hiperfagia e comportamentos autolesivos. Já o grupo com síndrome do X-Frágil apresentou maior frequência do déficit da interação social. Esta diferença quase alcançou a significância estatística. CONCLUSÃO: as três síndromes genéticas ...


Assuntos
Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Cognitivos/psicologia , Síndrome do Cromossomo X Frágil/psicologia , Deficiência Intelectual/psicologia , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Síndrome de Prader-Willi/psicologia , Síndrome de Williams/psicologia , Cognição , Estudos Transversais , Transtornos Cognitivos/genética , Escolaridade , Síndrome do Cromossomo X Frágil/diagnóstico , Renda , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Transtornos Mentais/genética , Síndrome de Prader-Willi/diagnóstico , Escalas de Wechsler , Síndrome de Williams/diagnóstico
17.
Rev. psiquiatr. clín. (São Paulo) ; 41(2): 56-61, mar-apr/2014. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-712804

RESUMO

Almost 50 years ago appeared the seminal article by Austin Bradford Hill where he presented parameters for inferring causes from statistical associations, which became known as Hill’s causal criteria. This was a milestone for the renewal of the idea of cause in medicine. Our article revisits his contribution in light of the ideas from the Australian philosopher John L. Mackie, whose important works on causality reached an audience distinct from Hill’s. We suggest that both the British epidemiologist and the Australian philosopher share the purpose of articulating probabilistic determinism and multi-causality, the first with a predominantly probabilistic model and the second with an analytical approach. This article explores the possible consequences of addressing these authors jointly in regard to causal inferences in medicine, especially in respect to mental disorders...


Há quase 50 anos era publicado o artigo seminal de Austin Bradford Hill, no qual ele apresenta parâmetros para inferência de causas com base em associações estatísticas, que ficaram conhecidas como critérios causais de Hill. Aquele foi um marco para a renovação da ideia de causa na medicina. Nosso trabalho revisita suas ideias, articulando-as com o trabalho do filósofo australiano John L. Mackie, também autor de importante obra sobre causalidade, mas que teve uma audiência distinta da que Hill alcançou. Sugerimos que tanto o epidemiologista britânico quanto o filósofo australiano têm em comum o fato de que ambos procuram articular determinismo probabilístico e multicausalidade, o primeiro com um modelo predominantemente probabilista e o segundo com uma abordagem analítica. Este artigo explora as possíveis consequências da aproximação desses dois autores no que diz respeito a inferências causais na medicina, com foco particular nos transtornos mentais...


Assuntos
Humanos , Doença de Alzheimer , Causalidade , Transtornos Mentais , Esquizofrenia
18.
Oxf Med Case Reports ; 2014(9): 151-2, 2014 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25988062

RESUMO

Porphyrias are hereditary disorders related to impaired biosynthesis of heme and characterized by multisystemic manifestations. Acute intermittent porphyria (AIP) is the most common acute subtype of the disease, and often associated with psychiatric symptoms. We here report a patient who developed acute flaccid paralysis after remarkable weight loss, which was related to an eating disorder (anorexia nervosa). After an extensive neurologic workup, he was diagnosed with AIP. This case emphasizes a deleterious vicious cycle between AIP and anorexia: porphyria may lead to anorexia and the carbohydrate restriction may lead to recurrent porphyric attacks. Therefore, an interruption of this cycle with psychiatric approaches to the eating disorders is crucial for long-term therapeutic efficacy.

19.
J Pediatr (Rio J) ; 90(2): 155-60, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24184301

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: this study aimed to investigate the cognitive and behavioral profiles, as well as the psychiatric symptoms and disorders in children with three different genetic syndromes with similar sociocultural and socioeconomic backgrounds. METHODS: thirty-four children aged 6 to 16 years, with Williams-Beuren syndrome (n=10), Prader-Willi syndrome (n=11), and Fragile X syndrome (n=13) from the outpatient clinics of Child Psychiatry and Medical Genetics Department were cognitively assessed through the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-III). Afterwards, a full-scale intelligence quotient (IQ), verbal IQ, performance IQ, standard subtest scores, as well as frequency of psychiatric symptoms and disorders were compared among the three syndromes. RESULTS: significant differences were found among the syndromes concerning verbal IQ and verbal and performance subtests. Post-hoc analysis demonstrated that vocabulary and comprehension subtest scores were significantly higher in Williams-Beuren syndrome in comparison with Prader-Willi and Fragile X syndromes, and block design and object assembly scores were significantly higher in Prader-Willi syndrome compared with Williams-Beuren and Fragile X syndromes. Additionally, there were significant differences between the syndromes concerning behavioral features and psychiatric symptoms. The Prader-Willi syndrome group presented a higher frequency of hyperphagia and self-injurious behaviors. The Fragile X syndrome group showed a higher frequency of social interaction deficits; such difference nearly reached statistical significance. CONCLUSION: the three genetic syndromes exhibited distinctive cognitive, behavioral, and psychiatric patterns.


Assuntos
Transtornos Cognitivos/psicologia , Síndrome do Cromossomo X Frágil/psicologia , Deficiência Intelectual/psicologia , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Síndrome de Prader-Willi/psicologia , Síndrome de Williams/psicologia , Adolescente , Criança , Cognição , Transtornos Cognitivos/genética , Estudos Transversais , Escolaridade , Feminino , Síndrome do Cromossomo X Frágil/diagnóstico , Humanos , Renda , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/genética , Síndrome de Prader-Willi/diagnóstico , Escalas de Wechsler , Síndrome de Williams/diagnóstico
20.
Rev. psiquiatr. clín. (São Paulo) ; 41(6): 150-155, 2014. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-735748

RESUMO

BACKGROUND. The potentially harmful consequences of alcohol use among undergraduates have become a growing concern in recent years. OBJECTIVES. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of hazardous use of alcohol in this population and to identify demographic and psychosocial factors associated with this pattern of consumption. METHODS. This was a cross-sectional study using an anonymous and self-completed questionnaire in the classroom. The questionnaire was administered to 1,290 enrolled male and female students, which comprised a proportional sample of the main areas of knowledge at University of Campinas. The questionnaire produced sociodemographic and psychosocial profiles and the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test was used to detect hazardous use of alcohol. RESULTS. The prevalence of hazardous use of alcohol among the study participants was 24%. Male gender, subjective perceived social support in case of difficulties, being sexually active, not dating, having smoked tobacco cigarettes or marijuana, and having used other illicit psychoactive substances were associated with hazardous use of alcohol. DISCUSSION. Variables related to gender, sexuality, affective partnerships, and consumption of other psychoactive substances were associated with hazardous use of alcohol, which was identified in a quarter of the evaluated students, and indicate the need for strategies to prevent and to treat problems.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudantes , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Álcool , Universidades
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