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1.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 21(1): 1174, 2021 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34711222

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Inpatient psychiatric care is unpopular and expensive, and development and evaluation of alternatives is a long-standing policy and research priority around the world. In England, the three main models documented over the past fifty years (teams offering crisis assessment and treatment at home; acute day units; and residential crisis services in the community) have recently been augmented by several new service models. These are intended to enhance choice and flexibility within catchment area acute care systems, but remain largely undocumented in the research literature. We therefore aimed to describe the types and distribution of crisis care models across England through a national survey. METHODS: We carried out comprehensive mapping of crisis resolution teams (CRTs) using previous surveys, websites and multiple official data sources. Managers of CRTs were invited to participate as key informants who were familiar with the provision and organisation of crisis care services within their catchment area. The survey could be completed online or via telephone interview with a researcher, and elicited details about types of crisis care delivered in the local catchment area. RESULTS: We mapped a total of 200 adult CRTs and completed the survey with 184 (92%). Of the 200 mapped adult CRTs, there was a local (i.e., within the adult CRT catchment area) children and young persons CRT for 84 (42%), and an older adults CRT for 73 (37%). While all but one health region in England provided CRTs for working age adults, there was high variability regarding provision of all other community crisis service models and system configurations. Crisis cafes, street triage teams and separate crisis assessment services have all proliferated since a similar survey in 2016, while provision of acute day units has reduced. CONCLUSIONS: The composition of catchment area crisis systems varies greatly across England and popularity of models seems unrelated to strength of evidence. A group of emerging crisis care models with varying functions within service systems are increasingly prevalent: they have potential to offer greater choice and flexibility in managing crises, but an evidence base regarding impact on service user experiences and outcomes is yet to be established.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais , Serviços de Saúde Mental , Idoso , Criança , Intervenção na Crise , Inglaterra/epidemiologia , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Saúde Mental
2.
Int J Geriatr Psychiatry ; 36(11): 1748-1758, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34216045

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The COVID-19 pandemic has had a significant impact on older adults mental health care. Our study aimed to explore staff perspectives on key challenges and innovations in order to help inform the delivery of older adults mental health care in subsequent waves of the pandemic. METHODS: A mixed methods online questionnaire developed by National Institute for Health Research Mental Health Policy Research Unit was used to gather staff perspectives on their challenges at work, problems faced by service users and their carers, and sources of help and support. Descriptive statistics were used for quantitative analysis and descriptive content analysis for qualitative analysis. RESULTS: 158 participants, working in either community or inpatient settings, and from a range of professional disciplines, were included. For inpatient staff, a significant challenge was infection control. In the community, staff identified a lack of access to physical and social care as well as reduced contact with friends and families as being challenges for patients. Remote working was seen as a positive innovation along with COVID-19 related guidance from various sources and peer support. CONCLUSION: Our study, with a focus on staff and patient well-being, helps to inform service development for future waves of the pandemic. We discuss measures to improve infection control in inpatient settings, the role of voluntary organisations in supporting socially isolated community patients, the need for better integration of physical and mental health services at an organisational level, and the importance of training staff to support patients and their families with end of life planning.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Serviços de Saúde Mental , Idoso , Cuidadores , Humanos , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Front Psychiatry ; 12: 624081, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34054593

RESUMO

Evidence suggests a link between recovery-oriented practise and service user outcomes in supported accommodation settings. Current clinical guidelines recommend recovery training for supported accommodation staff, however evidence relating to the effectiveness of this type of training is unclear. This review aimed to describe and compare the characteristics and efficacy of existing recovery training packages for mental health staff. The appropriateness and applicability of the interventions was considered in relation to UK supported accommodation services. Initial search processes returned 830 papers. After duplicate removal, inclusion and exclusion criteria were applied to 489 papers, leaving a final sample of seven papers. Data were reviewed using a narrative synthesis approach. The reviewed papers showed variation in the aims, frequency, and duration of the training interventions, although all included content consistent with the five-domains of the CHIME model. All interventions used direct, in-person teaching, and prioritised interactive, experiential learning, however a number were limited by the absence of feedback, the use of one-off, rather than repeated/follow-up sessions, and a reliance on classroom-based, rather than in-vivo, training. There was limited evidence to suggest a consistent effect of training on staff or service user outcomes, and there was no clear association between the delivery and design characteristics of the interventions and reported outcomes. In considering the development of recovery training for supported accommodation staff, little guidance can be taken from the reviewed literature. Any training package must be developed with consideration of the unique contextual and organisational characteristics of these services. The authors recommend viewing training as one component of a broader goal of service transformation.

4.
BJPsych Bull ; : 1-7, 2021 May 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33977886

RESUMO

AIMS AND METHOD: Mental health services have changed the way they operate during the COVID-19 pandemic. We investigated the challenges and innovations reported by staff working in services for people with intellectual disability and/or autism in National Health Service (NHS) and non-NHS sectors, and in in-patient and community settings. RESULTS: Data were drawn from 648 staff who participated in a UK-wide online survey. Issues around infection risk and mitigation were more important to those working in the NHS and in-patient settings. Community staff were more likely to express concern about the practicalities of a rapid shift to remote working and engaging patients remotely. Qualitative data revealed support for maintaining remote staff working and remote service provision post-pandemic. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: Given the current emphasis on community support for people with intellectual disability and/or autism, the focus of research and clinical practice should be the development of accessible and effective models of remote service provision.

5.
J Psychiatr Ment Health Nurs ; 28(2): 126-137, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33608956

RESUMO

WHAT IS KNOWN ON THE SUBJECT?: During the COVID-19 pandemic, there has been research considering the impact on medical healthcare professionals and the mental health needs of the general population. However, limited focus has been placed on mental health services or mental health staff providing care in the community and in hospitals. While nurses make up the largest section of the mental health workforce in the UK, the impact that this pandemic has had on their work has been largely ignored. WHAT THE PAPER ADDS TO EXISTING KNOWLEDGE?: This paper provides a unique insight into the experiences and impact that the COVID-19 pandemic has had on mental health nurses across a range of community and inpatient settings to understand what has changed in their work and the care they can and do provide during this crisis. This includes exploring how services have changed, the move to remote working, the impact of the protective equipment crisis on nurses and the difficult working conditions facing those in inpatient settings where there is minimal guidance provided. WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE?: By understanding the impact the pandemic has had on mental health nursing care, we can understand the gaps in guidance that exist, the challenges being faced and the impact the crisis has had on care for mental health service users. By doing so, we can plan for the ongoing nature of this pandemic and the aftermath that the crisis may leave for our service users and workforce alike. ABSTRACT: Introduction While evidence has emerged concerning the impact of COVID-19 on the general population and the challenges facing health services, much less is known regarding how the pandemic has directly affected the delivery of mental health nursing care. Aim This paper aimed to explore how COVID-19 has affected the ability of mental health nurses to deliver care in community and inpatient mental health services in the UK. Method We investigated staff reports regarding the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on mental healthcare and mental health service users in the UK, using a mixed-methods online survey. A total of 897 nurses across a range of inpatient and community settings participated. Discussion Key themes within the data explore the following: new ways of working; remote working; risks of infection/infection control challenges; and the impact on service users. Targeted guidelines are required to support mental health nurses providing care and support during a pandemic to people in severe mental distress, often in unsuitable environments. Implications for Practice Service developments need to occur alongside tailored guidance and support for staff welfare supported by clear leadership. These findings identify areas requiring attention and investment to prepare for future crises and the consequences of the pandemic.


Assuntos
COVID-19/psicologia , Atenção à Saúde/métodos , Serviços de Saúde Mental , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros/psicologia , Enfermagem Psiquiátrica/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , SARS-CoV-2 , Inquéritos e Questionários , Reino Unido , Adulto Jovem
6.
Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol ; 56(1): 25-37, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32857218

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The COVID-19 pandemic has potential to disrupt and burden the mental health care system, and to magnify inequalities experienced by mental health service users. METHODS: We investigated staff reports regarding the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic in its early weeks on mental health care and mental health service users in the UK using a mixed methods online survey. Recruitment channels included professional associations and networks, charities, and social media. Quantitative findings were reported with descriptive statistics, and content analysis conducted for qualitative data. RESULTS: 2,180 staff from a range of sectors, professions, and specialties participated. Immediate infection control concerns were highly salient for inpatient staff, new ways of working for community staff. Multiple rapid adaptations and innovations in response to the crisis were described, especially remote working. This was cautiously welcomed but found successful in only some clinical situations. Staff had specific concerns about many groups of service users, including people whose conditions are exacerbated by pandemic anxieties and social disruptions; people experiencing loneliness, domestic abuse and family conflict; those unable to understand and follow social distancing requirements; and those who cannot engage with remote care. CONCLUSION: This overview of staff concerns and experiences in the early COVID-19 pandemic suggests directions for further research and service development: we suggest that how to combine infection control and a therapeutic environment in hospital, and how to achieve effective and targeted tele-health implementation in the community, should be priorities. The limitations of our convenience sample must be noted.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Serviços de Saúde Mental , Humanos , Saúde Mental , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
7.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237664, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32817624

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mental health supported housing services are a key component in the rehabilitation of people with severe and complex needs. They are implemented widely in the UK and other deinstitutionalised countries but there have been few empirical studies of their effectiveness due to the logistic challenges and costs of standard research methods. The Clinical Record Interactive Search (CRIS) tool, developed to de-identify and interrogate routinely recorded electronic health records, may provide an alternative to evaluate supported housing services. METHODS: The feasibility of using the Camden and Islington NHS Foundation Trust CRIS database to identify a sample of users of mental health supported accommodation services. Two approaches to data interrogation and case identification were compared; using structured fields indicating individual's accommodation status, and iterative development of free text searches of clinical notes referencing supported housing. The data used were recorded over a 10-year-period (01-January-2008 to 31-December-2017). RESULTS: Both approaches were carried out by one full-time researcher over four weeks (150 hours). Two structured fields indicating accommodation status were found, 2,140 individuals had a value in at least one of the fields representative of supported accommodation. The free text search of clinical notes returned 21,103 records pertaining to 1,105 individuals. A manual review of 10% of the notes indicated an estimated 733 of these individuals had used a supported housing service, a positive predictive value of 66.4%. Over two-thirds of the individuals returned in the free text search (768/1,105, 69.5%) were identified via the structured fields approach. Although the estimated positive predictive value was relatively high, a substantial proportion of the individuals appearing only in the free text search (337/1,105, 30.5%) are likely to be false positives. CONCLUSIONS: It is feasible and requires minimal resources to use de-identified electronic health record search tools to identify large samples of users of mental health supported housing using structured and free text fields. Further work is needed to establish the availability and completion of variables relevant to specific clinical research questions in order to fully assess the utility of electronic health records in evaluating the effectiveness of these services.


Assuntos
Bases de Dados Factuais , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Saúde Mental , Processamento de Linguagem Natural , Adulto , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , Inglaterra/epidemiologia , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Habitação , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/patologia , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Transtornos Mentais/reabilitação , Serviços de Saúde Mental , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
8.
Br J Psychiatry ; 216(6): 331-337, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31046864

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Around 60 000 people in England live in mental health supported accommodation. There are three main types: residential care, supported housing and floating outreach. Supported housing and floating outreach aim to support service users in moving on to more independent accommodation within 2 years, but there has been little research investigating their effectiveness. AIMS: A 30-month prospective cohort study investigating outcomes for users of mental health supported accommodation. METHOD: We used random sampling, accounting for relevant geographical variation factors, to recruit 87 services (22 residential care, 35 supported housing and 30 floating outreach) and 619 service users (residential care 159, supported housing 251, floating outreach 209) across England. We contacted services every 3 months to investigate the proportion of service users who successfully moved on to more independent accommodation. Multilevel modelling was used to estimate how much of the outcome and cost variations were due to service type and quality, after accounting for service-user characteristics. RESULTS: Overall 243/586 participants successfully moved on (residential care 15/146, supported housing 96/244, floating outreach 132/196). This was most likely for floating outreach service users (versus residential care: odds ratio 7.96, 95% CI 2.92-21.69, P < 0.001; versus supported housing: odds ratio 2.74, 95% CI 1.01-7.41, P < 0.001) and was associated with reduced costs of care and two aspects of service quality: promotion of human rights and recovery-based practice. CONCLUSIONS: Most people do not move on from supported accommodation within the expected time frame. Greater focus on human rights and recovery-based practice may increase service effectiveness.


Assuntos
Habitação/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos Mentais , Serviços de Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Inglaterra , Feminino , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Habitação/economia , Direitos Humanos , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/economia , Serviços de Saúde Mental/economia , Razão de Chances , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Tempo
9.
Front Psychiatry ; 11: 607933, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33519552

RESUMO

Introduction: Mental health rehabilitation services provide essential support to people with complex and longer term mental health problems. They include inpatient services and community teams providing clinical input to people living in supported accommodation services. This systematic review included international studies evaluating the effectiveness of inpatient and community rehabilitation services. Methods: We searched six online databases for quantitative studies evaluating mental health rehabilitation services that reported on one or both of two outcomes: move-on to a more independent setting (i.e. discharge from an inpatient unit to the community or from a higher to lower level of supported accommodation); inpatient service use. The search was further expanded by screening references and citations of included studies. Heterogeneity between studies was too great to allow meta-analysis and therefore a narrative synthesis was carried out. Results: We included a total of 65 studies, grouped as: contemporary mental health rehabilitation services (n = 34); services for homeless people with severe mental health problems (n = 13); deinstitutionalization programmes (n = 18). The strongest evidence was for services for homeless people. Access to inpatient rehabilitation services was associated with a reduction in acute inpatient service use post discharge. Fewer than one half of people moved on from higher to lower levels of supported accommodation within expected timeframes. Conclusions: Inpatient and community rehabilitation services may reduce the need for inpatient service use over the long term but more high quality research of contemporary rehabilitation services with comparison groups is required. Review registration: This review was prospectively registered on PROSPERO (ID: CRD42019133579).

10.
Lancet Psychiatry ; 6(12): 1039-1053, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31777340

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Use of involuntary psychiatric hospitalisation varies widely within and between countries. The factors that place individuals and populations at increased risk of involuntary hospitalisation are unclear, and evidence is needed to understand these disparities and inform development of interventions to reduce involuntary hospitalisation. We did a systematic review, meta-analysis, and narrative synthesis to investigate risk factors at the patient, service, and area level associated with involuntary psychiatric hospitalisation of adults. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, PsycINFO, Embase, and the Cochrane Controlled Clinical Register of Trials from Jan 1, 1983, to Aug 14, 2019, for studies comparing the characteristics of voluntary and involuntary psychiatric inpatients, and studies investigating the characteristics of involuntarily hospitalised individuals in general population samples. We synthesised results using random effects meta-analysis and narrative synthesis. Our review follows Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines and is registered on PROSPERO, CRD42018095103. FINDINGS: 77 studies were included from 22 countries. Involuntary rather than voluntary hospitalisation was associated with male gender (odds ratio 1·23, 95% CI 1·14-1·32; p<0·0001), single marital status (1·47, 1·18-1·83; p<0·0001), unemployment (1·43, 1·07-1·90; p=0·020), receiving welfare benefits (1·71, 1·28-2·27; p<0·0001), being diagnosed with a psychotic disorder (2·18, 1·95-2·44; p<0·0001) or bipolar disorder (1·48, 1·24-1·76; p<0·0001), and previous involuntary hospitalisation (2·17, 1·62-2·91; p<0·0001). Using narrative synthesis, we found associations between involuntary psychiatric hospitalisation and perceived risk to others, positive symptoms of psychosis, reduced insight into illness, reduced adherence to treatment before hospitalisation, and police involvement in admission. On a population level, some evidence was noted of a positive dose-response relation between area deprivation and involuntary hospitalisation. INTERPRETATION: Previous involuntary hospitalisation and diagnosis of a psychotic disorder were factors associated with the greatest risk of involuntary psychiatric hospitalisation. People with these risk factors represent an important target group for preventive interventions, such as crisis planning. Economic deprivation on an individual level and at the population level was associated with increased risk for involuntary hospitalisation. Mechanisms underpinning the risk factors could not be identified using the available evidence. Further research is therefore needed with an integrative approach, which examines clinical, social, and structural factors, alongside qualitative research into clinical decision-making processes and patients' experiences of the detention process. FUNDING: Commissioned by the Department of Health and funded by the National Institute of Health Research (NIHR) via the NIHR Mental Health Policy Research Unit.


Assuntos
Hospitais Psiquiátricos/estatística & dados numéricos , Tratamento Involuntário/estatística & dados numéricos , Narração , Transtornos Psicóticos/diagnóstico , Humanos , Internacionalidade , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais
11.
Front Psychiatry ; 10: 258, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31065244

RESUMO

Background: Mental health supported accommodation services are implemented across England, usually organised into a 'step-down' care pathway that requires the individual to repeatedly move as they gain skills and confidence for more independent living. There have been no trials comparing the effectiveness of different types of supported accommodation, but two widely used models (supported housing and floating outreach) have been found to provide similar support. We aimed to assess the feasibility of conducting a large-scale trial comparing these two models. Methods: Individually randomised, parallel group feasibility trial in three regions of England (North London, East London, and Cheltenham and Gloucestershire). We aimed to recruit 60 participants in 15 months, referred to supported accommodation, randomly allocated on an equal basis to receive either a local supported housing or floating outreach service. We assessed referrals to the trial, participants recruited, attrition, time from recruitment to moving into either type of supported accommodation, and feasibility of masking. We conducted a process evaluation to examine our results further. Results: We screened 1,432 potential participants, of whom 17 consented to participate, with 8 agreeing to randomisation (of whom 1 was lost to attrition) and 9 participating in naturalistic follow-up. Our process evaluation indicated that the main obstacle to recruitment was staff and service user preferences for certain types of supported accommodation or for specific services. Staff also felt that randomisation compromised their professional judgement. Conclusions: Our results do not support investment in a large-scale trial in England at this time. Trial registration: UK CRN Portfolio database, Trial ID: ISRCTN19689576. Trial funding: National Institute of Health Research (RP-PG-0707-10093).

12.
BMC Psychiatry ; 18(1): 344, 2018 10 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30342501

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Specialist mental health supported accommodation services are a key component to a graduated level of care from hospital to independently living in the community for people with complex, longer term mental health problems. However, they come at a high cost and there has been a lack of research on the quality of these services. The QuEST (Quality and Effectiveness of Supported tenancies) study, a five-year programme of research funded by the National Institute for Health Research, aimed to address this. It included the development of the first standardised quality assessment tool for supported accommodation services, the QuIRC-SA (Quality Indicator for Rehabilitative Care - Supported Accommodation). Using data collected from the QuIRC-SA, we aimed to identify potential service characteristics that were associated with quality of care. METHODS: Data collected from QuIRC-SAs with 150 individual services in England (28 residential care, 87 supported housing and 35 floating outreach) from four different sources were analysed using multiple regression modelling to investigate associations between service characteristics (local authority area index score, total beds/spaces, staffing intensity, percentage of male service users and service user ability) and areas of quality of care (Living Environment, Therapeutic Environment, Treatments and Interventions, Self-Management and Autonomy, Social Interface, Human Rights and Recovery Based Practice). RESULTS: The local authority area in which the service is located, the service size (number of beds/places) and the usual expected length of stay were each negatively associated with up to six of the seven QuIRC-SA domains. Staffing intensity was positively associated with two domains (Therapeutic Environment and Treatments and Interventions) and negatively associated with one (Human Rights). The percentage of male service users was positively associated with one domain (Treatments and Interventions) and service user ability was not associated with any of the domains. CONCLUSIONS: This study identified service characteristics associated with quality of care in specialist mental health supported accommodation services that can be used in the design and specification of services.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Serviços de Saúde Mental/normas , Saúde Mental/normas , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde/normas , Inglaterra/epidemiologia , Feminino , Habitação/normas , Habitação/tendências , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Saúde Mental/tendências , Serviços de Saúde Mental/tendências , Análise Multivariada , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde/tendências , Análise de Regressão
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