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1.
Food Chem ; 305: 125445, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31499288

RESUMO

This research compared the distribution and mobility of water in the longissimus thoracis muscle of 51 Apulo-Calabrese and 52 crossbred pigs differing in growth performances. The Apulo-Calabrese and crossbreed pigs were fed the same diet and slaughtered at 135 and 155 kg live weight, respectively. Besides meat quality measurement, water status was assessed from transverse relaxation time (T2) weighted signals registered by Time Domain Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (TD-NMR). A mixed model indicated that Apulo-Calabrese pigs had higher a* (P-value < 0.0001), chroma (P-value < 0.0001) and total intensity (P-value = 0.011) values. A Principal Component Analysis showed that the samples from Apulo-Calabrese had higher scores along Principal Component (PC) 2 (P-value = 4.07 × 10-5) and lower scores along PC3 (P-value = 1.50 × 10-7). However PC2 and PC3 explained a low fraction of the total variance, suggesting that few differences characterize meat quality traits of the two genetic types.

2.
Meat Sci ; 162: 108012, 2019 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31816517

RESUMO

Ham weight loss at first salting (HWLFS) is a meat quality parameter used to assess the suitability of the hams for salting and seasoning. The relationships between HWLFS and 17 performance, carcass and raw ham quality parameters were investigated in 260 performance tested Italian Large White heavy pigs. HWLFS was affected by slaughter day and visible intermuscular fat of trimmed hams whereas sex did not affect its variability. Residual correlations of HWLFS with backfat thickness (BFT; r = -0.51) and lean cuts (LC; r = +0.51) were stronger than with ham weight at trimming (r = +0.40) and after first salting (r = +0.37). Significant correlations of HWLFS with fresh ham quality traits ranged from +0.16 to -0.25. BFT, LC and pH24h were the main predictors of HWLFS in the regression model. Results from this study indicated that higher ham fat coverage and pH24h and lower LC could reduce HWLFS of green hams for Protected Designation of Origin products.

3.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 7003, 2019 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31065004

RESUMO

Haematological and clinical-biochemical parameters are considered indicators of the physiological/health status of animals and might serve as intermediate phenotypes to link physiological aspects to production and disease resistance traits. The dissection of the genetic variability affecting these phenotypes might be useful to describe the resilience of the animals and to support the usefulness of the pig as animal model. Here, we analysed 15 haematological and 15 clinical-biochemical traits in 843 Italian Large White pigs, via three genome-wide association scan approaches (single-trait, multi-trait and Bayesian). We identified 52 quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with 29 out of 30 analysed blood parameters, with the most significant QTL identified on porcine chromosome 14 for basophil count. Some QTL regions harbour genes that may be the obvious candidates: QTLs for cholesterol parameters identified genes (ADCY8, APOB, ATG5, CDKAL1, PCSK5, PRL and SOX6) that are directly involved in cholesterol metabolism; other QTLs highlighted genes encoding the enzymes being measured [ALT (known also as GPT) and AST (known also as GOT)]. Moreover, the multivariate approach strengthened the association results for several candidate genes. The obtained results can contribute to define new measurable phenotypes that could be applied in breeding programs as proxies for more complex traits.

4.
Animals (Basel) ; 8(10)2018 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30308950

RESUMO

Despite the increasing interest in the welfare of animals during transport, very little is known on the response of local pig breeds to the transport procedures. This study aims to compare the effect of short journey on behaviour, blood parameters, and meat quality traits in 51 Apulo-Calabrese and 52 crossbreed [Duroc × (Landrace × Large White)] pigs. All the animals were blood sampled five days before delivery (basal condition) and at exsanguination for the analysis of creatine kinase, cortisol, glucose, lactate, albumin, albumin/globulin, total protein, urea, creatinine, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphate, sodium, and potassium. Post mortem pH, color, drip loss, cooking loss, and Warner-Bratzler shear force were measured at different times in longissimus thoracis samples. Univariate and multivariate analyses showed that glucose, albumin/globulin, urea, and AST at exsanguination were influenced by the genetic type. Apulo-Calabrese showed the highest increase in blood values of lactate, creatinine, sodium and potassium after the short distance transport. Behavioural occurrences were similar in both genetic types during unloading and lairage. Small differences were observed for meat quality although significantly higher a* and lower L* were found in Apulo-Calabrese pigs, showing meat with a deeper red colour than crossbreeds.

5.
PLoS One ; 13(9): e0199649, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30208024

RESUMO

The liver is a complex organ governing several physiological processes that define biological mechanisms affecting growth, feed efficiency and performance traits in all livestock species, including pig. Proteomics may contribute to a better understanding of the relationship between liver functions and complex production traits in pigs and to characterize this species as biomedical model. This study applied, for the first time, a label-free liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) proteomic approach to compare the liver proteome profiles of two important heavy pig breeds, Italian Duroc and Italian Large White. Liver specimens were collected (after slaughtering) from performance tested pigs of these two breeds, raised in standard conditions. The label-free LC-MS method captured a total of 501 proteins of which 200 were subsequently considered in the between breeds comparison. A statistical pipeline based on the sparse Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis (sPLS-DA), coupled with stability and significance tests, was applied for the identification of up or down regulated proteins between breeds. This analysis revealed a total of 25 proteins clearly separating Italian Duroc and Italian Large White pigs. Among the top proteins differentiating the two breeds, 3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase, mitochondrial (ACAA2) and histone H2B type 2-F (HIST2H2BF) were up-regulated in Italian Duroc pigs and carboxylesterase 3 (CES3) and ketohexokinase (KHK) were up-regulated in Italian Large White pigs. Fatty acid synthase (FASN), involved in fatty acid metabolism and encoded by a gene located in a QTL region for fatty acid composition, was up-regulated in Italian Large White pigs. The in silico protein interaction analysis showed that 16 of these proteins were connected in one big module. Bioinformatic functional analysis indicated that differentially expressed proteins were involved in several biological processes related to the metabolism of lipids, amino-acids, carbohydrates, cofactors and antibiotics/drugs, suggesting that these functions might distinguish Italian Duroc and Italian Large White pigs. This pilot comparative proteomic analysis of the porcine liver highlighted several biological factors that could determine the peculiar production potentials of these two heavy pig breeds, derived by their different genetic backgrounds.

6.
Meat Sci ; 136: 44-49, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29096286

RESUMO

PRKAG3 is a major gene for meat quality and production in pigs. In this study, we investigated two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the PRKAG3 promoter region (g.-995A>G and g.-311A>G) in 381 pigs of different breeds. Association between these SNPs and three major haplotypes, constructed including other three substitutions (c.89C>A, c.154A>G and c.595G>A) and different traits (meat quality parameters: pH2h, pHu, glycogen and lactate content, glycolytic potential and cathepsin B activity of Semimembranosus muscle; estimated breeding values and random residuals for growth performances and carcass traits) were analysed in 271 Italian Large White performance tested pigs. A significant effect (P=0.043) of the g.-995A>G SNP on cathepsin B activity and a suggestive effect (P=0.067) of the g.-311A>G SNP on pHu were found. The haplotype [g.-995G:g.-311G:c.89A:c.154G:c.595G] was associated with pHu (P=0.024), glycolytic potential (P=0.040) and cathepsin B activity (P=0.086). This study on haplotypes, including promoter region SNPs, contribute to explain the effect of this gene on meat quality traits in pigs.


Assuntos
Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP/genética , Carne Vermelha/análise , Sus scrofa/genética , Animais , Cruzamento , Catepsina B , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Glicólise/genética , Haplótipos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Itália , Masculino , Músculo Esquelético/química , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
7.
Animals (Basel) ; 7(2)2017 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28208592

RESUMO

In order to evaluate the relationships between deck level, body surface temperature and carcass damages after a short journey (30 min), 10 deliveries of Italian heavy pigs, including a total of 1400 animals from one farm, were examined. Within 5 min after the arrival at the abattoir, the vehicles were unloaded. Environmental temperature and relative humidity were recorded and a Temperature Humidity Index (THI) was calculated. After unloading, maximum temperatures of dorsal and ocular regions were measured by a thermal camera on groups of pigs from each of the unloaded decks. After dehairing, quarters and whole carcasses were evaluated subjectively by a trained operator for skin damage using a four-point scale. On the basis of THI at unloading, deliveries were grouped into three classes. Data of body surface temperature and skin damage score were analysed in a model including THI class, deck level and their interaction. Regardless of pig location in the truck, the maximum temperature of the dorsal and ocular regions increased with increasing THI class. Within each THI class, the highest and lowest body surface temperatures were found in pigs located on the middle and upper decks, respectively. Only THI class was found to affect the skin damage score (p < 0.05), which increased on quarters and whole carcasses with increasing THI class. The results of this study on short-distance transport of Italian heavy pigs highlighted the need to control and ameliorate the environmental conditions in the trucks, even at relatively low temperature and THI, in order to improve welfare and reduce loss of carcass value.

8.
Anim Biotechnol ; 27(2): 77-83, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26913548

RESUMO

A shortcut to identify DNA markers associated with economic traits is to use a candidate gene approach that is still useful in livestock species in which molecular tools and resources are not advanced or not well developed. Mutations in the growth hormone receptor (GHR) gene associated with production traits have been already described in several livestock species. For this reason GHR could be an interesting candidate gene in the rabbit. In this study we re-sequenced all exons and non-coding regions of the rabbit GHR gene in a panel of 10 different rabbits and identified 10 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). One of them (g.63453192C>G or c.106C>G), located in exon 3 was a missense mutation (p.L36V) substituting an amino acid in a highly conserved position across all mammals. This mutation was genotyped in 297 performance tested rabbits of a meat male line and association analysis showed that the investigated SNP was associated with weight at 70 days (P < 0.05). The most frequent genotype (GG) was in animals with higher weight at this age, suggesting that the high directional selection pressure toward this trait since the constitution of the genotyped line might have contributed to shape allele frequencies at this polymorphic site.


Assuntos
Peso Corporal/genética , Carne/normas , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Receptores da Somatotropina/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Masculino , Coelhos , Receptores da Somatotropina/química , Alinhamento de Sequência
9.
Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc ; 91(2): 311-27, 2016 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25619897

RESUMO

Rough-and-tumble play (RT) is a widespread phenomenon in mammals. Since it involves competition, whereby one animal attempts to gain advantage over another, RT runs the risk of escalation to serious fighting. Competition is typically curtailed by some degree of cooperation and different signals help negotiate potential mishaps during RT. This review provides a framework for such signals, showing that they range along two dimensions: one from signals borrowed from other functional contexts to those that are unique to play, and the other from purely emotional expressions to highly cognitive (intentional) constructions. Some animal taxa have exaggerated the emotional and cognitive interplay aspects of play signals, yielding admixtures of communication that have led to complex forms of RT. This complexity has been further exaggerated in some lineages by the development of specific novel gestures that can be used to negotiate playful mood and entice reluctant partners. Play-derived gestures may provide new mechanisms by which more sophisticated communication forms can evolve. Therefore, RT and playful communication provide a window into the study of social cognition, emotional regulation and the evolution of communication systems.


Assuntos
Comunicação Animal , Jogos e Brinquedos , Agressão/psicologia , Animais , Comportamento Competitivo , Humanos , Comportamento Social
10.
Int J Genomics ; 2015: 950737, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25821781

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that could be associated with back fat thickness (BFT) in pigs. To achieve this goal, we evaluated the potential and limits of an experimental design that combined several methodologies. DNA samples from two groups of Italian Large White pigs with divergent estimating breeding value (EBV) for BFT were separately pooled and sequenced, after preparation of reduced representation libraries (RRLs), on the Ion Torrent technology. Taking advantage from SNAPE for SNPs calling in sequenced DNA pools, 39,165 SNPs were identified; 1/4 of them were novel variants not reported in dbSNP. Combining sequencing data with Illumina PorcineSNP60 BeadChip genotyping results on the same animals, 661 genomic positions overlapped with a good approximation of minor allele frequency estimation. A total of 54 SNPs showing enriched alleles in one or in the other RRLs might be potential markers associated with BFT. Some of these SNPs were close to genes involved in obesity related phenotypes.

11.
Anim Biotechnol ; 26(2): 92-7, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25380460

RESUMO

The GPR120 gene (also known as FFAR4 or O3FAR1) encodes for a functional omega-3 fatty acid receptor/sensor that mediates potent insulin sensitizing effects by repressing macrophage-induced tissue inflammation. For its functional role, GPR120 could be considered a potential target gene in animal nutrigenetics. In this work we resequenced the porcine GPR120 gene by high throughput Ion Torrent semiconductor sequencing of amplified fragments obtained from 8 DNA pools derived, on the whole, from 153 pigs of different breeds/populations (two Italian Large White pools, Italian Duroc, Italian Landrace, Casertana, Pietrain, Meishan, and wild boars). Three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), two synonymous substitutions and one in the putative 3'-untranslated region (g.114765469C > T), were identified and their allele frequencies were estimated by sequencing reads count. The g.114765469C > T SNP was also genotyped by PCR-RFLP confirming estimated frequency in Italian Large White pools. Then, this SNP was analyzed in two Italian Large White cohorts using a selective genotyping approach based on extreme and divergent pigs for back fat thickness (BFT) estimated breeding value (EBV) and average daily gain (ADG) EBV. Significant differences of allele and genotype frequencies distribution was observed between the extreme ADG-EBV groups (P < 0.001) whereas this marker was not associated with BFT-EBV.


Assuntos
Nutrigenômica/métodos , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas-G/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Sus scrofa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sus scrofa/genética , Animais , Frequência do Gene , Estudos de Associação Genética , Itália , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Semicondutores , Análise de Sequência de DNA/instrumentação
12.
Vet Ital ; 50(3): 193-7, 2014 Jul-Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25273961

RESUMO

The myostatin (MSTN) gene encodes a protein known to be a negative regulator of muscle mass in mammalian species. Different polymorphisms of the horse (Equus caballus) MSTN gene have been identified, including single nucleotide polymorphisms and a short interspersed nuclear element (SINE) insertion of 227 bp within the promoter of the gene. The SINE insertion has been associated with performance traits in Thoroughbred racehorses and it was proposed as a predictor of optimum racing distance. The aims of this study were to perform in silico analysis to identify putative gains or abrogation of transcription-factor binding sites (TFBSs) generated by the SINE allele of the promoter and to analyse the frequency of the SINE insertion in horses used for racing (gallop and trot) and other purposes. The SINE insertion was genotyped in 227 horses from 10 breeds belonging to different morphological types (brachimorphic, mesomorphic, meso-dolichomorphic and dolichomorphic). The presence of the insertion was confirmed in the Quarter Horse (SINE allele frequency of 0.81) and in the Thoroughbred (0.51), whereas the SINE allele did not segregate in any of the other analysed breeds. As the SINE MSTN gene polymorphism may be population or breed specific, it is not a useful marker for association studies in all breeds.


Assuntos
Cavalos/genética , Miostatina/genética , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética , Elementos Nucleotídeos Curtos e Dispersos , Animais , Cruzamento
13.
Animals (Basel) ; 4(3): 524-34, 2014 Aug 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26480322

RESUMO

Pre-slaughter handling is related to defects in fresh hams that result in exclusion from the DPO Parma chain, including hematomas, lacerations, microhaemorrhages and veining. To determine the effects of transport conditions on hams, we collected data on defects in 901,990 trimmed fresh hams from heavy pigs provided by 3,650 batches from slaughterhouse during 2012 and 2013. For all batches, transport distance (1-276 km) season and year of delivery were considered. A decrease of all defect occurrences was observed for increasing distance up to 170 km (P < 0.05). Above 170 km, however, all defects frequencies increased (P < 0.05). Season showed an effect on the incidence of defects, with an increasing of hematomas and lacerations in winter and autumn respectively (P < 0.05) and the highest percentage of veining and hemorrhages in spring (P < 0.05). Summer had the lowest incidence of defects on fresh hams. We concluded that the incidence of the examined defects and the subsequent rejection for DPO Parma ham production is lower in fresh hams transported 38-170 km during the summer.

14.
Anim Biotechnol ; 24(4): 268-77, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23947663

RESUMO

In this study we resequenced 1729 bp of the rabbit melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4 R) gene in 31 rabbits from different breeds/lines and identified ten polymorphisms: one was an indel and 9 were single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). The indel and 5 SNPs were in the 5'-flanking region, 3 were synonymous SNPs and one was a missense mutation (c.101G>A; p.G34D), located in a conserved position of the extracellular tail of the MC4 R protein. The missense mutation was analyzed in a panel of 74 rabbits of different breeds and in 516 performance tested rabbits of a commercial paternal line under selection for growth efficiency. Association analysis indicated that rabbits with the less frequent genotype in this population (DD) had a lighter weight at 70 postnatal days than animals with genotype GD (P < 0.10) and animals with genotype GG (P < 0.05). This is the third study on candidate genes, after those on GH1 and IGF2 that reported a marker associated with finishing weight. Therefore, it seems that a candidate gene approach in rabbit based on previous information accumulated in other livestock species could be useful to identify genes explaining a fraction of variability of performance traits with potential application on rabbit breeding and selection.


Assuntos
Peso Corporal/genética , Carne , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Receptor Tipo 4 de Melanocortina/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Simulação por Computador , Feminino , Gado/genética , Masculino , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Coelhos
15.
Anim Biotechnol ; 23(3): 147-55, 2012.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22870870

RESUMO

In pigs, susceptibility to enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) K88 strains (locus F4bcR) is determined by a dominant allele, with the recessive allele determining resistance. The susceptible allele also appeared to be associated with higher growth rate even with discordant results. A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in exon 7 of the mucin 4 (MUC4) gene (DQ848681:g.8227C>G), shown to be in close linkage disequilibrium with the F4bcR locus, has been used as marker to identify susceptible pigs, substituting invasive villous adhesion tests. We herein analyzed this SNP in Italian local breeds and applied a selective genotyping approach in Italian Large White, Italian Landrace, and Italian Duroc comparing allele frequency distribution in groups of pigs with extreme estimated breeding values (EBV) for average daily gain (ADG) and backfat thickness (BFT) to evaluate if this marker is associated with these traits. Allele G (associated with susceptibility to ETEC) was associated with higher ADG and BFT in Italian Large White (P=6.66E-04 and P=0.012, respectively) and higher ADG in Italian Landrace (P=7.23E-12). This polymorphism was poorly informative in Italian Duroc. Antagonistic associations of the MUC4 g.8227C>G alleles on susceptibility to ETEC and growth performances evidence the complexity of applying marker assisted selection in pig breeding.


Assuntos
Mucina-4/genética , Sus scrofa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sus scrofa/genética , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Biotecnologia , Cruzamento , Primers do DNA/genética , Escherichia coli Enterotoxigênica/patogenicidade , Infecções por Escherichia coli/genética , Infecções por Escherichia coli/microbiologia , Infecções por Escherichia coli/veterinária , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Técnicas de Genotipagem , Itália , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Receptores Imunológicos/genética , Sus scrofa/microbiologia , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/genética , Doenças dos Suínos/microbiologia
16.
PLoS One ; 7(5): e37332, 2012.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22615982

RESUMO

Communication, an essential prerequisite for sociality, involves the transmission of signals. A signal can be defined as any action or trait produced by one animal, the sender, that produces a change in the behaviour of another animal, the receiver. Secondary sexual signals are often used for mate choice because they may inform on a potential partner's quality. Verreaux's sifaka (Propithecus verreauxi) is characterized by the presence of two different morphs of males (bimorphism), which can show either a stained or clean chest. The chest becomes stained by secretions of the sternal gland during throat marking (rubbing throat and chest on a vertical substrate while smearing the scent deposition). The role of the chest staining in guiding female mate choice was previously hypothesized but never demonstrated probably due to the difficulty of observing sifaka copulations in the wild. Here we report that stained-chested males had a higher throat marking activity than clean-chested males during the mating season, but not during the birth season. We found that females copulated more frequently with stained-chested males than the clean-chested males. Finally, in agreement with the biological market theory, we found that clean-chested males, with a lower scent-releasing potential, offered more grooming to females. This "grooming for sex" tactic was not completely unsuccessful; in fact, half of the clean-chested males copulated with females, even though at low frequency. In conclusion, the chest stain, possibly correlated with different cues targeted by females, could be one of the parameters which help females in selecting mates.


Assuntos
Comportamento de Escolha , Comportamento Sexual Animal , Strepsirhini , Animais , Copulação , Feminino , Asseio Animal , Masculino , Predomínio Social , Tórax
17.
Mol Biol Rep ; 39(1): 109-15, 2012 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21598116

RESUMO

We genotyped single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 5 cathepsin or cystatin genes (cathepsin F, CTSF; cathepsin L, CTSL; cathepsin S, CTSS; cathepsin Z, CTSZ; cystatin B, CSTB) in two groups of Italian Duroc pigs: the first group (n. 100) was chosen using a selective genotyping approach with extreme estimated breeding value (EBV) for visible intermuscular fat (VIF); the second group (n. 218) was made of performance-tested Duroc pigs not selected by any criteria. CTSL marker showed a tendency towards association (P<0.10) with VIF (first group) and back fat thickness (BFT) and average daily gain (ADG; second group). In the second group, the CTSL polymorphism was associated with weight of lean cuts (LC; P<0.05). Additive effects for all mentioned traits in the second group was significant (P<0.05). The results we obtained in the Italian Duroc pigs confirmed the results and the direction of the effects already reported for the Italian Large White breed.


Assuntos
Composição Corporal/genética , Catepsinas/genética , Cistatinas/genética , Marcadores Genéticos/genética , Carne , Sus scrofa/genética , Animais , Primers do DNA/genética , Frequência do Gene , Estudos de Associação Genética , Genótipo , Padrões de Herança/genética , Modelos Lineares , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética
18.
J Dairy Res ; 78(1): 122-8, 2011 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21214968

RESUMO

Massese is an Italian sheep breed, with black or grey coat colour, mainly reared in the Tuscany and Emilia Romagna regions. Recently, the emerging interests in this breed have resulted in the production of Pecorino cheese obtained with only Massese milk. In order to be profitable, this marketing link between Massese breed and its products should be defended against fraudsters who could include milk of other sheep breeds or cow milk in Massese labelled productions. To identify the genetic factors affecting coat colour in sheep, we have recently analysed the melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) gene and identified several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). In this work, as a first step to set up a DNA based protocol for authentication of Massese dairy products, we further investigated the presence and distribution of one of these SNPs (c.-31G>A) in 143 Massese sheep and in another 13 sheep breeds (for a total of 351 animals). The Massese breed was fixed for allele c.-31A, whereas in all other breeds allele c.-31 G was the most frequent or with frequency of 0·50. At the same nucleotide position the cattle MC1R gene carries the G nucleotide. Using these data we developed a method to detect adulterating milk (from other sheep breeds or from cow) in Massese dairy products based on the analysis of the c.-31G>A SNP. We first tested the sensitivity of the protocol and then applied it to analyse DNA extracted from ricotta and Pecorino cheese obtained with only Massese milk or obtained with unrestricted sheep and cattle milk. To our knowledge, this system represents the first one that can be used for breed authentication of a sheep production and that, at the same time, can reveal frauds derived from the admixture of milk of an unreported species.


Assuntos
Laticínios/classificação , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Receptor Tipo 1 de Melanocortina/genética , Ovinos/genética , Animais , Queijo/análise , Queijo/classificação , DNA/análise , Laticínios/análise , Feminino , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Frequência do Gene , Leite/química , Leite/classificação , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Polimorfismo de Fragmento de Restrição , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Especificidade da Espécie
19.
Mol Biol Rep ; 38(2): 1425-31, 2011 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20730498

RESUMO

TBC1D1 [TBC1 (tre-2/USP6, BUB2, cdc16) domain family, member 1] is a Rab-GTPase-activating related protein implicated in regulating the trafficking of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4 or SLC2A4) storage vesicles to the cell surface in response to insulin and AMPK-activating stimuli in skeletal muscle. Mutations in the human and mouse TBC1D1 genes confer risk of obesity or leanness. We identified five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the porcine TBC1D1 gene. One of them (FN677935:g.219G>A) was genotyped either by high resolution melting and PCR-RFLP analyses to study allele frequencies in a few pig breeds and evaluate association with meat production and carcass traits in five groups of sib-tested pigs of Italian Large White and Italian Duroc breeds. The g.219G>A SNP was associated (P < 0.05) with ham weight, back fat thickness and lean cuts content in Italian Large White and with visible intermuscular fat in Italian Duroc pigs.


Assuntos
Proteínas Ativadoras de GTPase/metabolismo , Mutação , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Alelos , Animais , Feminino , Proteínas Ativadoras de GTPase/genética , Frequência do Gene , Genótipo , Itália , Masculino , Modelos Biológicos , Suínos
20.
BMC Genomics ; 11: 639, 2010 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21083884

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The goat (Capra hircus) represents one of the most important farm animal species. It is reared in all continents with an estimated world population of about 800 million of animals. Despite its importance, studies on the goat genome are still in their infancy compared to those in other farm animal species. Comparative mapping between cattle and goat showed only a few rearrangements in agreement with the similarity of chromosome banding. We carried out a cross species cattle-goat array comparative genome hybridization (aCGH) experiment in order to identify copy number variations (CNVs) in the goat genome analysing animals of different breeds (Saanen, Camosciata delle Alpi, Girgentana, and Murciano-Granadina) using a tiling oligonucleotide array with ~385,000 probes designed on the bovine genome. RESULTS: We identified a total of 161 CNVs (an average of 17.9 CNVs per goat), with the largest number in the Saanen breed and the lowest in the Camosciata delle Alpi goat. By aggregating overlapping CNVs identified in different animals we determined CNV regions (CNVRs): on the whole, we identified 127 CNVRs covering about 11.47 Mb of the virtual goat genome referred to the bovine genome (0.435% of the latter genome). These 127 CNVRs included 86 loss and 41 gain and ranged from about 24 kb to about 1.07 Mb with a mean and median equal to 90,292 bp and 49,530 bp, respectively. To evaluate whether the identified goat CNVRs overlap with those reported in the cattle genome, we compared our results with those obtained in four independent cattle experiments. Overlapping between goat and cattle CNVRs was highly significant (P < 0.0001) suggesting that several chromosome regions might contain recurrent interspecies CNVRs. Genes with environmental functions were over-represented in goat CNVRs as reported in other mammals. CONCLUSIONS: We describe a first map of goat CNVRs. This provides information on a comparative basis with the cattle genome by identifying putative recurrent interspecies CNVs between these two ruminant species. Several goat CNVs affect genes with important biological functions. Further studies are needed to evaluate the functional relevance of these CNVs and their effects on behavior, production, and disease resistance traits in goats.


Assuntos
Mapeamento Cromossômico/métodos , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA/genética , Genoma/genética , Cabras/genética , Animais , Aves/genética , Cruzamento , Bovinos/genética , Cromossomos de Mamíferos/genética , Hibridização Genômica Comparativa , Bases de Dados de Ácidos Nucleicos , Reações Falso-Positivas , Fluorescência , Humanos , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Homologia de Sequência do Ácido Nucleico
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