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1.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 4558, 2019 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31594949

RESUMO

The risk of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) following trauma is heritable, but robust common variants have yet to be identified. In a multi-ethnic cohort including over 30,000 PTSD cases and 170,000 controls we conduct a genome-wide association study of PTSD. We demonstrate SNP-based heritability estimates of 5-20%, varying by sex. Three genome-wide significant loci are identified, 2 in European and 1 in African-ancestry analyses. Analyses stratified by sex implicate 3 additional loci in men. Along with other novel genes and non-coding RNAs, a Parkinson's disease gene involved in dopamine regulation, PARK2, is associated with PTSD. Finally, we demonstrate that polygenic risk for PTSD is significantly predictive of re-experiencing symptoms in the Million Veteran Program dataset, although specific loci did not replicate. These results demonstrate the role of genetic variation in the biology of risk for PTSD and highlight the necessity of conducting sex-stratified analyses and expanding GWAS beyond European ancestry populations.

2.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2548, 2019 06 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31186427

RESUMO

Epigenetic processes, including DNA methylation (DNAm), are among the mechanisms allowing integration of genetic and environmental factors to shape cellular function. While many studies have investigated either environmental or genetic contributions to DNAm, few have assessed their integrated effects. Here we examine the relative contributions of prenatal environmental factors and genotype on DNA methylation in neonatal blood at variably methylated regions (VMRs) in 4 independent cohorts (overall n = 2365). We use Akaike's information criterion to test which factors best explain variability of methylation in the cohort-specific VMRs: several prenatal environmental factors (E), genotypes in cis (G), or their additive (G + E) or interaction (GxE) effects. Genetic and environmental factors in combination best explain DNAm at the majority of VMRs. The CpGs best explained by either G, G + E or GxE are functionally distinct. The enrichment of genetic variants from GxE models in GWAS for complex disorders supports their importance for disease risk.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA/genética , DNA/sangue , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Estudos de Coortes , Epigênese Genética , Feminino , Sangue Fetal , Genótipo , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco
3.
Transl Psychiatry ; 9(1): 120, 2019 03 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30902966

RESUMO

There have been considerable recent advances in understanding the genetic architecture of Tourette syndrome (TS) as well as its underlying neurocircuitry. However, the mechanisms by which genetic variation that increases risk for TS-and its main symptom dimensions-influence relevant brain regions are poorly understood. Here we undertook a genome-wide investigation of the overlap between TS genetic risk and genetic influences on the volume of specific subcortical brain structures that have been implicated in TS. We obtained summary statistics for the most recent TS genome-wide association study (GWAS) from the TS Psychiatric Genomics Consortium Working Group (4644 cases and 8695 controls) and GWAS of subcortical volumes from the ENIGMA consortium (30,717 individuals). We also undertook analyses using GWAS summary statistics of key symptom factors in TS, namely social disinhibition and symmetry behaviour. SNP effect concordance analysis (SECA) was used to examine genetic pleiotropy-the same SNP affecting two traits-and concordance-the agreement in single nucelotide polymorphism (SNP) effect directions across these two traits. In addition, a conditional false discovery rate (FDR) analysis was performed, conditioning the TS risk variants on each of the seven subcortical and the intracranial brain volume GWAS. Linkage disequilibrium score regression (LDSR) was used as validation of the SECA method. SECA revealed significant pleiotropy between TS and putamen (p = 2 × 10-4) and caudate (p = 4 × 10-4) volumes, independent of direction of effect, and significant concordance between TS and lower thalamic volume (p = 1 × 10-3). LDSR lent additional support for the association between TS and thalamus volume (p = 5.85 × 10-2). Furthermore, SECA revealed significant evidence of concordance between the social disinhibition symptom dimension and lower thalamus volume (p = 1 × 10-3), as well as concordance between symmetry behaviour and greater putamen volume (p = 7 × 10-4). Conditional FDR analysis further revealed novel variants significantly associated with TS (p < 8 × 10-7) when conditioning on intracranial (rs2708146, q = 0.046; and rs72853320, q = 0.035) and hippocampal (rs1922786, q = 0.001) volumes, respectively. These data indicate concordance for genetic variation involved in disorder risk and subcortical brain volumes in TS. Further work with larger samples is needed to fully delineate the genetic architecture of these disorders and their underlying neurocircuitry.

4.
J Affect Disord ; 245: 885-896, 2019 02 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30699873

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There have been considerable recent advances in understanding the genetic architecture of anxiety disorders and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), as well as the underlying neurocircuitry of these disorders. However, there is little work on the concordance of genetic variations that increase risk for these conditions, and that influence subcortical brain structures. We undertook a genome-wide investigation of the overlap between the genetic influences from single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on volumes of subcortical brain structures and genetic risk for anxiety disorders and PTSD. METHOD: We obtained summary statistics of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of anxiety disorders (Ncases = 7016, Ncontrols = 14,745), PTSD (European sample; Ncases = 2424, Ncontrols = 7113) and of subcortical brain structures (N = 13,171). SNP Effect Concordance Analysis (SECA) and Linkage Disequilibrium (LD) Score Regression were used to examine genetic pleiotropy, concordance, and genome-wide correlations respectively. SECAs conditional false discovery was used to identify specific risk variants associated with anxiety disorders or PTSD when conditioning on brain related traits. RESULTS: For anxiety disorders, we found evidence of significant concordance between increased anxiety risk variants and variants associated with smaller amygdala volume. Further, by conditioning on brain volume GWAS, we identified novel variants that associate with smaller brain volumes and increase risk for disorders: rs56242606 was found to increase risk for anxiety disorders, while two variants (rs6470292 and rs683250) increase risk for PTSD, when conditioning on the GWAS of putamen volume. LIMITATIONS: Despite using the largest available GWAS summary statistics, the analyses were limited by sample size. CONCLUSIONS: These preliminary data indicate that there is genome wide concordance between genetic risk factors for anxiety disorders and those for smaller amygdala volume, which is consistent with research that supports the involvement of the amygdala in anxiety disorders. It is notable that a genetic variant that contributes to both reduced putamen volume and PTSD plays a key role in the glutamatergic system. Further work with GWAS summary statistics from larger samples, and a more extensive look at the genetics underlying brain circuits, is needed to fully delineate the genetic architecture of these disorders and their underlying neurocircuitry.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Ansiedade/genética , Transtornos de Ansiedade/psicologia , Variação Genética/genética , Vias Neurais/fisiopatologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/genética , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia , Tonsila do Cerebelo/diagnóstico por imagem , Transtornos de Ansiedade/fisiopatologia , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Masculino , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Fatores de Risco , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/fisiopatologia
5.
Mol Psychiatry ; 2019 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30705424

RESUMO

Prior to and following the publication of this article the authors noted that the complete list of authors was not included in the main article and was only present in Supplementary Table 1. The author list in the original article has now been updated to include all authors, and Supplementary Table 1 has been removed. All other supplementary files have now been updated accordingly. Furthermore, in Table 1 of this Article, the replication cohort for the row Close relative in data set, n (%) was incorrect. All values have now been corrected to 0(0%). The publishers would like to apologise for this error and the inconvenience it may have caused.

6.
Br J Psychiatry ; 213(1): 430-436, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29947313

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Many studies have identified changes in the brain associated with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), but few have examined the relationship between genetic determinants of OCD and brain variation.AimsWe present the first genome-wide investigation of overlapping genetic risk for OCD and genetic influences on subcortical brain structures. METHOD: Using single nucleotide polymorphism effect concordance analysis, we measured genetic overlap between the first genome-wide association study (GWAS) of OCD (1465 participants with OCD, 5557 controls) and recent GWASs of eight subcortical brain volumes (13 171 participants). RESULTS: We found evidence of significant positive concordance between OCD risk variants and variants associated with greater nucleus accumbens and putamen volumes. When conditioning OCD risk variants on brain volume, variants influencing putamen, amygdala and thalamus volumes were associated with risk for OCD. CONCLUSIONS: These results are consistent with current OCD neurocircuitry models. Further evidence will clarify the relationship between putamen volume and OCD risk, and the roles of the detected variants in this disorder.Declaration of interestThe authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

7.
Brief Bioinform ; 2018 Apr 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29701762

RESUMO

Over thousands of genetic associations to diseases have been identified by genome-wide association studies (GWASs), which conceptually is a single-marker-based approach. There are potentially many uses of these identified variants, including a better understanding of the pathogenesis of diseases, new leads for studying underlying risk prediction and clinical prediction of treatment. However, because of inadequate power, GWAS might miss disease genes and/or pathways with weak genetic or strong epistatic effects. Driven by the need to extract useful information from GWAS summary statistics, post-GWAS approaches (PGAs) were introduced. Here, we dissect and discuss advances made in pathway/network-based PGAs, with a particular focus on protein-protein interaction networks that leverage GWAS summary statistics by combining effects of multiple loci, subnetworks or pathways to detect genetic signals associated with complex diseases. We conclude with a discussion of research areas where further work on summary statistic-based methods is needed.

8.
Biol Psychiatry ; 83(10): 831-839, 2018 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29555185

RESUMO

Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after exposure to a traumatic event is a highly prevalent psychiatric disorder. Heritability estimates from twin studies as well as from recent molecular data (single nucleotide polymorphism-based heritability) indicate moderate to high heritability, yet robust genetic variants for PTSD have not yet been identified and the genetic architecture of this polygenic disorder remains largely unknown. To date, fewer than 10 large-scale genome-wide association studies of PTSD have been published, with findings that highlight the unique challenges for PTSD genomics, including a complex diagnostic entity with contingency of PTSD diagnosis on trauma exposure and the large genetic diversity of the study populations. The Psychiatric Genomics Consortium PTSD group has brought together more than 200 scientists with the goal to increase sample size for genome-wide association studies and other genomic analyses to sufficient numbers where robust discoveries of molecular signatures can be achieved. The sample currently includes more than 32,000 PTSD cases and 100,000 trauma-exposed control subjects, and collection is ongoing. The first results found a significant shared genetic risk of PTSD with other psychiatric disorders and sex-biased heritability estimates with higher heritability in female individuals compared with male individuals. This review describes the scope and current focus of the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium PTSD group and its expansion from the initial genome-wide association study group to nine working groups, including epigenetics, gene expression, imaging, and integrative systems biology. We further briefly outline recent findings and future directions of "omics"-based studies of PTSD, with the ultimate goal of elucidating the molecular architecture of this complex disorder to improve prevention and intervention strategies.

10.
Dev Psychopathol ; 30(4): 1475-1485, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29224580

RESUMO

Childhood maltreatment, including abuse and neglect, may have sustained effects on the integrity and functioning of the brain, alter neurophysiological responsivity later in life, and predispose individuals toward psychiatric conditions involving socioaffective disturbances. This meta-analysis aims to quantify associations between self-reported childhood maltreatment and brain function in response to socioaffective cues in adults. Seventeen functional magnetic resonance imaging studies reporting on data from 848 individuals examined with the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire were included in a meta-analysis of whole-brain findings, or a review of region of interest findings. The spatial consistency of peak activations associated with maltreatment exposure was tested using activation likelihood estimation, using a threshold of p < .05 corrected for multiple comparisons. Adults exposed to childhood maltreatment showed significantly increased activation in the left superior frontal gyrus and left middle temporal gyrus, and decreased activation in the left superior parietal lobule and the left hippocampus. Although hyperresponsivity to socioaffective cues in the amygdala and ventral anterior cingulate cortex in correlation with maltreatment severity is a replicated finding in region of interest studies, null results are reported as well. The findings suggest that childhood maltreatment has sustained effects on brain function into adulthood, and highlight potential mechanisms for conveying vulnerability to development of psychopathology.


Assuntos
Sobreviventes Adultos de Maus-Tratos Infantis/psicologia , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Adulto , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/diagnóstico por imagem , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
11.
Genome Med ; 9(1): 102, 2017 11 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29179742

RESUMO

Neuroimaging genomics is a relatively new field focused on integrating genomic and imaging data in order to investigate the mechanisms underlying brain phenotypes and neuropsychiatric disorders. While early work in neuroimaging genomics focused on mapping the associations of candidate gene variants with neuroimaging measures in small cohorts, the lack of reproducible results inspired better-powered and unbiased large-scale approaches. Notably, genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of brain imaging in thousands of individuals around the world have led to a range of promising findings. Extensions of such approaches are now addressing epigenetics, gene-gene epistasis, and gene-environment interactions, not only in brain structure, but also in brain function. Complementary developments in systems biology might facilitate the translation of findings from basic neuroscience and neuroimaging genomics to clinical practice. Here, we review recent approaches in neuroimaging genomics-we highlight the latest discoveries, discuss advantages and limitations of current approaches, and consider directions by which the field can move forward to shed light on brain disorders.


Assuntos
Genômica , Neuroimagem , Animais , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Epistasia Genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/genética , Psiquiatria
12.
Acta Neuropsychiatr ; 29(4): 252-258, 2017 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27498914

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Brain structure differences and adolescent alcohol dependence both show substantial heritability. However, exactly which genes are responsible for brain volume variation in adolescents with substance abuse disorders are currently unknown. The aim of this investigation was to determine whether genetic variants previously implicated in psychiatric disorders are associated with variation in brain volume in adolescents with alcohol use disorder (AUD). METHODS: The cohort consisted of 58 adolescents with DSM-IV AUD and 58 age and gender-matched controls of mixed ancestry ethnicity. An Illumina Infinium iSelect custom 6000 bead chip was used to genotype 5348 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 378 candidate genes. Magnetic resonance images were acquired and volumes of global and regional structures were estimated using voxel-based morphometry. To determine whether any of the genetic variants were associated with brain volume, association analysis was conducted using linear regression in Plink. RESULTS: From the exploratory analysis, the GRIN2B SNP rs219927 was associated with brain volume in the left posterior cingulate cortex (p<0.05), whereby having a G-allele was associated with a bigger volume. CONCLUSION: The GRIN2B gene is involved in glutamatergic signalling and may be associated with developmental differences in AUD in brain regions such as the posterior cingulate cortex. Such differences may play a role in risk for AUD, and deserve more detailed investigation.


Assuntos
Alcoolismo/genética , Giro do Cíngulo/diagnóstico por imagem , Receptores de N-Metil-D-Aspartato/genética , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
13.
OMICS ; 20(10): 557-564, 2016 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27636104

RESUMO

Mental disorders represent a major public health burden worldwide. This is likely to rise in the next decade, with the highest increases predicted to occur in low- and middle-income countries. Current psychotropic medication treatment guidelines focus on uniform approaches to the treatment of heterogeneous disorders and achieve only partial therapeutic success. Developing a global precision medicine approach in psychiatry appears attractive, given the value of this approach in other fields of medicine, such as oncology and infectious diseases. In this horizon scanning analysis, we review the salient opportunities and challenges for precision medicine in psychiatry over the next decade. Variants within numerous genes involved in a range of pathways have been implicated in psychotropic drug response and might ultimately be used to guide choice of pharmacotherapy. Multipronged approaches such as multi-omics (genomics, proteomics, metabolomics) analyses and systems diagnostics together with high-throughput sequencing and genotyping technologies hold promise for identifying precise and targeted treatments in mental disorders. To date, however, the vast majority of pharmacogenomics work has been undertaken in high-income countries on a relatively small proportion of the global population, and many other challenges face the field. Opportunities and challenges for establishing a global roadmap for precision medicine in psychiatry are discussed in this article.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais/tratamento farmacológico , Medicina de Precisão , Psiquiatria/tendências , Psicotrópicos/uso terapêutico , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/genética , Farmacogenética
14.
Metab Brain Dis ; 31(1): 183-9, 2016 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26563126

RESUMO

Glutamatergic neurotransmission has been shown to be dysregulated in bipolar disorder (BD), alcohol use disorder (AUD) and substance use disorder (SUD). Similarly, disruption in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis has also been observed in these conditions. BD is often comorbid with AUD and SUD. The effects of the glutamatergic and HPA systems have not been extensively examined in individuals with BD-AUD and BD-SUD comorbidity. The aim of this investigation was to determine whether variants in the glutamatergic pathway and HPA-axis are associated with BD-AUD and BD-SUD comorbidity. The research cohort consisted of 498 individuals with BD type I from the Systematic Treatment Enhancement Program for Bipolar Disorder (STEP-BD). A subset of the cohort had comorbid current AUD and current SUD. A total of 1935 SNPs from both the glutamatergic and HPA pathways were selected from the STEP-BD genome-wide dataset. To identify population stratification, IBS clustering was performed using the program Plink 1.07. Single SNP association and gene-based association testing were conducted using logistic regression. A pathway analysis of glutamatergic and HPA genes was performed, after imputation using IMPUTE2. No single SNP was associated with BD-AUD or BD-SUD comorbidity after correction for multiple testing. However, from the gene-based analysis, the gene PRKCI was significantly associated with BD-AUD. The pathway analysis provided overall negative findings, although several genes including GRIN2B showed high percentage of associated SNPs for BD-AUD. Even though the glutamatergic and HPA pathways may not be involved in BD-AUD and BD-SUD comorbidity, PRKCI deserves further investigation in BD-AUD.


Assuntos
Alcoolismo/genética , Alcoolismo/psicologia , Transtorno Bipolar/genética , Transtorno Bipolar/psicologia , Ácido Glutâmico/genética , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário/fisiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/genética , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idade de Início , Alcoolismo/complicações , Transtorno Bipolar/complicações , Estudos de Coortes , Comorbidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/complicações , Adulto Jovem
15.
Metab Brain Dis ; 31(1): 75-80, 2016 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26446021

RESUMO

Alcoholism has an estimated heritability of between 40 and 60% and it is thought that several genes of small effect may contribute to the risk of developing this disorder. Studies of the genetics of alcohol use disorder (AUD) may, however, be confounded by issues of comorbidity. The aim of this investigation was to assess associations between variants in a range of candidate genes and AUD in a unique sample of adolescents without comorbidity. Our cohort consisted of 80 adolescents with an AUD diagnosis and 80 matched controls of mixed ancestry ethnicity. An Illumina Infinium iSelect custom 6000 bead chip was used to genotype 5348 SNPs in 378 candidate genes. Association analysis, gene-based analysis and polygenic scoring were performed. There was no statistical association between any of the investigated SNPs and AUD after correction for multiple testing. However, from the gene-based analysis it was found that the circadian rhythm genes NR1D1 and BHLHE41 are associated with AUD. While preliminary, these data provide some evidence that the circadian pathway may be relevant to the pathophysiology of AUD. Study of early onset non-comorbid populations with AUD may be useful in identifying target genes for study in larger more representative samples.


Assuntos
Alcoolismo/fisiopatologia , Alcoolismo/psicologia , Ritmo Circadiano/genética , Adolescente , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano , Alcoolismo/genética , Estudos de Coortes , Comorbidade , Feminino , Testes Genéticos , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/genética , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , África do Sul
17.
BMC Psychiatry ; 14: 328, 2014 Dec 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25510982

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous studies have indicated that early life adversity, genetic factors and alcohol dependence are associated with reduced brain volume in adolescents. However, data on the interactive effects of early life adversity, genetic factors (e.g. p.Met66 allele of BDNF), and alcohol dependence, on brain structure in adolescents is limited. We examined whether the BDNF p.Val66Met polymorphism interacts with childhood trauma to predict alterations in brain volume in adolescents with alcohol use disorders (AUDs). METHODS: We examined 160 participants (80 adolescents with DSM-IV AUD and 80 age- and gender-matched controls) who were assessed for trauma using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ). Magnetic resonance images were acquired for a subset of the cohort (58 AUD and 58 controls) and volumes of global and regional structures were estimated using voxel-based morphometry (VBM). Samples were genotyped for the p.Val66Met polymorphism using the TaqMan® Assay. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) and post-hoc t-tests were conducted using SPM8 VBM. RESULTS: No significant associations, corrected for multiple comparisons, were found between the BDNF p.Val66Met polymorphism, brain volumes and AUD in adolescents with childhood trauma. CONCLUSIONS: These preliminary findings suggest that the BDNF p.Met66 allele and childhood trauma may not be associated with reduced structural volumes in AUD. Other genetic contributors should be investigated in future studies.


Assuntos
Alcoolismo/diagnóstico , Alcoolismo/genética , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/genética , Encéfalo/patologia , Maus-Tratos Infantis/diagnóstico , Polimorfismo Genético/genética , Adolescente , Alcoolismo/psicologia , Criança , Maus-Tratos Infantis/psicologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Metionina/genética , Tamanho do Órgão , Inquéritos e Questionários , Valina/genética
18.
Metab Brain Dis ; 29(2): 333-40, 2014 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24567230

RESUMO

Alcohol dependence (AD) has a large heritable component. Genetic variation in genes involved in the absorption and elimination of ethanol have been associated with AD. However, some of these polymorphisms are not present in an African population. Previous studies have reported that a type of AD which is characterized by anxious behaviour may be a genetically specific subtype of AD. We investigated whether variation in genes encoding cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) or acetaldehyde-metabolising enzymes (ALDH1A1, ALDH2) might alter the risk of AD, with and without symptoms of anxiety, in a Cape population with mixed ancestry. Eighty case control pairs (one with AD, one without AD) were recruited and individually matched for potential confounders. Genotype data were available for 29 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) across the three genes. Linkage disequilibrium D' values were evaluated for all pairwise comparisons. Allele and haplotype frequencies were compared between cases and controls using a χ2 test. The ACAG haplotype in block 4 of the ALDH1A1 gene provided evidence of an association with AD (p = 0.03) and weak evidence of an association with AD without symptoms of anxiety (p = 0.06). When a genetic score was constructed using SNPs showing nominal evidence of association with AD, every extra risk allele increased the odds of AD by 35% (OR 1.35, 95% CI 1.08, 1.68, p = 0.008) and the odds of having AD with anxiety symptoms increased by 53% (OR 1.53, 95% CI 1.14, 2.05, p = 0.004). Although our results are supported by previous studies in other populations, they must be interpreted with caution due to the small sample size and the potential influence of population stratification.


Assuntos
Acetaldeído , Alcoolismo/etnologia , Alcoolismo/genética , Ansiedade/etnologia , Ansiedade/genética , Haplótipos/genética , Acetaldeído/metabolismo , Adolescente , Alcoolismo/metabolismo , Ansiedade/metabolismo , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Coortes , Comorbidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Vigilância da População/métodos , África do Sul/etnologia
19.
Metab Brain Dis ; 29(2): 311-21, 2014 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24496784

RESUMO

Previous neuroimaging studies link both alcohol use disorder (AUD) and early adversity to neurobiological differences in the adult brain. However, the association between AUD and childhood adversity and effects on the developing adolescent brain are less clear, due in part to the confound of psychiatric comorbidity. Here we examine early life adversity and its association with brain volume in a unique sample of 116 South African adolescents (aged 12-16) with AUD but without psychiatric comorbidity. Participants were 58 adolescents with DSM-IV alcohol dependence and with no other psychiatric comorbidities, and 58 age-, gender- and protocol-matched light/non-drinking controls (HC). Assessments included the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ). MR images were acquired on a 3T Siemens Magnetom Allegra scanner. Volumes of global and regional structures were estimated using SPM8 Voxel Based Morphometry (VBM), with analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) and regression analyses. In whole brain ANCOVA analyses, a main effect of group when examining the AUD effect after covarying out CTQ was observed on brain volume in bilateral superior temporal gyrus. Subsequent regression analyses to examine how childhood trauma scores are linked to brain volumes in the total cohort revealed a negative correlation in the left hippocampus and right precentral gyrus. Furthermore, bilateral (but most significantly left) hippocampal volume was negatively associated with sub-scores on the CTQ in the total cohort. These findings support our view that some alterations found in brain volumes in studies of adolescent AUD may reflect the impact of confounding factors such as psychiatric comorbidity rather than the effects of alcohol per se. In particular, early life adversity may influence the developing adolescent brain in specific brain regions, such as the hippocampus.


Assuntos
Alcoolismo/diagnóstico , Alcoolismo/epidemiologia , Mapeamento Encefálico/métodos , Encéfalo/patologia , Maus-Tratos Infantis , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Adolescente , Alcoolismo/psicologia , Maus-Tratos Infantis/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Tamanho do Órgão , Inquéritos e Questionários
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