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1.
Neurol Genet ; 8(1): e647, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34901437

RESUMO

Objectives: The F386L PSEN1 variant has been reported in 1 Japanese family with limited clinical information. We aimed to prove that F386L is pathogenic by demonstrating that it segregates with early-onset Alzheimer disease (AD). Methods: Eight individuals in a South Asian family provided DNA for genetic testing and underwent a neurologic examination. Results: The female proband was diagnosed with AD at age 45 years and died at age 49 years. She had a CSF biomarker profile consistent with AD, and her florbetaben PET scan was amyloid positive with high uptake in the striatum. Her MRI showed no prominent white matter disease. Her affected relatives had an age at onset range of 38-57 years and had imaging and biomarker profiles similar to hers. Discussion: The results presented here, in conjunction with the prior report, confirm the pathogenicity of F386L. Furthermore, our study highlights the importance of studying families from underrepresented populations to identify or confirm the pathogenicity of rare variants that may be specific to certain genetic ancestries.

2.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 24214, 2021 Dec 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34930946

RESUMO

The vascular system is sensitive to radiation injury, and vascular damage is believed to play a key role in delayed tissue injury such as pulmonary fibrosis. However, the response of endothelial cells to radiation is not completely understood. We examined the response of primary human lung microvascular endothelial cells (HLMVEC) to 10 Gy (1.15 Gy/min) X-irradiation. HLMVEC underwent senescence (80-85%) with no significant necrosis or apoptosis. Targeted RT-qPCR showed increased expression of genes CDKN1A and MDM2 (10-120 min). Western blotting showed upregulation of p2/waf1, MDM2, ATM, and Akt phosphorylation (15 min-72 h). Low levels of apoptosis at 24-72 h were identified using nuclear morphology. To identify novel pathway regulation, RNA-seq was performed on mRNA using time points from 2 to 24 h post-irradiation. Gene ontology and pathway analysis revealed increased cell cycle inhibition, DNA damage response, pro- and anti- apoptosis, and pro-senescence gene expression. Based on published literature on inflammation and endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EndMT) pathway genes, we identified increased expression of pro-inflammatory genes and EndMT-associated genes by 24 h. Together our data reveal a time course of integrated gene expression and protein activation leading from early DNA damage response and cell cycle arrest to senescence, pro-inflammatory gene expression, and endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition.

3.
Oncotarget ; 12(26): 2500-2513, 2021 Dec 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34966482

RESUMO

The rising incidence and mortality of endometrial cancer (EC) in the United States calls for an improved understanding of the disease's progression. Current methodologies for diagnosis and treatment rely on the use of cell lines as models for tumor biology. However, due to inherent heterogeneity and differential growing environments between cell lines and tumors, these comparative studies have found little parallels in molecular signatures. As a consequence, the development and discovery of preclinical models and reliable drug targets are delayed. In this study, we established transcriptome parallels between cell lines and tumors from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) with the use of optimized normalization methods. We identified genes and signaling pathways associated with regulating the transformation and progression of EC. Specifically, the LXR/RXR activation, neuroprotective role for THOP1 in Alzheimer's disease, and glutamate receptor signaling pathways were observed to be mostly downregulated in advanced cancer stage. While some of these highlighted markers and signaling pathways are commonly found in the central nervous system (CNS), our results suggest a novel function of these genes in the periphery. Finally, our study underscores the value of implementing appropriate normalization methods in comparative studies to improve the identification of accurate and reliable markers.

4.
World J Biol Psychiatry ; : 1-12, 2021 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34664540

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) is a complex neuropsychiatric disease with known genetic associations, but without known links to rare variation in the human genome. Here we aim to identify rare genetic variants associated with MDD using deep whole-genome sequencing data in an independent population. METHODS: We report the sequencing of 1,688 whole genomes in a large sample of male-male Veteran twins. Depression status was classified based on a structured diagnostic interview according to DSM-III-R diagnostic criteria. Searching only rare variants in genomic regions from recent GWAS on MDD, we used the optimised sequence kernel association test and Fisher's Exact test to fine map loci associated with severe depression. RESULTS: Our analysis identified one gene associated with severe depression, basic helix loop helix e22 (PAdjusted = 0.03) via SKAT-O test between unrelated severely depressed cases compared to unrelated non-depressed controls. The same gene BHLHE22 had a non-silent variant rs13279074 (PAdjusted = 0.032) based on a single variant Fisher's Exact test between unrelated severely depressed cases compared to unrelated non-depressed controls. CONCLUSION: The gene BHLHE22 shows compelling genetic evidence of directly impacting the severe depression phenotype. Together these results advance understanding of the genetic contribution to major depressive disorder in a new cohort and link a rare variant to severe forms of the disorder.

5.
J Infect Dis ; 2021 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34673956

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Characterizing the longevity and quality of cellular immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 enhances understanding of COVID-19 immunity that influences clinical outcomes. Prior studies suggest SARS-CoV-2-specific T cells are present in peripheral blood 10 months after infection. Further analysis of the function, durability, and diversity of the cellular response long after natural infection, over a wider range of ages and disease phenotypes, is needed to further identify preventative and therapeutic interventions. METHODS: We identified participants in our multi-site longitudinal, prospective cohort study 12-months post SARS-CoV-2 infection representing a range of disease severity. We investigated the function, phenotypes, and frequency of T cells specific for SARS-CoV-2 using intracellular cytokine staining and spectral flow cytometry. In parallel, the magnitude of SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies was compared. RESULTS: SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies and T cells were detected at 12-months post-infection. Severity of acute illness was associated with higher frequencies of SARS-CoV-2-specific CD4 T cells and antibodies at 12-months. In contrast, polyfunctional and cytotoxic T cells responsive to SARS-CoV-2 were identified in participants over a wide spectrum of disease severity. CONCLUSIONS: Our data show that SARS-CoV-2 infection induces polyfunctional memory T cells detectable at 12-months post-infection, with higher frequency noted in those who originally experienced severe disease.

6.
Brain Cogn ; 154: 105790, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34487993

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to examine the association between the apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε4 allele and neurocognitive functioning following traumatic brain injury (TBI) in military service members and veterans (SMVs). Participants included 176 SMVs with a history of remote TBI (≥1 year post-injury), categorized into mild (n = 100), moderate (n = 40), and severe (n = 36) TBI groups. Participants completed a neuropsychological assessment and APOE genotyping (n = 46 ε4+, n = 130 ε4-). Neurocognitive composite scores representing memory, executive functioning, and visual processing speed were computed. ANCOVAs adjusting for race, education, combat exposure, and PTSD symptom severity showed a significant main effect of ε4 on the memory composite, such that ε4+ SMVs exhibited poorer memory performance than ε4- SMVs. When ε2 allele carriers were removed from the analyses, associations with memory were strengthened, demonstrating a possible protective effect of the ε2 allele. No main effect of TBI group was identified on any cognitive composite, nor were there any significant TBI group × Îµ4 status interactions for any cognitive composite. Future studies with larger samples are needed to verify these findings, but our results suggest an important relationship between ε4 status and memory functioning following remote TBI of all severities.


Assuntos
Apolipoproteínas E/genética , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas , Veteranos , Apolipoproteína E4/genética , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/genética , Cognição , Genótipo , Humanos , Testes Neuropsicológicos
7.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0256148, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34407144

RESUMO

In females, estrogens have two main modes of action relating to gonadotropin secretion: positive feedback and negative feedback. Estrogen positive and negative feedback are controlled by different regions of the hypothalamus: the preoptic area/anterior portion (mainly the anteroventral periventricular nucleus, AVPV) of the hypothalamus is associated with estrogen positive feedback while the mediobasal hypothalamus (mainly the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus, ARH), is associated with estrogen negative feedback. In this study, we examined the temporal pattern of gene transcription in these two regions following estrogen treatment. Adult, ovariectomized, Long Evans rats received doses of estradiol benzoate (EB) or oil every 4 days for 3 cycles. On the last EB priming cycle, hypothalamic tissues were dissected into the AVPV+ and ARH+ at 0 hrs (baseline/oil control), 6 hrs, or 24 hrs after EB treatment. RNA was extracted and sequenced using bulk RNA sequencing. Differential gene analysis, gene ontology, and weighted correlation network analysis (WGCNA) was performed. Overall, we found that the AVPV+ and ARH+ respond differently to estradiol stimulation. In both regions, estradiol treatment resulted in more gene up-regulation than down-regulation. S100g was very strongly up-regulated by estradiol in both regions at 6 and 24 hrs after EB treatment. In the AVPV+ the highest number of differentially expressed genes occurred 24 hrs after EB. In the ARH+, the highest number of genes differentially expressed by EB occurred between 6 and 24 hrs after EB, while in the AVPV+, the fewest genes changed their expression between these time points, demonstrating a temporal difference in the way that EB regulates transcription these two areas. Several genes strongly implicated in gonadotropin release were differentially affected by estradiol including Esr1, encoding estrogen receptor-α and Kiss1, encoding kisspeptin. As an internal validation, Kiss1 was up-regulated in the AVPV+ and down-regulated in the ARH+. Gene network analysis revealed the vastly different clustering of genes modulated by estradiol in the AVPV+ compared with the ARH+. These results indicate that gene expression in these two hypothalamic regions have specific responses to estradiol in timing and direction.

8.
JAMA Neurol ; 78(10): 1236-1248, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34459874

RESUMO

Importance: Juvenile amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a rare form of ALS characterized by age of symptom onset less than 25 years and a variable presentation. Objective: To identify the genetic variants associated with juvenile ALS. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this multicenter family-based genetic study, trio whole-exome sequencing was performed to identify the disease-associated gene in a case series of unrelated patients diagnosed with juvenile ALS and severe growth retardation. The patients and their family members were enrolled at academic hospitals and a government research facility between March 1, 2016, and March 13, 2020, and were observed until October 1, 2020. Whole-exome sequencing was also performed in a series of patients with juvenile ALS. A total of 66 patients with juvenile ALS and 6258 adult patients with ALS participated in the study. Patients were selected for the study based on their diagnosis, and all eligible participants were enrolled in the study. None of the participants had a family history of neurological disorders, suggesting de novo variants as the underlying genetic mechanism. Main Outcomes and Measures: De novo variants present only in the index case and not in unaffected family members. Results: Trio whole-exome sequencing was performed in 3 patients diagnosed with juvenile ALS and their parents. An additional 63 patients with juvenile ALS and 6258 adult patients with ALS were subsequently screened for variants in the SPTLC1 gene. De novo variants in SPTLC1 (p.Ala20Ser in 2 patients and p.Ser331Tyr in 1 patient) were identified in 3 unrelated patients diagnosed with juvenile ALS and failure to thrive. A fourth variant (p.Leu39del) was identified in a patient with juvenile ALS where parental DNA was unavailable. Variants in this gene have been previously shown to be associated with autosomal-dominant hereditary sensory autonomic neuropathy, type 1A, by disrupting an essential enzyme complex in the sphingolipid synthesis pathway. Conclusions and Relevance: These data broaden the phenotype associated with SPTLC1 and suggest that patients presenting with juvenile ALS should be screened for variants in this gene.

9.
Behav Brain Res ; 415: 113491, 2021 10 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34333069

RESUMO

Past research has found a relationship between the apolipoprotein E (APOE) e4 allele and worse neurobehavioral functioning following mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) in civilian populations. The purpose of this study was to examine this relationship in service members and veterans (SMVs) following MTBI. Participants were 151 SMVs (103 uncomplicated MTBI; 48 Injured Controls [IC]) prospectively enrolled in the DVBIC-TBICoE 15-Year Longitudinal TBI Study. Participants completed a battery of self-reported neurobehavioral symptom measures on average 76.2 months post-injury (SD = 31.8). APOE genotyping was undertaken using non-fasting blood samples. Participants were classified into four subgroups based on injury (MTBI vs. IC) and APOE e4 allele status (e4 present/absent). In the IC group, there were no significant differences across APOE e4 status subgroups for all measures. In the MTBI group, participants with the APOE e4 allele had significantly worse scores on measures of depression, pain, anxiety, grief, positive well-being, social participation, and resilience compared to those without the e4 allele (d = .44 to d = .69). When comparing the number of 'clinically elevated' neurobehavioral measures simultaneously, the MTBI/e4 present subgroup consistently had a higher number of elevated measures compared to the MTBI/e4 absent, IC/e4 present, and IC/e4 absent subgroups. The APOE e4 allele was associated with poorer neurobehavioral outcome in SMVs in the chronic phase of recovery following MTBI. APOE e4 could be incorporated into screening tools to predict SMVs at risk for poor long-term neurobehavioral outcome in an effort to provide early intervention to improve long-term clinical outcome.

10.
medRxiv ; 2021 Jul 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34282422

RESUMO

Genomic regions have been associated with COVID-19 susceptibility and outcomes, including the chr12q24.13 locus encoding antiviral proteins OAS1-3. Here, we report genetic, functional, and clinical insights into genetic associations within this locus. In Europeans, the risk of hospitalized vs. non-hospitalized COVID-19 was associated with a single 19Kb-haplotype comprised of 76 OAS1 variants included in a 95% credible set within a large genomic fragment introgressed from Neandertals. The risk haplotype was also associated with impaired spontaneous but not treatment-induced SARS-CoV-2 clearance in a clinical trial with pegIFN-λ1. We demonstrate that two exonic variants, rs10774671 and rs1131454, affect splicing and nonsense-mediated decay of OAS1 . We suggest that genetically-regulated loss of OAS1 expression contributes to impaired spontaneous clearance of SARS-CoV-2 and elevated risk of hospitalization for COVID-19. Our results provide the rationale for further clinical studies using interferons to compensate for impaired spontaneous SARS-CoV-2 clearance, particularly in carriers of the OAS1 risk haplotypes.

11.
Blood Cancer Discov ; 2(4): 319-325, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34258102

RESUMO

Genetic mutations associated with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) also occur in age-related clonal hematopoiesis, often in the same individual. This makes confident assignment of detected variants to malignancy challenging. The issue is particularly crucial for AML post-treatment measurable residual disease monitoring, where results can be discordant between genetic sequencing and flow cytometry. We show here, that it is possible to distinguish AML from clonal hematopoiesis and to resolve the immunophenotypic identity of clonal architecture. To achieve this, we first design patient-specific DNA probes based on patient's whole-genome sequencing, and then use them for patient-personalized single-cell DNA sequencing with simultaneous single-cell antibody-oligonucleotide sequencing. Examples illustrate AML arising from DNMT3A and TET2 mutated clones as well as independently. The ability to personalize single-cell proteogenomic assessment for individual patients based on leukemia-specific genomic features has implications for ongoing AML precision medicine efforts.

12.
J Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle ; 12(4): 1098-1116, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34115448

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Spinal muscular atrophy is an inherited neurodegenerative disease caused by insufficient levels of the survival motor neuron (SMN) protein. Recently approved treatments aimed at increasing SMN protein levels have dramatically improved patient survival and have altered the disease landscape. While restoring SMN levels slows motor neuron loss, many patients continue to have smaller muscles and do not achieve normal motor milestones. While timing of treatment is important, it remains unclear why SMN restoration is insufficient to fully restore muscle size and function. We and others have shown that SMN-deficient muscle precursor cells fail to efficiently fuse into myotubes. However, the role of SMN in myoblast fusion is not known. METHODS: In this study, we show that SMN-deficient myoblasts readily fuse with wild-type myoblasts, demonstrating fusion competency. Conditioned media from wild type differentiating myoblasts do not rescue the fusion deficit of SMN-deficient cells, suggesting that compromised fusion may primarily be a result of altered membrane dynamics at the cell surface. Transcriptome profiling of skeletal muscle from SMN-deficient mice revealed altered expression of cell surface fusion molecules. Finally, using cell and mouse models, we investigate if myoblast fusion can be rescued in SMN-deficient myoblast and improve the muscle pathology in SMA mice. RESULTS: We found reduced expression of the muscle fusion proteins myomaker (P = 0.0060) and myomixer (P = 0.0051) in the muscle of SMA mice. Suppressing SMN expression in C2C12 myoblast cells reduces expression of myomaker (35% reduction; P < 0.0001) and myomixer, also known as myomerger and minion, (30% reduction; P < 0.0001) and restoring SMN levels only partially restores myomaker and myomixer expression. Ectopic expression of myomixer improves myofibre number (55% increase; P = 0.0006) and motor function (35% decrease in righting time; P = 0.0089) in SMA model mice and enhances motor function (82% decrease in righting time; P < 0.0001) and extends survival (28% increase; P < 0.01) when administered in combination with an antisense oligonucleotide that increases SMN protein levels. CONCLUSIONS: Here, we identified reduced expression of muscle fusion proteins as a key factor in the fusion deficits of SMN-deficient myoblasts. This discovery provides a novel target to improve SMA muscle pathology and motor function, which in combination with SMN increasing therapy could enhance clinical outcomes for SMA patients.


Assuntos
Doenças Neurodegenerativas , Animais , Diferenciação Celular , Humanos , Proteínas de Membrana , Camundongos , Neurônios Motores , Proteínas Musculares , Mioblastos
13.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 544, 2021 Jun 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34107889

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: SARS-CoV-2 is a recently emerged pandemic coronavirus (CoV) capable of causing severe respiratory illness. However, a significant number of infected people present as asymptomatic or pauci-symptomatic. In this prospective assessment of at-risk healthcare workers (HCWs) we seek to determine whether pre-existing antibody or T cell responses to previous seasonal human coronavirus (HCoV) infections affect immunological or clinical responses to SARS-CoV-2 infection or vaccination. METHODS: A cohort of 300 healthcare workers, confirmed negative for SARS-CoV-2 exposure upon study entry, will be followed for up to 1 year with monthly serology analysis of IgM and IgG antibodies against the spike proteins of SARS-CoV-2 and the four major seasonal human coronavirus - HCoV-OC43, HCoV-HKU1, HCoV-229E, and HCoV-NL63. Participants will complete monthly questionnaires that ask about Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) exposure risks, and a standardized, validated symptom questionnaire (scoring viral respiratory disease symptoms, intensity and severity) at least twice monthly and any day when any symptoms manifest. SARS-CoV-2 PCR testing will be performed any time participants develop symptoms consistent with COVID-19. For those individuals that seroconvert and/or test positive by SARS-CoV-2 PCR, or receive the SARS-CoV-2 vaccine, additional studies of T cell activation and cytokine production in response to SARS-CoV-2 peptide pools and analysis of Natural Killer cell numbers and function will be conducted on that participant's cryopreserved baseline peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Following the first year of this study we will further analyze those participants having tested positive for COVID-19, and/or having received an authorized/licensed SARS-CoV-2 vaccine, quarterly (year 2) and semi-annually (years 3 and 4) to investigate immune response longevity. DISCUSSION: This study will determine the frequency of asymptomatic and pauci-symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection in a cohort of at-risk healthcare workers. Baseline and longitudinal assays will determine the frequency and magnitude of anti-spike glycoprotein antibodies to the seasonal HCoV-OC43, HCoV-HKU1, HCoV-229E, and HCoV-NL63, and may inform whether pre-existing antibodies to these human coronaviruses are associated with altered COVID-19 disease course. Finally, this study will evaluate whether pre-existing immune responses to seasonal HCoVs affect the magnitude and duration of antibody and T cell responses to SARS-CoV-2 vaccination, adjusting for demographic covariates.


Assuntos
COVID-19/imunologia , Pessoal de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Soroconversão , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Infecções Assintomáticas , Vacinas contra COVID-19/imunologia , Coronavirus/imunologia , Reações Cruzadas , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia
14.
Physiol Rep ; 9(11): e14886, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34086412

RESUMO

Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a life-limiting autosomal recessive genetic disease caused by variants in the CFTR gene, most commonly by the [F508del] variant. Although CF is a classical Mendelian disease, genetic variants in several modifier genes have been associated with variation of the clinical phenotype for pulmonary and gastrointestinal function and urogenital development. We hypothesized that whole genome sequencing of a well-phenotyped CF populations might identify novel variants in known, or hitherto unknown, modifier genes. Whole genome sequencing was performed on the Illumina HiSeq X platform for 98 clinically diagnosed cystic fibrosis patient samples from the Adult CF Clinic at the University of California San Diego (UCSD). We compared protein-coding, non-silent variants genome wide between CFTR [F508del] homozygotes vs CFTR compound heterozygotes. Based on a single variant score test, we found 3 SNPs in common variants (MAF >5%) that occurred at significantly different rates between homozygous [F508del]CFTR and compound heterozygous [F508del]CFTR patients. The 3 SNPs were all located in one gene on chromosome 2: Tensin 1 (TNS1: rs3796028; rs2571445: and rs918949). We observed significantly lower BMIs in homozygous [F508del]CFTR patients who were also homozygous for Tensin 1 rs918949 (T/T) (p = 0.023) or rs2571445 (G/G) (p = 0.02) variants. The Tensin 1 gene is thus a potential modifier gene for low BMI in CF patients homozygous for the [F508del]CFTR variant.

15.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 9371, 2021 04 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33931688

RESUMO

Pathogenic mutations in fumarate hydratase (FH) drive hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell cancer (HLRCC) and increase the risk of developing uterine leiomyomas (ULMs). An integrated proteogenomic analysis of ULMs from HLRCC (n = 16; FH-mutation confirmed) and non-syndromic (NS) patients (n = 12) identified a significantly higher protein:transcript correlation in HLRCC (R = 0.35) vs. NS ULMs (R = 0.242, MWU p = 0.0015). Co-altered proteins and transcripts (228) included antioxidant response element (ARE) target genes, such as thioredoxin reductase 1 (TXNRD1), and correlated with activation of NRF2-mediated oxidative stress response signaling in HLRCC ULMs. We confirm 185 transcripts previously described as altered between HLRCC and NS ULMs, 51 co-altered at the protein level and several elevated in HLRCC ULMs are involved in regulating cellular metabolism and glycolysis signaling. Furthermore, 367 S-(2-succino)cysteine peptides were identified in HLRCC ULMs, of which sixty were significantly elevated in HLRCC vs. NS ULMs (LogFC = 1.86, MWU p < 0.0001). These results confirm and define novel proteogenomic alterations in uterine leiomyoma tissues collected from HLRCC patients and underscore conserved molecular alterations correlating with inactivation of the FH tumor suppressor gene.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/análise , Fumarato Hidratase/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Leiomiomatose/patologia , Mutação , Síndromes Neoplásicas Hereditárias/patologia , Proteogenômica/métodos , Proteoma/metabolismo , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia , Neoplasias Uterinas/patologia , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Leiomiomatose/metabolismo , Síndromes Neoplásicas Hereditárias/metabolismo , Proteoma/análise , Neoplasias Cutâneas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Uterinas/metabolismo
16.
Mov Disord ; 36(8): 1795-1804, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33960523

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Whole-genome sequencing data are available from several large studies across a variety of diseases and traits. However, massive storage and computation resources are required to use these data, and to achieve sufficient power for discoveries, harmonization of multiple cohorts is critical. OBJECTIVES: The Accelerating Medicines Partnership Parkinson's Disease program has developed a research platform for Parkinson's disease (PD) that integrates the storage and analysis of whole-genome sequencing data, RNA expression data, and clinical data, harmonized across multiple cohort studies. METHODS: The version 1 release contains whole-genome sequencing data derived from 3941 participants from 4 cohorts. Samples underwent joint genotyping by the TOPMed Freeze 9 Variant Calling Pipeline. We performed descriptive analyses of these whole-genome sequencing data using the Accelerating Medicines Partnership Parkinson's Disease platform. RESULTS: The clinical diagnosis of participants in version 1 release includes 2005 idiopathic PD patients, 963 healthy controls, 64 prodromal subjects, 62 clinically diagnosed PD subjects without evidence of dopamine deficit, and 705 participants of genetically enriched cohorts carrying PD risk-associated GBA variants or LRRK2 variants, of whom 304 were affected. We did not observe significant enrichment of pathogenic variants in the idiopathic PD group, but the polygenic risk score was higher in PD both in nongenetically enriched cohorts and genetically enriched cohorts. The population analysis showed a correlation between genetically enriched cohorts and Ashkenazi Jewish ancestry. CONCLUSIONS: We describe the genetic component of the Accelerating Medicines Partnership Parkinson's Disease platform, a solution to democratize data access and analysis for the PD research community. © 2021 The Authors. Movement Disorders published by Wiley Periodicals LLC on behalf of International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.


Assuntos
Doença de Parkinson , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Mutação , Doença de Parkinson/tratamento farmacológico , Doença de Parkinson/genética
17.
Front Neurosci ; 15: 636259, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33828448

RESUMO

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) results in complex pathological reactions, where the initial lesion is followed by secondary inflammation and edema. Our laboratory and others have reported that angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) have efficacy in improving recovery from traumatic brain injury in mice. Treatment of mice with a subhypotensive dose of the ARB candesartan results in improved functional recovery, and reduced pathology (lesion volume, inflammation and gliosis). In order to gain a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms through which candesartan improves recovery after controlled cortical impact injury (CCI), we performed transcriptomic profiling on brain regions after injury and drug treatment. We examined RNA expression in the ipsilateral hippocampus, thalamus and hypothalamus at 3 or 29 days post injury (dpi) treated with either candesartan (0.1 mg/kg) or vehicle. RNA was isolated and analyzed by bulk mRNA-seq. Gene expression in injured and/or candesartan treated brain region was compared to that in sham vehicle treated mice in the same brain region to identify genes that were differentially expressed (DEGs) between groups. The most DEGs were expressed in the hippocampus at 3 dpi, and the number of DEGs reduced with distance and time from the lesion. Among pathways that were differentially expressed at 3 dpi after CCI, candesartan treatment altered genes involved in angiogenesis, interferon signaling, extracellular matrix regulation including integrins and chromosome maintenance and DNA replication. At 29 dpi, candesartan treatment reduced the expression of genes involved in the inflammatory response. Some changes in gene expression were confirmed in a separate cohort of animals by qPCR. Fewer DEGs were found in the thalamus, and only one in the hypothalamus at 3 dpi. Additionally, in the hippocampi of sham injured mice, 3 days of candesartan treatment led to the differential expression of 384 genes showing that candesartan in the absence of injury had a powerful impact on gene expression specifically in the hippocampus. Our results suggest that candesartan has broad actions in the brain after injury and affects different processes at acute and chronic times after injury. These data should assist in elucidating the beneficial effect of candesartan on recovery from TBI.

18.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 57(3)2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33804348

RESUMO

Background and Objectives: Stress can overload adaptive mechanisms, leading to epigenetic effects harmful to health. Research on the reversal of these effects is in its infancy. Early results suggest some meditation techniques have health benefits that grow with repeated practice. This study focused on possible transcriptomic effects of 38 years of twice-daily Transcendental Meditation® (TM®) practice. Materials and Methods: First, using Illumina® BeadChip microarray technology, differences in global gene expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were sought between healthy practitioners and tightly matched controls (n = 12, age 65). Second, these microarray results were verified on a subset of genes using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and were validated using qPCR in larger TM and control groups (n = 45, age 63). Bioinformatics investigation employed Ingenuity® Pathway Analysis (IPA®), DAVID, Genomatix, and R packages. Results: The 200 genes and loci found to meet strict criteria for differential expression in the microarray experiment showed contrasting patterns of expression that distinguished the two groups. Differential expression relating to immune function and energy efficiency were most apparent. In the TM group, relative to the control, all 49 genes associated with inflammation were downregulated, while genes associated with antiviral and antibody components of the defense response were upregulated. The largest expression differences were shown by six genes related to erythrocyte function that appeared to reflect a condition of lower energy efficiency in the control group. Results supporting these gene expression differences were obtained with qPCR-measured expression both in the well-matched microarray groups and in the larger, less well-matched groups. Conclusions: These findings are consistent with predictions based on results from earlier randomized trials of meditation and may provide evidence for stress-related molecular mechanisms underlying reductions in anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), cardiovascular disease (CVD), and other chronic disorders and diseases.


Assuntos
Meditação , Biologia Computacional , Leucócitos Mononucleares , Estresse Psicológico/prevenção & controle , Transcriptoma
19.
Neurobiol Aging ; 104: 115.e1-115.e7, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33902942

RESUMO

The genetic admixture of Caribbean Hispanics provides an opportunity to discover novel genetic factors in Alzheimer disease (AD). We sought to identify genetic variants for AD through a family-based design using the Puerto Rican (PR) Alzheimer Disease Initiative (PRADI). Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) and parametric linkage analysis were performed for 100 individuals from 23 multiplex PRADI families. Variants were prioritized by minor allele frequency (<0.01), functional potential [combined annotation dependent depletion score (CADD) >10], and co-segregation with AD. Variants were further ranked using an independent PR case-control WGS dataset (PR10/66). A genome-wide significant linkage peak was found in 9p21 with a heterogeneity logarithm of the odds score (HLOD) >5.1, which overlaps with an AD linkage region from two published independent studies. The region harbors C9orf72, but no expanded repeats were observed in the families. Seven variants prioritized by the PRADI families also displayed evidence for association in the PR10/66 (p < 0.05), including a missense variant in UNC13B. Our study demonstrated the importance of family-based design and WGS in genetic study of AD.

20.
Alzheimers Dement ; 17(7): 1179-1188, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33522086

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε4 confers less risk for Alzheimer's disease (AD) in carriers with African local genomic ancestry (ALA) than APOE ε4 carriers with European local ancestry (ELA). Cell type specific transcriptional variation between the two local ancestries (LAs) could contribute to this disease risk differences. METHODS: Single-nucleus RNA sequencing was performed on frozen frontal cortex of homozygous APOE ε4/ε4 AD patients: seven with ELA, four with ALA. RESULTS: A total of 60,908 nuclei were sequenced. Within the LA region (chr19:44-46Mb), APOE was the gene most differentially expressed, with ELA carriers having significantly more expression (overall P < 1.8E-317 ) in 24 of 32 cell clusters. The transcriptome of one astrocyte cluster, with high APOE ε4 expression and specific to ELA, is suggestive of A1 reactive astrocytes. DISCUSSION: AD patients with ELA expressed significantly greater levels of APOE than ALA APOE ε4 carriers. These differences in APOE expression could contribute to the reduced risk for AD seen in African APOE ε4 carriers.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , Apolipoproteína E4/genética , Análise de Sequência de RNA , /genética , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Alelos , Doença de Alzheimer/etnologia , Doença de Alzheimer/genética , Feminino , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Masculino
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