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1.
IEEE Trans Biomed Eng ; PP2021 Jun 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34156935

RESUMO

In Robot Assisted Minimally Invasive Surgery, discriminating critical subsurface structures is essential to make the surgical procedure safer and more efficient. In this paper, a novel robot assisted electrical bio-impedance scanning (RAEIS) system is developed and validated using a series of experiments. The proposed system constructs a tri-polar sensing configuration for tissue homogeneity inspection. Specifically, two robotic forceps are used as electrodes for applying electric current and measuring reciprocal voltages relative to a ground electrode which is placed distal from the measuring site. Compared to the other existing electrical bioimpedance sensing technology, the proposed system is able to use miniaturized electrodes to measure a site flexibly with enhanced subsurfacial detection capability. In this paper, we present the concept, the modeling of the sensing method, the hardware design, and the system calibration. Subsequently, a series of experiments are conducted for system evaluation including finite element simulation, saline solution bath experiments and experiments based on ex vivo animal tissues. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed system can measure the resistivity of the material with high accuracy, and detect a subsurface non-homogeneous object with 100% success rate. The proposed parameters estimation algorithm is able to approximate the resistivity and the depth of the subsurface object effectively with one fast scanning.

2.
Int J Comput Assist Radiol Surg ; 16(7): 1111-1119, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34013464

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Automatic segmentation and classification of surgical activity is crucial for providing advanced support in computer-assisted interventions and autonomous functionalities in robot-assisted surgeries. Prior works have focused on recognizing either coarse activities, such as phases, or fine-grained activities, such as gestures. This work aims at jointly recognizing two complementary levels of granularity directly from videos, namely phases and steps. METHODS: We introduce two correlated surgical activities, phases and steps, for the laparoscopic gastric bypass procedure. We propose a multi-task multi-stage temporal convolutional network (MTMS-TCN) along with a multi-task convolutional neural network (CNN) training setup to jointly predict the phases and steps and benefit from their complementarity to better evaluate the execution of the procedure. We evaluate the proposed method on a large video dataset consisting of 40 surgical procedures (Bypass40). RESULTS: We present experimental results from several baseline models for both phase and step recognition on the Bypass40. The proposed MTMS-TCN method outperforms single-task methods in both phase and step recognition by 1-2% in accuracy, precision and recall. Furthermore, for step recognition, MTMS-TCN achieves a superior performance of 3-6% compared to LSTM-based models on all metrics. CONCLUSION: In this work, we present a multi-task multi-stage temporal convolutional network for surgical activity recognition, which shows improved results compared to single-task models on a gastric bypass dataset with multi-level annotations. The proposed method shows that the joint modeling of phases and steps is beneficial to improve the overall recognition of each type of activity.


Assuntos
Derivação Gástrica/métodos , Laparoscopia/métodos , Redes Neurais de Computação , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Robóticos/métodos , Humanos
3.
Int J Comput Assist Radiol Surg ; 16(8): 1287-1295, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33886045

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The automatic extraction of knowledge about intervention execution from surgical manuals would be of the utmost importance to develop expert surgical systems and assistants. In this work we assess the feasibility of automatically identifying the sentences of a surgical intervention text containing procedural information, a subtask of the broader goal of extracting intervention workflows from surgical manuals. METHODS: We frame the problem as a binary classification task. We first introduce a new public dataset of 1958 sentences from robotic surgery texts, manually annotated as procedural or non-procedural. We then apply different classification methods, from classical machine learning algorithms, to more recent neural-network approaches and classification methods exploiting transformers (e.g., BERT, ClinicalBERT). We also analyze the benefits of applying balancing techniques to the dataset. RESULTS: The architectures based on neural-networks fed with FastText's embeddings and the one based on ClinicalBERT outperform all the tested methods, empirically confirming the feasibility of the task. Adopting balancing techniques does not lead to substantial improvements in classification. CONCLUSION: This is the first work experimenting with machine / deep learning algorithms for automatically identifying procedural sentences in surgical texts. It also introduces the first public dataset that can be used for benchmarking different classification methods for the task.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Aprendizado de Máquina , Redes Neurais de Computação , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Robóticos/métodos , Humanos
4.
Int J Comput Assist Radiol Surg ; 15(8): 1379-1387, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32445126

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Biomechanical simulation of anatomical deformations caused by ultrasound probe pressure is of outstanding importance for several applications, from the testing of robotic acquisition systems to multi-modal image fusion and development of ultrasound training platforms. Different approaches can be exploited for modelling the probe-tissue interaction, each achieving different trade-offs among accuracy, computation time and stability. METHODS: We assess the performances of different strategies based on the finite element method for modelling the interaction between the rigid probe and soft tissues. Probe-tissue contact is modelled using (i) penalty forces, (ii) constraint forces, and (iii) by prescribing the displacement of the mesh surface nodes. These methods are tested in the challenging context of ultrasound scanning of the breast, an organ undergoing large nonlinear deformations during the procedure. RESULTS: The obtained results are evaluated against those of a non-physically based method. While all methods achieve similar accuracy, performance in terms of stability and speed shows high variability, especially for those methods modelling the contacts explicitly. Overall, prescribing surface displacements is the approach with best performances, but it requires prior knowledge of the contact area and probe trajectory. CONCLUSIONS: In this work, we present different strategies for modelling probe-tissue interaction, each able to achieve different compromises among accuracy, speed and stability. The choice of the preferred approach highly depends on the requirements of the specific clinical application. Since the presented methodologies can be applied to describe general tool-tissue interactions, this work can be seen as a reference for researchers seeking the most appropriate strategy to model anatomical deformation induced by the interaction with medical tools.


Assuntos
Modelos Anatômicos , Ultrassonografia/métodos , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Simulação por Computador , Humanos
5.
Int J Comput Assist Radiol Surg ; 14(11): 2043, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31250254

RESUMO

The original version of this article unfortunately contained a mistake.

6.
Int J Comput Assist Radiol Surg ; 14(8): 1329-1339, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31161556

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Although ultrasound (US) images represent the most popular modality for guiding breast biopsy, malignant regions are often missed by sonography, thus preventing accurate lesion localization which is essential for a successful procedure. Biomechanical models can support the localization of suspicious areas identified on a preoperative image during US scanning since they are able to account for anatomical deformations resulting from US probe pressure. We propose a deformation model which relies on position-based dynamics (PBD) approach to predict the displacement of internal targets induced by probe interaction during US acquisition. METHODS: The PBD implementation available in NVIDIA FleX is exploited to create an anatomical model capable of deforming online. Simulation parameters are initialized on a calibration phantom under different levels of probe-induced deformations; then, they are fine-tuned by minimizing the localization error of a US-visible landmark of a realistic breast phantom. The updated model is used to estimate the displacement of other internal lesions due to probe-tissue interaction. RESULTS: The localization error obtained when applying the PBD model remains below 11 mm for all the tumors even for input displacements in the order of 30 mm. This proposed method obtains results aligned with FE models with faster computational performance, suitable for real-time applications. In addition, it outperforms rigid model used to track lesion position in US-guided breast biopsies, at least halving the localization error for all the displacement ranges considered. CONCLUSION: Position-based dynamics approach has proved to be successful in modeling breast tissue deformations during US acquisition. Its stability, accuracy and real-time performance make such model suitable for tracking lesions displacement during US-guided breast biopsy.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico por imagem , Mama/diagnóstico por imagem , Biópsia Guiada por Imagem , Imageamento Tridimensional , Ultrassonografia Mamária , Algoritmos , Biópsia , Calibragem , Simulação por Computador , Humanos , Modelos Anatômicos , Posicionamento do Paciente , Imagens de Fantasmas , Robótica , Software
7.
Med Biol Eng Comput ; 57(4): 913-924, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30483912

RESUMO

The modeling of breast deformations is of interest in medical applications such as image-guided biopsy, or image registration for diagnostic purposes. In order to have such information, it is needed to extract the mechanical properties of the tissues. In this work, we propose an iterative technique based on finite element analysis that estimates the elastic modulus of realistic breast phantoms, starting from MRI images acquired in different positions (prone and supine), when deformed only by the gravity force. We validated the method using both a single-modality evaluation in which we simulated the effect of the gravity force to generate four different configurations (prone, supine, lateral, and vertical) and a multi-modality evaluation in which we simulated a series of changes in orientation (prone to supine). Validation is performed, respectively, on surface points and lesions using as ground-truth data from MRI images, and on target lesions inside the breast phantom compared with the actual target segmented from the US image. The use of pre-operative images is limited at the moment to diagnostic purposes. By using our method we can compute patient-specific mechanical properties that allow compensating deformations. Graphical Abstract Workflow of the proposed method and comparative results of the prone-to-supine simulation (red volumes) validated using MRI data (blue volumes).


Assuntos
Simulação por Computador , Elasticidade , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Ultrassonografia , Feminino , Análise de Elementos Finitos , Humanos , Modelos Biológicos , Imagens de Fantasmas
8.
Front Robot AI ; 6: 55, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33501070

RESUMO

The integration of intra-operative sensors into surgical robots is a hot research topic since this can significantly facilitate complex surgical procedures by enhancing surgical awareness with real-time tissue information. However, currently available intra-operative sensing technologies are mainly based on image processing and force feedback, which normally require heavy computation or complicated hardware modifications of existing surgical tools. This paper presents the design and integration of electrical bio-impedance sensing into a commercial surgical robot tool, leading to the creation of a novel smart instrument that allows the identification of tissues by simply touching them. In addition, an advanced user interface is designed to provide guidance during the use of the system and to allow augmented-reality visualization of the tissue identification results. The proposed system imposes minor hardware modifications to an existing surgical tool, but adds the capability to provide a wealth of data about the tissue being manipulated. This has great potential to allow the surgeon (or an autonomous robotic system) to better understand the surgical environment. To evaluate the system, a series of ex-vivo experiments were conducted. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed sensing system can successfully identify different tissue types with 100% classification accuracy. In addition, the user interface was shown to effectively and intuitively guide the user to measure the electrical impedance of the target tissue, presenting the identification results as augmented-reality markers for simple and immediate recognition.

9.
Int J Comput Assist Radiol Surg ; 13(10): 1641-1650, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29869320

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Patient-specific biomedical modeling of the breast is of interest for medical applications such as image registration, image guided procedures and the alignment for biopsy or surgery purposes. The computation of elastic properties is essential to simulate deformations in a realistic way. This study presents an innovative analytical method to compute the elastic modulus and evaluate the elasticity of a breast using magnetic resonance (MRI) images of breast phantoms. METHODS: An analytical method for elasticity computation was developed and subsequently validated on a series of geometric shapes, and on four physical breast phantoms that are supported by a planar frame. This method can compute the elasticity of a shape directly from a set of MRI scans. For comparison, elasticity values were also computed numerically using two different simulation software packages. RESULTS: Application of the different methods on the geometric shapes shows that the analytically derived elongation differs from simulated elongation by less than 9% for cylindrical shapes, and up to 18% for other shapes that are also substantially vertically supported by a planar base. For the four physical breast phantoms, the analytically derived elasticity differs from numeric elasticity by 18% on average, which is in accordance with the difference in elongation estimation for the geometric shapes. The analytic method has shown to be multiple orders of magnitude faster than the numerical methods. CONCLUSION: It can be concluded that the analytical elasticity computation method has good potential to supplement or replace numerical elasticity simulations in gravity-induced deformations, for shapes that are substantially supported by a planar base perpendicular to the gravitational field. The error is manageable, while the calculation procedure takes less than one second as opposed to multiple minutes with numerical methods. The results will be used in the MRI and Ultrasound Robotic Assisted Biopsy (MURAB) project.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico por imagem , Mama/diagnóstico por imagem , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Imagens de Fantasmas , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Robóticos , Algoritmos , Biópsia , Calibragem , Simulação por Computador , Diagnóstico por Computador , Elasticidade , Feminino , Análise de Elementos Finitos , Humanos , Imageamento Tridimensional , Modelos Estatísticos , Reconhecimento Automatizado de Padrão , Ultrassonografia
10.
Surg Innov ; 25(1): 69-76, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29303068

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Combining the strengths of surgical robotics and minimally invasive surgery (MIS) holds the potential to revolutionize surgical interventions. The MIS advantages for the patients are obvious, but the use of instrumentation suitable for MIS often translates in limiting the surgeon capabilities (eg, reduction of dexterity and maneuverability and demanding navigation around organs). To overcome these shortcomings, the application of soft robotics technologies and approaches can be beneficial. The use of devices based on soft materials is already demonstrating several advantages in all the exploitation areas where dexterity and safe interaction are needed. In this article, the authors demonstrate that soft robotics can be synergistically used with traditional rigid tools to improve the robotic system capabilities and without affecting the usability of the robotic platform. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A bioinspired soft manipulator equipped with a miniaturized camera has been integrated with the Endoscopic Camera Manipulator arm of the da Vinci Research Kit both from hardware and software viewpoints. Usability of the integrated system has been evaluated with nonexpert users through a standard protocol to highlight difficulties in controlling the soft manipulator. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: This is the first time that an endoscopic tool based on soft materials has been integrated into a surgical robot. The soft endoscopic camera can be easily operated through the da Vinci Research Kit master console, thus increasing the workspace and the dexterity, and without limiting intuitive and friendly use.


Assuntos
Endoscópios , Endoscopia/educação , Endoscopia/instrumentação , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Robóticos/educação , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Robóticos/instrumentação , Adulto , Desenho de Equipamento , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas , Adulto Jovem
11.
J Vis Surg ; 3: 23, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29078586

RESUMO

The comparison of the developments obtained by training for aviation with the ones obtained by training for surgery highlights the efforts that are still required to define shared and validated training curricula for surgeons. This work focuses on robotic assisted surgery and the related training systems to analyze the current approaches to surgery training based on virtual environments. Limits of current simulation technology are highlighted and the systems currently on the market are compared in terms of their mechanical design and characteristics of the virtual environments offered. In particular the analysis focuses on the level of realism, both graphical and physical, and on the set of training tasks proposed. Some multimedia material is proposed to support the analysis and to highlight the differences between the simulations and the approach to training. From this analysis it is clear that, although there are several training systems on the market, some of them with a lot of scientific literature proving their validity, there is no consensus about the tasks to include in a training curriculum or the level of realism required to virtual environments to be useful.

12.
Int J Comput Assist Radiol Surg ; 10(6): 843-54, 2015 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25930712

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Detection of feature points in medical ultrasound (US) images is the starting point of many clinical tasks, such as segmentation of lesions in pathological areas, estimation of organ deformation, and multimodality image fusion. However, obtaining a reliable feature point localization is a complex task even for an expert radiologist due to the US image characteristics: strong presence of noise, insidious artifacts, and low contrast. In this work, we describe a feature detector based on phase congruency (PhC) combined with a binary pattern descriptor. METHODS: We introduce a feature detector specifically designed for US images and based on PhC analysis. We also introduce a descriptor based on local binary pattern (LBP) operator to improve and simplify the matching between feature points extracted from different images. LBP is not applied directly to the intensity values; instead, it is applied to the PhC output obtained during the detection step to improve robustness to intensity transformation, and the rejection of noise. RESULTS: We tested the proposed approach compared to state-of- the-art methods applied to real US images subject to realistic synthetic transformations. The results of the proposed method, in terms of accuracy and precision, outperform the state-of-the-art approaches that are not designed for US data. CONCLUSIONS: The methods described in this work will enable the development of US-based navigation system, which supports automatic feature point detection and matching from US images acquired at different times during the procedure.


Assuntos
Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Ultrassonografia/métodos , Algoritmos , Humanos
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