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1.
J Parasitol ; 106(1): 56-70, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31995719

RESUMO

Rhadinorhynchus hiansi Soota and Bhattacharya, 1981 , has remained unknown since its original incomplete description from 2 male specimens collected from the flat needlefish Ablennes hians Valenciennes (Belonidae) off Trivandrum, Kerala, India. Recent collections of fishes along the Pacific coast of Vietnam in 2016 and 2017 produced many specimens of the same species from the striped bonito Sarda orientalis Temminck and Schlegel (Scombridae) off the southern Pacific coast of Vietnam at Nha Trang. We describe females for the first time, assign a female allotype status, and provide an expanded description of males from a larger collection completing missing information on hooks and hook roots, receptacle, lemnisci, cement glands, Saefftigen's pouch, and trunk spines. Specimens of R. hiansi characteristically have no dorsal spines in the posterior field of trunk spines and a long proboscis with 36-48 dorso-ventrally differentiated proboscis hooks per row becoming progressively smaller posteriorly then increasing in size near the posterior end to a maximum at the posterior-most ring. Trunk, testes, and lemnisci in our specimens were considerably larger than those reported in the original description, but the proboscis was relatively smaller. The females had long reproductive system and corrugated elliptic eggs without polar prolongation of fertilization membrane. Energy Dispersive X-ray Analysis (EDXA) demonstrates high levels of calcium and phosphorus in large gallium cut hooks and high levels of sulfur in tip cuts of large and small hooks and in spines. This EDXA pattern is a characteristic fingerprint of R. hiansi. The molecular profile of R. hiansi is described from 18S rDNA and COI genes, and phylogenetic relationships with most closely related species are discussed.


Assuntos
Acantocéfalos/anatomia & histologia , Acantocéfalos/genética , Beloniformes/parasitologia , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Helmintíase Animal/parasitologia , Acantocéfalos/classificação , Acantocéfalos/ultraestrutura , Algoritmos , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , Feminino , Peixes , Gálio , Funções Verossimilhança , Masculino , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura/veterinária , Oceano Pacífico , Filogenia , Espectrometria por Raios X/veterinária , Vietnã
2.
Aquat Toxicol ; 219: 105378, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31841729

RESUMO

Fipronil is a phenylpyrazole insecticide widely used to control pests in agriculture even though evidence of harmful side effects in non-target species has been reported. A comprehensive study on the effects of dietary administration of Regent®800WG (80 % fipronil) in European sea bass juveniles was carried out under two temperature regimes: a) natural conditions, and b) 3 °C above the natural temperature (an increase predicted for the NW Mediterranean by the end of this century). Fipronil was added to the fish food (10 mg fipronil /Kg feed) and the effects were studied at several time points including right before administration, 7 and 14 days after daily fipronil feed and one-week after the insecticide withdrawal from the diet (depuration period). A wide array of physiological and metabolic biomarkers including feeding rate, general condition indices, plasma and epidermal mucus metabolites, immune response, osmoregulation, detoxification and oxidative-stress markers and digestive enzymes were assessed. General linear models and principal component analyses indicated that regardless of water temperature, fipronil resulted in a significant alteration of several of the above listed biomarkers. Among them, glucose and lactate levels increased in plasma and decreased in epidermal mucus as indicators of a stress response. Similarly, a depletion in catalase activity and higher lipid peroxidation in liver of fipronil-exposed fish were also indicative of an oxidative-stress condition. Fipronil induced a time dependent inhibition of Cytochrome P450-related activities and an increase of phase II glutathione-S-transferase. Moreover, fipronil administration was able to reduce the hypo-osmoregulatory capability as shown by the increase of plasmatic osmolality and altered several digestive enzymes including trypsin, lipase, alpha amylase and maltase. Finally, analyses in bile and muscle confirmed the rapid clearance of fipronil but the persistence of the metabolite fipronil-sulfone in bile even after the 7-day depuration period. Altogether, the results reveal a notable impact of this compound on the physiological condition of the European sea bass. The results should be considered in future environmental risk assessment studies since fipronil could be hazardous to fish species, particularly those inhabiting estuarine ecosystems exposed to the discharge of agriculture runoffs where this pesticide is mainly used.


Assuntos
Bass/metabolismo , Biomarcadores Ambientais/efeitos dos fármacos , Praguicidas/toxicidade , Pirazóis/toxicidade , Temperatura Ambiente , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Ecossistema , Glucose/metabolismo , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Osmorregulação , Oxirredução , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Água do Mar/química
3.
Int J Parasitol ; 49(9): 669-683, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31228422

RESUMO

We explored the relationships between features of host species and their environment, and the diversity, composition and structure of parasite faunas and communities using a large taxonomically consistent dataset of host-parasite associations and host-prey associations, and original environmental and host trait data (diet, trophic level, population density and habitat depth vagility) for the most abundant demersal fish species off the Catalonian coast of the Western Mediterranean. Altogether 98 species/taxa belonging to seven major parasite groups were recovered in 683 fish belonging to 10 species from seven families and four orders. Our analyses revealed that (i) the parasite fauna of the region is rich and dominated by digeneans; (ii) the host parasite faunas and communities exhibited wide variations in richness, abundance and similarity due to a strong phylogenetic component; (iii) the levels of host sharing were low and involved host generalists and larval parasites; (iv) the multivariate similarity pattern of prey samples showed significant associations with hosts and host trophic guilds; (v) prey compositional similarity was not associated with the similarity of trophically transmitted parasite assemblages; and (vi) phylogeny and fish autecological traits were the best predictors of parasite community metrics in the host-parasite system studied.

4.
Parasite ; 26: 14, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30838975

RESUMO

Rhadinorhynchus laterospinosus Amin, Heckmann & Ha, 2011 (Rhadinorhynchidae) was described from a single female collected from a trigger fish, Balistes sp. (Balistidae) from the northern Pacific coast of Vietnam in Halong Bay, Gulf of Tonkin. More recent collections of fishes in 2016 and 2017 revealed wider host and geographical distributions. We report this Acanthocephala from nine species of fish representing six families (including the original record from Balistes sp.) along the whole Pacific coast of Vietnam. The fish species are Alectis ciliaris (Carangidae), Auxis rochei (Scombridae), Auxis thazard (Scombridae), Leiognathus equulus (Leiognathidae), Lutjanus bitaeniatus (Lutjanidae), Megalaspis cordyla (Carangidae), Nuchequula flavaxilla (Leiognathidae), and Tylosurus sp. (Belonidae). We provide a complete description of males and females of R. laterospinosus, discuss its hook metal microanalysis using EDAX, and its micropores. Specimens of this species characteristically have lateral trunk spines bridging the anterior ring of spines with posterior field of ventral spines and a proboscis with 15-19 longitudinal alternating rows of 21-26 hooks each varying with host species. We demonstrate the effect of host species on the distribution and size of the trunk, proboscis, proboscis hooks, trunk spines, and reproductive structures. The molecular profile of this acanthocephalan, based on 18S rDNA and cox1 genes, groups with other Rhadinorhynchus species and further seems to confirm the paraphyly of the genus, which is discussed.


Assuntos
Acantocéfalos/anatomia & histologia , Acantocéfalos/genética , Perciformes/parasitologia , Acantocéfalos/isolamento & purificação , Animais , DNA de Helmintos/genética , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Feminino , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Helmintíase Animal , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Masculino , Oceano Pacífico , RNA Ribossômico 18S/genética , Alimentos Marinhos/parasitologia , Especificidade da Espécie , Vietnã
5.
Syst Parasitol ; 96(2): 149-169, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30747406

RESUMO

The species diversity of Lepidapedon Stafford, 1904 (Lepidapediae) in the Western Mediterranean was assessed based on samples from five deep-sea gadiform fishes collected between the Balearic Islands and the Catalonian coast of Spain: Lepidion lepidion (Risso) and Mora moro (Risso) (both Moridae); Coelorinchus mediterraneus Iwamoto & Ungaro and Trachyrincus scabrus (Rafinesque) (both Macrouridae); and Phycis blennoides (Brünnich) (Phycidae). Integration of morphological and molecular evidence (28S rRNA gene and the mitochondrial nad1 gene) revealed that the deep-sea fishes in the Western Mediterranean share two species of Lepidapedon. Lepidapedon desclersae Bray & Gibson, 1995 was recovered in all five fish species of three families [Moridae (L. lepidion and M. moro); Macrouridae (C. mediterraneus and T. scabrus); and Phycidae (P. blennoides)] and L. guevarai Lopez-Roman & Maillard, 1973 was recovered in three fish species of three families [Phycidae (P. blennoides); Macrouridae (T. scabrus); and Moridae (L. lepidion)]. Therefore, both species are considered to be euryxenic but restricted to gadiforms. The voucher material for the two species from different fish hosts is described in detail and the host-related variability based on the morphometric data is assessed.


Assuntos
Peixes/parasitologia , Trematódeos/classificação , Trematódeos/fisiologia , Animais , Mar Mediterrâneo , NADH Desidrogenase/genética , RNA Ribossômico 28S/genética , Especificidade da Espécie , Trematódeos/anatomia & histologia , Trematódeos/genética
6.
J Toxicol Environ Health A ; 82(2): 75-85, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30669952

RESUMO

Tamiflu® (oseltamivir phosphate, OST) is an antiviral drug used for the pandemic treatment of avian influenza but few data are available regarding its toxicity. It should be noted that acute adverse responses are not likely to occur due to low environmental presence of this drug. Nonetheless, water concentration levels of this compound may reach the µg/L range under influenza episodes. Bivalves are reliable sentinels of chemical exposure due to their low metabolism; however, biotransformation of drugs does occur in these aquatic invertebrates. Two species of bivalves, namely mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis and clams Ruditapes philippinarum, were exposed for 48 h to 100 µg/L OST. Hemolymph from control and treated bivalves was withdrawn and the presence of OST and its metabolite oseltamivir carboxylate (OST-C) determined by LC-MS/MS. Gills and digestive gland were excised from control and exposed bivalves and carboxylesterase (CE) activities measured using different substrates. In addition, antioxidant defences and lipid peroxidation levels were determined. Higher metabolism of OST seemed to occur in mussels, since both OST and OST-C were found in hemolymph, whereas in clams only the parent compound was detected. In contrast, biomarker responses were more evident in exposed clams which indicate that this species may be considered as more sensitive to OST exposure. CE-related activities successfully reflected OST exposure, with substrates 1-naphthyl acetate (1NA) and 1-naphthyl butyrate (1NB) displaying the highest sensitivity in the two bivalve species. Data thus indicate the usefulness of CE-related activities as biomarkers for OST exposure in bivalves.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Bivalves/metabolismo , Esterases/metabolismo , Hemolinfa/química , Peroxidação de Lipídeos , Estresse Oxidativo , Animais , Bioacumulação , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Biotransformação , Bivalves/enzimologia , Mytilus/enzimologia , Mytilus/metabolismo , Especificidade da Espécie
7.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 25(36): 36745-36758, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30382515

RESUMO

Bivalves have proved to be useful bioindicators for environmental pollution. In the present study, mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis), cockles (Cerastoderma edule), and razor shells (Solen marginatus) were collected in the Ebro Delta, an extensive area devoted to rice farming and affected by pesticide pollution, from April to July, the heaviest rice field treatment period. Possible effects of pollution were assessed through biochemical markers (carboxylesterase (CE), antioxidant and neurotoxicity-related enzymes, and lipid peroxidation levels). Data on environmental variables, bivalve reproductive condition, and presence of organic pollutants, marine phycotoxins, pathogens, or histopathological conditions in bivalve's tissues were also evaluated. Although the bioaccumulated pesticides did not explain the patterns observed for biochemical responses, the obtained results point to an effect of environmental pesticide pollution on enzymatic markers, with a prominent contribution of CE to such changes. Mussels and razor shells provided a more sensitive biochemical response to pollution than cockles. Environmental variables, bivalve reproductive condition, and marine phycotoxins did not seem to have a relevant effect on the biomarkers assessed.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Bivalves/efeitos dos fármacos , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Estuários , Praguicidas/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Animais , Bivalves/enzimologia , Cardiidae/efeitos dos fármacos , Cardiidae/enzimologia , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Mytilus/efeitos dos fármacos , Mytilus/enzimologia , Espanha
8.
Parasitol Res ; 117(11): 3497-3505, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30187169

RESUMO

Hamaticolax juanji n. sp. is described from specimens collected from the blackbelly rosefish Helicolenus dactylopterus Delaroche 1809 (Scorpaeniformes: Sebastidae). It is the second Hamaticolax species described and reported from the Mediterranean Sea, after Ha. resupinus Pérez-i-García, Carrassón and Boxshall, 2017. It is distinguished from Ha. resupinus by the presence of only one dorsal naked seta on the third segment of the antennule (vs. four), two unequal short naked setae in distal part of the antenna (vs. four), and the absence of a minute spine on the third endopodal segment of leg 1, among others. It is differentiated from Ha. prolixus Cressey 1969 by a comparatively reduced fourth pedigerous somite, the presence of two naked setae on the third segment of the antennule (vs. three), two naked setae and three curved claws in the distal part of the apical segment of the antenna (vs. three and four), an outer naked seta on the basis of leg 2, and by larger length/width ratio of the third endopodal segment, among others. Hamaticolax juanji n. sp. also has relatively longer inner setae on the first and second endopodal segments of leg 4 than the two former species. Patterns of host-use and host-specificity of the genus Hamaticolax are also discussed. The frequently observed low host-specificity of its members may be better explained by host ecological similarity and host availability phenomena, rather than by host phylogenetic distance.


Assuntos
Copépodes/anatomia & histologia , Copépodes/classificação , Perciformes/parasitologia , Animais , Ecologia , Feminino , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Mar Mediterrâneo , Filogenia
9.
Parasitol Int ; 66(1): 843-862, 2017 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27609346

RESUMO

The family Sphyriocephalidae Pintner, 1913, which comprises the genera Hepatoxylon Bosc, 1811, Sphyriocephalus Pintner, 1913 and Heterosphyriocephalus Palm, 2004, is revised from newly-collected and museum material. Heterosphyriocephalus encarnae n. sp. is described from the pelagic thresher, Alopias pelagicus Nakamura (Lamniformes: Alopiidae) collected from the Pacific Ocean off Boca del Alamo, Mexico. This species can be readily distinguished from the rest of sphyriocephalids by its small size, low number of proglottids and long velum with a characteristically irregular and folded border, among other features. The tentacles show a distinctive basal armature, and a heteroacanthous typical metabasal armature with heteromorphous hooks. Redescriptions are provided for Sphyriocephalus tergestinus Pintner, 1913 and S. viridis (Wagener, 1854) Pintner 1913 based on novel morphological data. A phylogenetic analysis including the available sequences of sphyriocephalid species plus new generated sequences of S. tergestinus has been performed, from which S. tergestinus is allocated into Heterosphyriocephalus as H. tergestinus n. comb. New dichotomous keys for the determination of genera of Sphyriocephalidae are provided, as well as new generic diagnoses for Sphyriocephalus and Heterosphyriocephalus and keys for the determination of species within both genera. Although the morphology of the genus Hepatoxylon is not addressed in the present study, the available sequence of the type-species has been incorporated in the phylogenetic analysis and its relationship to the other two genera of the family is discussed.


Assuntos
Cestoides/classificação , Cestoides/genética , Animais , Cestoides/anatomia & histologia , México , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Oceano Pacífico , Filogenia , Tubarões/parasitologia
10.
Syst Parasitol ; 92(1): 45-55, 2015 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26249521

RESUMO

New morphological, molecular and ecological data for Ditrachybothridium macrocephalum Rees, 1959 (Cestoda: Diphyllidea) are presented and discussed based on specimens recovered from the blackmouth catshark Galeus melastomus Rafinesque (Scyliorhinidae) in the Western Mediterranean. A redescription of the plerocercus of this parasite is provided and new data on immature and mature worms including the first description of the eggs are reported, based on light and scanning electron microscopy observations. Analysis of 28S rDNA (domains D1-D3) sequences from plerocerci, immature and adult specimens revealed that they are conspecific with specimens from the North East Atlantic. Although previous authors considered that museum specimens identified as D. macrocephalum may represent more than one species, examination of type- and voucher material revealed no relevant morphological differences between museum specimens and the present material. Information on infection levels of D. macrocephalum is provided from a large number of host specimens (n = 170). This species was more abundant in juvenile than in adult hosts and on the middle slope than on the upper slope; this may be related to ontogenetic and bathymetric diet shifts of G. melastomus.


Assuntos
Cestoides , Animais , Cestoides/classificação , Cestoides/genética , Cestoides/ultraestrutura , Elasmobrânquios/parasitologia , Mar Mediterrâneo , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 28S/genética , Especificidade da Espécie
11.
Syst Parasitol ; 88(3): 233-44, 2014 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24935126

RESUMO

Bathycreadium brayi n. sp. is described based on specimens collected from the deep-sea greater forkbeard Phycis blennoides (Brünnich) (Gadiformes: Phycidae) in the Western Mediterranean. The new species is distinguished from B. flexicolle Kabata, 1961, B. elongata (Maillard, 1970) and B. nanaflexicolle Dronen, Rubec & Underwood, 1977 by the much smaller size of the body and most organs, the large (in relation to body length and width) ventral sucker and the distinctly more anterior extent of the vitelline fields and from B. biscayense Bray, 1973 in having a narrower body, longer forebody and oesophagus, distinctly smaller ventral sucker and sucker width ratio and the shape of the gonads. Re-examination of the type-material of B. biscayense revealed that the original description of this species is based on composite material. A redescription of B. biscayense based on adult specimens from its type-host, Trachyrincus scabrus (Rafinesque), and new data based on the re-examination of the type-specimens of B. flexicolle and B. elongata are also provided.


Assuntos
Gadiformes/parasitologia , Trematódeos/classificação , Animais , Mar Mediterrâneo , Dados de Sequência Molecular , RNA Ribossômico 28S/genética , Especificidade da Espécie , Trematódeos/anatomia & histologia , Trematódeos/genética
12.
Syst Parasitol ; 85(3): 243-53, 2013 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23793498

RESUMO

In a study of the parasites of the deep-sea fish Mora moro (Risso) (Gadiformes: Moridae) off the Mediterranean coasts of Catalonia and the Balearic Islands (Spain), we were able to distinguish two morphs of specimens belonging to Lepidapedon Stafford, 1904 (Digenea: Lepidapedidae). This material is herein described and illustrated. Comparative sequence analyses using partial mitochondrial nad1 sequences revealed that the material assigned to one of these morphs can be considered conspecific with the material identified as Lepidapedon desclersae Bray & Gibson, 1995 from the same host. However, the published nad1 sequence for L. desclersae was generated from a specimen ex M. moro from the North East Atlantic. Examination of the voucher specimens associated with this sequence revealed that both the North East Atlantic and the Mediterranean specimens ex M. moro differ from L. desclersae as described from its type-host, Lepidion eques (Günther), in the anterior extent of the vitelline fields which is further posterior, reaching only to the posterior margin of the external seminal vesicle in L. desclersae, versus being at the mid-level of this organ and reaching the posterior margin of the ventral sucker. Therefore, we have tentatively assigned the material characterised here, both morphologically and molecularly as Lepidapedon sp. Acquisition of additional sequences for both nad1 mitochondrial and 28S rRNA genes of L. desclersae from material ex Lepidion spp. is required in order to determine whether the observed morphometric variation reflects host-related or inter-specific differences. The second morph of Lepidapedon from M. moro is described and distinguished on morphometric grounds, such as the position of the most anterior vitelline follicles, which reach to the anterior margin of the ventral sucker. Its identity is commented upon, but, in view of the fact that there were few specimens and no molecular data available, it is not named.


Assuntos
Gadiformes/parasitologia , Trematódeos/anatomia & histologia , Trematódeos/genética , Estruturas Animais/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Análise por Conglomerados , DNA Mitocondrial/química , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Mar Mediterrâneo , Microscopia , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Filogenia , RNA/química , RNA/genética , RNA Ribossômico 28S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Espanha , Trematódeos/classificação , Trematódeos/isolamento & purificação
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