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1.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 4558, 2019 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31594949

RESUMO

The risk of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) following trauma is heritable, but robust common variants have yet to be identified. In a multi-ethnic cohort including over 30,000 PTSD cases and 170,000 controls we conduct a genome-wide association study of PTSD. We demonstrate SNP-based heritability estimates of 5-20%, varying by sex. Three genome-wide significant loci are identified, 2 in European and 1 in African-ancestry analyses. Analyses stratified by sex implicate 3 additional loci in men. Along with other novel genes and non-coding RNAs, a Parkinson's disease gene involved in dopamine regulation, PARK2, is associated with PTSD. Finally, we demonstrate that polygenic risk for PTSD is significantly predictive of re-experiencing symptoms in the Million Veteran Program dataset, although specific loci did not replicate. These results demonstrate the role of genetic variation in the biology of risk for PTSD and highlight the necessity of conducting sex-stratified analyses and expanding GWAS beyond European ancestry populations.

2.
Brain ; 142(11): 3473-3481, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31608925

RESUMO

Rare genetic variants can cause epilepsy, and genetic testing has been widely adopted for severe, paediatric-onset epilepsies. The phenotypic consequences of common genetic risk burden for epilepsies and their potential future clinical applications have not yet been determined. Using polygenic risk scores (PRS) from a European-ancestry genome-wide association study in generalized and focal epilepsy, we quantified common genetic burden in patients with generalized epilepsy (GE-PRS) or focal epilepsy (FE-PRS) from two independent non-Finnish European cohorts (Epi25 Consortium, n = 5705; Cleveland Clinic Epilepsy Center, n = 620; both compared to 20 435 controls). One Finnish-ancestry population isolate (Finnish-ancestry Epi25, n = 449; compared to 1559 controls), two European-ancestry biobanks (UK Biobank, n = 383 656; Vanderbilt biorepository, n = 49 494), and one Japanese-ancestry biobank (BioBank Japan, n = 168 680) were used for additional replications. Across 8386 patients with epilepsy and 622 212 population controls, we found and replicated significantly higher GE-PRS in patients with generalized epilepsy of European-ancestry compared to patients with focal epilepsy (Epi25: P = 1.64×10-15; Cleveland: P = 2.85×10-4; Finnish-ancestry Epi25: P = 1.80×10-4) or population controls (Epi25: P = 2.35×10-70; Cleveland: P = 1.43×10-7; Finnish-ancestry Epi25: P = 3.11×10-4; UK Biobank and Vanderbilt biorepository meta-analysis: P = 7.99×10-4). FE-PRS were significantly higher in patients with focal epilepsy compared to controls in the non-Finnish, non-biobank cohorts (Epi25: P = 5.74×10-19; Cleveland: P = 1.69×10-6). European ancestry-derived PRS did not predict generalized epilepsy or focal epilepsy in Japanese-ancestry individuals. Finally, we observed a significant 4.6-fold and a 4.5-fold enrichment of patients with generalized epilepsy compared to controls in the top 0.5% highest GE-PRS of the two non-Finnish European cohorts (Epi25: P = 2.60×10-15; Cleveland: P = 1.39×10-2). We conclude that common variant risk associated with epilepsy is significantly enriched in multiple cohorts of patients with epilepsy compared to controls-in particular for generalized epilepsy. As sample sizes and PRS accuracy continue to increase with further common variant discovery, PRS could complement established clinical biomarkers and augment genetic testing for patient classification, comorbidity research, and potentially targeted treatment.

3.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 4329, 2019 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31551469

RESUMO

Understanding genetic architecture of plasma lipidome could provide better insights into lipid metabolism and its link to cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Here, we perform genome-wide association analyses of 141 lipid species (n = 2,181 individuals), followed by phenome-wide scans with 25 CVD related phenotypes (n = 511,700 individuals). We identify 35 lipid-species-associated loci (P <5 ×10-8), 10 of which associate with CVD risk including five new loci-COL5A1, GLTPD2, SPTLC3, MBOAT7 and GALNT16 (false discovery rate<0.05). We identify loci for lipid species that are shown to predict CVD e.g., SPTLC3 for CER(d18:1/24:1). We show that lipoprotein lipase (LPL) may more efficiently hydrolyze medium length triacylglycerides (TAGs) than others. Polyunsaturated lipids have highest heritability and genetic correlations, suggesting considerable genetic regulation at fatty acids levels. We find low genetic correlations between traditional lipids and lipid species. Our results show that lipidomic profiles capture information beyond traditional lipids and identify genetic variants modifying lipid levels and risk of CVD.

4.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 3043, 2019 07 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31292440

RESUMO

There are established associations between advanced paternal age and offspring risk for psychiatric and developmental disorders. These are commonly attributed to genetic mutations, especially de novo single nucleotide variants (dnSNVs), that accumulate with increasing paternal age. However, the actual magnitude of risk from such mutations in the male germline is unknown. Quantifying this risk would clarify the clinical significance of delayed paternity. Using parent-child trio whole-exome-sequencing data, we estimate the relationship between paternal-age-related dnSNVs and risk for five disorders: autism spectrum disorder (ASD), congenital heart disease, neurodevelopmental disorders with epilepsy, intellectual disability and schizophrenia (SCZ). Using Danish registry data, we investigate whether epidemiologic associations between each disorder and older fatherhood are consistent with the estimated role of dnSNVs. We find that paternal-age-related dnSNVs confer a small amount of risk for these disorders. For ASD and SCZ, epidemiologic associations with delayed paternity reflect factors that may not increase with age.


Assuntos
Testes Genéticos , Modelos Genéticos , Idade Paterna , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/epidemiologia , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/genética , Criança , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Epilepsia/epidemiologia , Epilepsia/genética , Feminino , Cardiopatias Congênitas/epidemiologia , Cardiopatias Congênitas/genética , Humanos , Incidência , Deficiência Intelectual/epidemiologia , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Prevalência , Sistema de Registros/estatística & dados numéricos , Medição de Risco/métodos , Esquizofrenia/epidemiologia , Esquizofrenia/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
5.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 27(11): 1738-1744, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31358956

RESUMO

It is challenging to estimate genetic variant burden across different subtypes of epilepsy. Herein, we used a comparative approach to assess the genetic variant burden and genotype-phenotype correlations in four most common brain lesions in patients with drug-resistant focal epilepsy. Targeted sequencing analysis was performed for a panel of 161 genes with a mean coverage of >400×. Lesional tissue was histopathologically reviewed and dissected from hippocampal sclerosis (n = 15), ganglioglioma (n = 16), dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumors (n = 8), and focal cortical dysplasia type II (n = 15). Peripheral blood (n = 12) or surgical tissue samples histopathologically classified as lesion-free (n = 42) were available for comparison. Variants were classified as pathogenic or likely pathogenic according to American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics guidelines. Overall, we identified pathogenic and likely pathogenic variants in 25.9% of patients with a mean coverage of 383×. The highest number of pathogenic/likely pathogenic variants was observed in patients with ganglioglioma (43.75%; all somatic) and dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumors (37.5%; all somatic), and in 20% of cases with focal cortical dysplasia type II (13.33% somatic, 6.67% germline). Pathogenic/likely pathogenic positive genes were disorder specific and BRAF V600E the only recurrent pathogenic variant. This study represents a reference for the genetic variant burden across the four most common lesion entities in patients with drug-resistant focal epilepsy. The observed large variability in variant burden by epileptic lesion type calls for whole exome sequencing of histopathologically well-characterized tissue in a diagnostic setting and in research to discover novel disease-associated genes.

6.
Cell ; 178(3): 714-730.e22, 2019 Jul 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31348891

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have revealed risk alleles for ulcerative colitis (UC). To understand their cell type specificities and pathways of action, we generate an atlas of 366,650 cells from the colon mucosa of 18 UC patients and 12 healthy individuals, revealing 51 epithelial, stromal, and immune cell subsets, including BEST4+ enterocytes, microfold-like cells, and IL13RA2+IL11+ inflammatory fibroblasts, which we associate with resistance to anti-TNF treatment. Inflammatory fibroblasts, inflammatory monocytes, microfold-like cells, and T cells that co-express CD8 and IL-17 expand with disease, forming intercellular interaction hubs. Many UC risk genes are cell type specific and co-regulated within relatively few gene modules, suggesting convergence onto limited sets of cell types and pathways. Using this observation, we nominate and infer functions for specific risk genes across GWAS loci. Our work provides a framework for interrogating complex human diseases and mapping risk variants to cell types and pathways.

7.
Nat Neurosci ; 22(7): 1066-1074, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31209380

RESUMO

Cannabis is the most frequently used illicit psychoactive substance worldwide; around one in ten users become dependent. The risk for cannabis use disorder (CUD) has a strong genetic component, with twin heritability estimates ranging from 51 to 70%. Here we performed a genome-wide association study of CUD in 2,387 cases and 48,985 controls, followed by replication in 5,501 cases and 301,041 controls. We report a genome-wide significant risk locus for CUD (P = 9.31 × 10-12) that replicates in an independent population (Preplication = 3.27 × 10-3, Pmeta-analysis = 9.09 × 10-12). The index variant (rs56372821) is a strong expression quantitative trait locus for cholinergic receptor nicotinic α2 subunit (CHRNA2); analyses of the genetically regulated gene expression identified a significant association of CHRNA2 expression with CUD in brain tissue. At the polygenic level, analyses revealed a significant decrease in the risk of CUD with increased load of variants associated with cognitive performance. The results provide biological insights and inform on the genetic architecture of CUD.


Assuntos
Abuso de Maconha/genética , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/fisiologia , Receptores Nicotínicos/fisiologia , Idade de Início , Alelos , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/genética , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Cromossomos Humanos Par 8/genética , Cognição/fisiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Fatores de Confusão (Epidemiologia) , Dinamarca , Escolaridade , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Islândia , Masculino , Herança Multifatorial , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/biossíntese , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Receptores Nicotínicos/biossíntese , Receptores Nicotínicos/genética , Esquizofrenia/genética , Fumar/genética , Transcriptoma
8.
Nat Genet ; 51(7): 1092-1098, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31209396

RESUMO

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) affects up to 1 in 59 individuals1. Genome-wide association and large-scale sequencing studies strongly implicate both common variants2-4 and rare de novo variants5-10 in ASD. Recessive mutations have also been implicated11-14 but their contribution remains less well defined. Here we demonstrate an excess of biallelic loss-of-function and damaging missense mutations in a large ASD cohort, corresponding to approximately 5% of total cases, including 10% of females, consistent with a female protective effect. We document biallelic disruption of known or emerging recessive neurodevelopmental genes (CA2, DDHD1, NSUN2, PAH, RARB, ROGDI, SLC1A1, USH2A) as well as other genes not previously implicated in ASD including FEV (FEV transcription factor, ETS family member), which encodes a key regulator of the serotonergic circuitry. Our data refine estimates of the contribution of recessive mutation to ASD and suggest new paths for illuminating previously unknown biological pathways responsible for this condition.

9.
Am J Hum Genet ; 104(6): 1169-1181, 2019 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31155286

RESUMO

Polygenic scores (PSs) are becoming a useful tool to identify individuals with high genetic risk for complex diseases, and several projects are currently testing their utility for translational applications. It is also tempting to use PSs to assess whether genetic variation can explain a part of the geographic distribution of a phenotype. However, it is not well known how the population genetic properties of the training and target samples affect the geographic distribution of PSs. Here, we evaluate geographic differences, and related biases, of PSs in Finland in a geographically well-defined sample of 2,376 individuals from the National FINRISK study. First, we detect geographic differences in PSs for coronary artery disease (CAD), rheumatoid arthritis, schizophrenia, waist-hip ratio (WHR), body-mass index (BMI), and height, but not for Crohn disease or ulcerative colitis. Second, we use height as a model trait to thoroughly assess the possible population genetic biases in PSs and apply similar approaches to the other phenotypes. Most importantly, we detect suspiciously large accumulations of geographic differences for CAD, WHR, BMI, and height, suggesting bias arising from the population's genetic structure rather than from a direct genotype-phenotype association. This work demonstrates how sensitive the geographic patterns of current PSs are for small biases even within relatively homogeneous populations and provides simple tools to identify such biases. A thorough understanding of the effects of population genetic structure on PSs is essential for translational applications of PSs.

10.
Clin Pharmacol Ther ; 106(5): 1028-1036, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31066027

RESUMO

Carbamazepine (CBZ) causes life-threating T-cell-mediated hypersensitivity reactions, including serious cutaneous adverse reactions (SCARs) and drug-induced liver injury (CBZ-DILI). In order to evaluate shared or phenotype-specific genetic predisposing factors for CBZ hypersensitivity reactions, we performed a meta-analysis of two genomewide association studies (GWAS) on a total of 43 well-phenotyped Northern and Southern European CBZ-SCAR cases and 10,701 population controls and a GWAS on 12 CBZ-DILI cases and 8,438 ethnically matched population controls. HLA-A*31:01 was identified as the strongest genetic predisposing factor for both CBZ-SCAR (odds ratio (OR) = 8.0; 95% CI 4.10-15.80; P = 1.2 × 10-9 ) and CBZ-DILI (OR = 7.3; 95% CI 2.47-23.67; P = 0.0004) in European populations. The association with HLA-A*31:01 in patients with SCAR was mainly driven by hypersensitivity syndrome (OR = 12.9; P = 2.1 × 10-9 ) rather than by Stevens-Johnson syndrome/toxic epidermal necrolysis cases, which showed an association with HLA-B*57:01. We also identified a novel risk locus mapping to ALK only for CBZ-SCAR cases, which needs replication in additional cohorts and functional evaluation.

11.
Genet Med ; 21(11): 2496-2503, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31056551

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We aimed to gain insight into frequencies of genetic variants in genes implicated in neurodevelopmental disorder with epilepsy (NDD+E) by investigating large cohorts of patients in a diagnostic setting. METHODS: We analyzed variants in NDD+E using epilepsy gene panel sequencing performed between 2013 and 2017 by two large diagnostic companies. We compared variant frequencies in 6994 panels with another 8588 recently published panels as well as exome-wide de novo variants in 1942 individuals with NDD+E and 10,937 controls. RESULTS: Genes with highest frequencies of ultrarare variants in NDD+E comprised SCN1A, KCNQ2, SCN2A, CDKL5, SCN8A, and STXBP1, concordant with the two other epilepsy cohorts we investigated. In only 46% of the analyzed 262 dominant and X-linked panel genes ultrarare variants in patients were reported. Among genes with contradictory evidence of association with epilepsy, CACNB4, CLCN2, EFHC1, GABRD, MAGI2, and SRPX2 showed equal frequencies in cases and controls. CONCLUSION: We show that improvement of panel design increased diagnostic yield over time, but panels still display genes with low or no diagnostic yield. With our data, we hope to improve current diagnostic NDD+E panel design and provide a resource of ultrarare variants in individuals with NDD+E to the community.

12.
Bioinformatics ; 35(21): 4478-4479, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31086968

RESUMO

MOTIVATION: The correct classification of missense variants as benign or pathogenic remains challenging. Pathogenic variants are expected to have higher deleterious prediction scores than benign variants in the same gene. However, most of the existing variant annotation tools do not reference the score range of benign population variants on gene level. RESULTS: We present a web-application, Variant Score Ranker, which enables users to rapidly annotate variants and perform gene-specific variant score ranking on the population level. We also provide an intuitive example of how gene- and population-calibrated variant ranking scores can improve epilepsy variant prioritization. AVAILABILITY AND IMPLEMENTATION: http://vsranker.broadinstitute.org. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

13.
Mol Biol Evol ; 36(8): 1701-1710, 2019 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31004148

RESUMO

The fate of alleles in the human population is believed to be highly affected by the stochastic force of genetic drift. Estimation of the strength of natural selection in humans generally necessitates a careful modeling of drift including complex effects of the population history and structure. Protein-truncating variants (PTVs) are expected to evolve under strong purifying selection and to have a relatively high per-gene mutation rate. Thus, it is appealing to model the population genetics of PTVs under a simple deterministic mutation-selection balance, as has been proposed earlier (Cassa et al. 2017). Here, we investigated the limits of this approximation using both computer simulations and data-driven approaches. Our simulations rely on a model of demographic history estimated from 33,370 individual exomes of the Non-Finnish European subset of the ExAC data set (Lek et al. 2016). Additionally, we compared the African and European subset of the ExAC study and analyzed de novo PTVs. We show that the mutation-selection balance model is applicable to the majority of human genes, but not to genes under the weakest selection.

14.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 27(9): 1445-1455, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30976114

RESUMO

Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genes encode proteins with important roles in the regulation of the immune system. Many studies have also implicated HLA genes in psychiatric and neurodevelopmental disorders. However, these studies usually focus on one disorder and/or on one HLA candidate gene, often with small samples. Here, we access a large dataset of 65,534 genotyped individuals consisting of controls (N = 19,645) and cases having one or more of autism spectrum disorder (N = 12,331), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (N = 14,397), schizophrenia (N = 2401), bipolar disorder (N = 1391), depression (N = 18,511), anorexia (N = 2551) or intellectual disability (N = 3175). We imputed participants' HLA alleles to investigate the involvement of HLA genes in these disorders using regression models. We found a pronounced protective effect of DPB1*1501 on susceptibility to autism (p = 0.0094, OR = 0.72) and intellectual disability (p = 0.00099, OR = 0.41), with an increased protective effect on a comorbid diagnosis of both disorders (p = 0.003, OR = 0.29). We also identified a risk allele for intellectual disability, B*5701 (p = 0.00016, OR = 1.33). Associations with both alleles survived FDR correction and a permutation procedure. We did not find significant evidence for replication of previously-reported associations for autism or schizophrenia. Our results support an implication of HLA genes in autism and intellectual disability, which requires replication by other studies. Our study also highlights the importance of large sample sizes in HLA association studies.

15.
Hum Genomics ; 13(1): 19, 2019 04 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30992063

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis [1] is a genetically heterogeneous neurodegenerative disorder, characterized by late-onset degeneration of motor neurons leading to progressive limb and bulbar weakness, as well as of the respiratory muscles, which is the primary cause of disease fatality. To date, over 25 genes have been implicated as causative in ALS with C9orf72, SOD1, FUS, and TARDBP accounting for the majority of genetically positive cases. RESULTS: We identified two patients of Italian and French ancestry with a clinical diagnosis of juvenile-onset ALS who were mutation-negative in any of the known ALS causative genes. Starting with the index case, a consanguineous family of Italian origin, we performed whole-exome sequencing and identified candidate pathogenic mutations in 35 genes, 27 of which were homozygous. We next parsed all candidates against a cohort of 3641 ALS cases; only ATP13A2 was found to harbor recessive changes, in a patient with juvenile-onset ALS, similar to the index case. In vivo complementation of ATP13A2 using a zebrafish surrogate model that focused on the assessment of motor neuron morphology and cerebellar integrity confirmed the role of this gene in central and peripheral nervous system maintenance and corroborated the damaging direction of effect of the change detected in the index case of this study. CONCLUSIONS: We here expand the phenotypic spectrum associated with genetic variants in ATP13A2 that previously comprised Kufor-Rakeb syndrome, spastic paraplegia 78, and neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis type 12 (CLN12), to also include juvenile-onset ALS, as supported by both genetic and functional data. Our findings highlight the importance of establishing a complete genetic profile towards obtaining an accurate clinical diagnosis.

16.
Nat Genet ; 51(4): 584-591, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30926966

RESUMO

Polygenic risk scores (PRS) are poised to improve biomedical outcomes via precision medicine. However, the major ethical and scientific challenge surrounding clinical implementation of PRS is that those available today are several times more accurate in individuals of European ancestry than other ancestries. This disparity is an inescapable consequence of Eurocentric biases in genome-wide association studies, thus highlighting that-unlike clinical biomarkers and prescription drugs, which may individually work better in some populations but do not ubiquitously perform far better in European populations-clinical uses of PRS today would systematically afford greater improvement for European-descent populations. Early diversifying efforts show promise in leveling this vast imbalance, even when non-European sample sizes are considerably smaller than the largest studies to date. To realize the full and equitable potential of PRS, greater diversity must be prioritized in genetic studies, and summary statistics must be publically disseminated to ensure that health disparities are not increased for those individuals already most underserved.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Herança Multifatorial/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Genótipo , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde , Humanos , Medicina de Precisão/métodos , Fatores de Risco
17.
Elife ; 82019 Mar 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30895926

RESUMO

Genetic predictions of height differ among human populations and these differences have been interpreted as evidence of polygenic adaptation. These differences were first detected using SNPs genome-wide significantly associated with height, and shown to grow stronger when large numbers of sub-significant SNPs were included, leading to excitement about the prospect of analyzing large fractions of the genome to detect polygenic adaptation for multiple traits. Previous studies of height have been based on SNP effect size measurements in the GIANT Consortium meta-analysis. Here we repeat the analyses in the UK Biobank, a much more homogeneously designed study. We show that polygenic adaptation signals based on large numbers of SNPs below genome-wide significance are extremely sensitive to biases due to uncorrected population stratification. More generally, our results imply that typical constructions of polygenic scores are sensitive to population stratification and that population-level differences should be interpreted with caution. Editorial note: This article has been through an editorial process in which the authors decide how to respond to the issues raised during peer review. The Reviewing Editor's assessment is that all the issues have been addressed (see decision letter).

18.
Am J Hum Genet ; 104(3): 373-374, 2019 Mar 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30849322
19.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 4848, 2019 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30890735

RESUMO

Tumor mutational burden correlates with improved survival and immunotherapy response in some malignancies, and with tumor aggressiveness in others. To study the link between mutational burden and survival, we analyzed survival effects of tumor exonic missense mutation burden (TEMMB) across 6947 specimens spanning 31 cancers which have undergone whole exome sequencing as part of TCGA. We adjusted TEMMB for age, sex, stage, and recruitment center, and computed Cox-proportional models of TEMMB survival effects. We assigned a recurrence score (RS) to each cohort, defining RS as the burden of recurrent mutations exceeding 1% population prevalence. High TEMMB was associated with improved survival in cutaneous melanoma: hazard ratio (HR) = 0.71 [0.60-0.85], p = 0.0002, urothelial bladder carcinoma: HR = 0.74 [0.59-0.93], p = 0.01, and ovarian carcinoma: HR = 0.80 [0.70-0.93], p = 0.003. High TEMMB was associated with decreased survival in colorectal adenocarcinoma: HR = 1.32 [1.00-1.74], p < 0.05. We identified that TEMMB survival effects were governed by the balance of recurrent and non-recurrent mutations. In cancers with a low RS, high TEMMB was correlated with better survival outcomes (r = 0.49, p = 0.02). In conclusion, TEMMB effects on survival depend on recurrent mutation enrichment; tumor types that are highly enriched in passenger mutations show a survival benefit in the setting of high tumor mutational burden.

20.
JAMA ; 321(8): 773-785, 2019 02 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30806694

RESUMO

Importance: Use of thiopurines may be limited by myelosuppression. TPMT pharmacogenetic testing identifies only 25% of at-risk patients of European ancestry. Among patients of East Asian ancestry, NUDT15 variants are associated with thiopurine-induced myelosuppression (TIM). Objective: To identify genetic variants associated with TIM among patients of European ancestry with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Design, Setting, and Participants: Case-control study of 491 patients affected by TIM and 679 thiopurine-tolerant unaffected patients who were recruited from 89 international sites between March 2012 and November 2015. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and exome-wide association studies (EWAS) were conducted in patients of European ancestry. The replication cohort comprised 73 patients affected by TIM and 840 thiopurine-tolerant unaffected patients. Exposures: Genetic variants associated with TIM. Main Outcomes and Measures: Thiopurine-induced myelosuppression, defined as a decline in absolute white blood cell count to 2.5 × 109/L or less or a decline in absolute neutrophil cell count to 1.0 × 109/L or less leading to a dose reduction or drug withdrawal. Results: Among 1077 patients (398 affected and 679 unaffected; median age at IBD diagnosis, 31.0 years [interquartile range, 21.2 to 44.1 years]; 540 [50%] women; 602 [56%] diagnosed as having Crohn disease), 919 (311 affected and 608 unaffected) were included in the GWAS analysis and 961 (328 affected and 633 unaffected) in the EWAS analysis. The GWAS analysis confirmed association of TPMT (chromosome 6, rs11969064) with TIM (30.5% [95/311] affected vs 16.4% [100/608] unaffected patients; odds ratio [OR], 2.3 [95% CI, 1.7 to 3.1], P = 5.2 × 10-9). The EWAS analysis demonstrated an association with an in-frame deletion in NUDT15 (chromosome 13, rs746071566) and TIM (5.8% [19/328] affected vs 0.2% [1/633] unaffected patients; OR, 38.2 [95% CI, 5.1 to 286.1], P = 1.3 × 10-8), which was replicated in a different cohort (2.7% [2/73] affected vs 0.2% [2/840] unaffected patients; OR, 11.8 [95% CI, 1.6 to 85.0], P = .03). Carriage of any of 3 coding NUDT15 variants was associated with an increased risk (OR, 27.3 [95% CI, 9.3 to 116.7], P = 1.1 × 10-7) of TIM, independent of TPMT genotype and thiopurine dose. Conclusions and Relevance: Among patients of European ancestry with IBD, variants in NUDT15 were associated with increased risk of TIM. These findings suggest that NUDT15 genotyping may be considered prior to initiation of thiopurine therapy; however, further study including additional validation in independent cohorts is required.


Assuntos
Colite Ulcerativa/genética , Doença de Crohn/genética , Metiltransferases/metabolismo , Pirofosfatases/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Colite Ulcerativa/tratamento farmacológico , Colite Ulcerativa/metabolismo , Doença de Crohn/tratamento farmacológico , Doença de Crohn/metabolismo , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Exoma , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Haplótipos , Humanos , Contagem de Leucócitos , Masculino , Metiltransferases/genética , Metiltransferases/uso terapêutico , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Adulto Jovem
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