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4.
Faraday Discuss ; 217(0): 361-382, 2019 Jul 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31033983

RESUMO

In solution, UV-vis spectroscopy is often used to investigate structural changes in biomolecules (e.g., nucleic acids), owing to changes in the environment of their chromophores (e.g., the nucleobases). Here we address whether action spectroscopy could achieve the same for gas-phase ions, while taking advantage of the additional spectrometric separation of complex mixtures. We systematically studied the action spectroscopy of homo-base 6-mer DNA strands (dG6, dA6, dC6, dT6) and discuss the results in light of gas-phase structures validated by ion mobility spectrometry and infrared ion spectroscopy, of electron binding energies measured by photoelectron spectroscopy, and of calculated electronic photo-absorption spectra. When UV photons interact with oligonucleotide polyanions, two main actions can take place: (1) fragmentation and (2) electron detachment. The action spectra reconstructed from fragmentation follow the absorption spectra well, and result from multiple cycles of photon absorption and internal conversion. In contrast, the action spectra reconstructed from the electron photodetachment (ePD) efficiency reveal interesting phenomena. First, ePD depends on the charge state because it depends on electron binding energies. We illustrate with the G-quadruplex [dTG4T]4 that the ePD action spectrum shifts with the charge state, pointing to possible caveats when comparing the spectra of systems having different charge densities to deduce structural parameters. Second, ePD is particularly efficient for purines but not pyrimidines. ePD thus reflects not only absorption, but also particular relaxation pathways of the electronic excited states. As these pathways lead to photo-oxidation, their investigation in model gas-phase systems may prove useful to elucidating mechanisms of photo-oxidative damage, which are linked to mutations and cancers.

5.
Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom ; 33 Suppl 1: 28-34, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29885203

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Among the sources of structural diversity in biomolecular ions, the co-existence of protomers is particularly difficult to take into account, which in turn complicates structural interpretation of gas-phase data. METHODS: We investigated the sensitivity of gas-phase photo-fragmentation measurements and ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) to the protonation state of a model peptide derivatized with chromophores. Accessible interconversion pathways between the different identified conformers were probed by tandem ion mobility measurement. Furthermore, the excitation coupling between the chromophores has been probed through photo-fragmentation measurements on mobility-selected ions. All results were interpreted based on molecular dynamics simulations. RESULTS: We show that protonation can significantly affect the photo-fragmentation yields. Especially, conformers with very close collision cross sections (CCSs) may display dramatically different photo-fragmentation yields in relation with different protonation patterns. CONCLUSIONS: We show that, even if precise structure assignment based on molecular modeling is in principle difficult for large biomolecular assemblies, the combination of photo-fragmentation and IMS can help to identify the signature of protomer co-existence for a population of biomolecular ions in the gas phase. Such spectroscopic data are particularly suitable to follow conformational changes.


Assuntos
Espectrometria de Mobilidade Iônica/métodos , Fotólise , Subunidades Proteicas , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Peptídeos/análise , Peptídeos/química , Subunidades Proteicas/análise , Subunidades Proteicas/química , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos
6.
J Am Soc Mass Spectrom ; 29(1): 133-139, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29038996

RESUMO

In the context of native mass spectrometry, the development of gas-phase structural probes sensitive to the different levels of structuration of biomolecular assemblies is necessary to push forward conformational studies. In this paper, we provide the first example of the combination of ion mobility (IM) and Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) measurements within the same experimental setup. The possibility to obtain mass- and mobility-resolved FRET measurements is demonstrated on a model peptide and applied to monitor the collision-induced unfolding of ubiquitin. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

7.
J Chem Phys ; 147(1): 013937, 2017 Jul 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28688422

RESUMO

We report an experimental investigation of homochiral cluster formation in seeded molecular beam expansions of (2R,3R)-butanediol. Synchrotron radiation vacuum ultraviolet photoionization measurements have been performed using a double imaging electron-ion spectrometer in various configurations and modes of operation. These include measurements of the cluster ion mass spectra, wavelength scanned ion yields, and threshold electron spectra. Protonated cluster ions ranging up to n = 7 have been observed and size-selected photoelectron spectra and photoelectron circular dichroism (PECD) have been recorded by velocity map imaging, recorded in coincidence with ions, at a number of fixed photon energies. Translation temperatures of the cluster ions have been further examined by ion imaging measurements. As well as the sequence of protonated clusters with integral numbers of butanediol monomer units, a second series with half-integral monomer masses is observed and deduced to result from a facile cleavage of a butanediol monomer moiety within the nascent cluster. This second sequence of half-integral masses displays quite distinct behaviours. PECD measurements are used to show that the half-integral mass cluster ions do not share a common parentage with whole integer masses. Using an analogy developed with simple theoretical calculations of butanediol dimer structures, it is inferred that the dissociative branching into integral and half-integral ion mass sequences is controlled by the presence of different butanediol monomer conformations within the hydrogen bonded clusters.

8.
J Am Soc Mass Spectrom ; 28(10): 2181-2188, 2017 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28755260

RESUMO

The visible photodissociation mechanisms of QSY7-tagged peptides of increasing size have been investigated by coupling a mass spectrometer and an optical parametric oscillator laser beam. The experiments herein consist of energy resolved collision- and laser-induced dissociation measurements on the chromophore-tagged peptides. The results show that fragmentation occurs by similar channels in both activation methods, but that the branching ratios are vastly different. Observation of a size-dependent minimum laser pulse energy required to induce fragmentation, and collisional cooling rates in time resolved experiments show that laser-induced dissociation occurs through the absorption of multiple photons by the chromophore and the subsequent heating through vibrational energy redistribution. The differences in branching ratio between collision- and laser-induced dissociation can then be understood by the highly anisotropic energy distribution following absorption of a photon. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.


Assuntos
Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Peptídeos/química , Íons/química , Sondas Moleculares/química , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/química , Processos Fotoquímicos , Fótons , Rodaminas/química
9.
Anal Chem ; 89(8): 4604-4610, 2017 04 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28351129

RESUMO

To obtain a more detailed understanding of how structure influences the function and interaction of biomolecules, it is important to develop structure sensitive techniques to probe these relationships. Alongside in vivo and in vitro techniques, it is instructive to consider in vacuo methodologies: for example native mass spectrometry, ion mobility mass spectrometry, and FRET. Here, we propose a novel technique for probing biomolecular structure based on the changes in photophysics of a chromophore upon dimer formation. Comparison of solution and gas phase measurements on a doubly tagged tripeptide shows that dimer-induced fluorescence quenching is accompanied by an increase in photofragmentation yield. The 12-28 fragment of amyloid beta was used to show that as the charge state was increased-previously shown to cause a conformational change from compact random coil to extended helical structure-the disappearance of a band at 495 nm could be correlated with the level of self-quenching. The presence of features in the action spectrum of the +3 charge state of both quenched and unquenched chromophores allowed inference of multiple conformations. Single wavelength measurements on doubly tagged ubiquitin cations were performed to show that the technique is feasible on a small protein. These results demonstrate that self-quenching is a sensitive and fast gas-phase probe of biomolecular structure that can be directly linked to solution phase measurements. Further, it is capable of probing very small changes in conformation, making it complementary to FRET based techniques, which are insensitive at very short chromophore separations.


Assuntos
Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/química , Transferência Ressonante de Energia de Fluorescência , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/metabolismo , Dimerização , Corantes Fluorescentes/química , Gases/química , Espectrometria de Mobilidade Iônica , Oligopeptídeos/química , Oligopeptídeos/metabolismo , Estrutura Secundária de Proteína
10.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 19(14): 9470-9477, 2017 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28337497

RESUMO

We have investigated the free energy landscape of Aß-peptide dimer models in connection to gas-phase FRET experiments. We use a FRET-related distance coordinate and one conformation-related coordinate per monomer for accelerated structural exploration with well-tempered metadynamics in solvent and in vacuo. The free energy profiles indicate that FRET under equilibrium conditions should be significantly affected by the de-solvation upon the transfer of ions to the gas-phase. In contrast, a change in the protonation state is found to be less impacting once de-solvated. Comparing F19P and WT alloforms, for which we measure different FRET efficiencies in the gas-phase, we predict only the relevant structural differences in the solution populations, not under gas-phase equilibrium conditions. This finding supports the hypothesis that the gas-phase action-FRET measurement after ESI operates under non-equilibrium conditions, with a memory of the solution conditions - even for the dimer of this relatively short peptide. The structural differences in solution are rationalized in terms of conformational propensities around residue 19, which show a transition to a poly-proline type of pattern upon mutation to F19P - a difference that gets lost in the gas-phase.


Assuntos
Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/química , Transferência Ressonante de Energia de Fluorescência , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/química , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/metabolismo , Dimerização , Corantes Fluorescentes/química , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/metabolismo , Conformação Proteica
11.
J Am Soc Mass Spectrom ; 28(1): 38-49, 2017 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27506208

RESUMO

Mass spectrometry is an extremely powerful technique for analysis of biological molecules, in particular proteins. One aspect that has been contentious is how much native solution-phase structure is preserved upon transposition to the gas phase by soft ionization methods such as electrospray ionization. To address this question-and thus further develop mass spectrometry as a tool for structural biology-structure-sensitive techniques must be developed to probe the gas-phase conformations of proteins. Here, we report Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) measurements on a ubiquitin mutant using specific photofragmentation as a reporter of the FRET efficiency. The FRET data is interpreted in the context of circular dichroism, molecular dynamics simulation, and ion mobility data. Both the dependence of the FRET efficiency on the charge state-where a systematic decrease is observed-and on methanol concentration are considered. In the latter case, a decrease in FRET efficiency with methanol concentration is taken as evidence that the conformational ensemble of gaseous protein cations retains a memory of the solution phase conformational ensemble upon electrospray ionization. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.


Assuntos
Transferência Ressonante de Energia de Fluorescência/métodos , Ubiquitina/química , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Cátions/química , Bovinos , Dicroísmo Circular , Gases/química , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Mutação , Conformação Proteica , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray , Eletricidade Estática , Ubiquitina/genética
12.
Chemphyschem ; 18(5): 500-512, 2017 Mar 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27973748

RESUMO

Electron-ion coincidence imaging is used to study chiral asymmetry in the angular distribution of electrons emitted from randomly-oriented enantiomers of two molecules, methyloxirane and trifluoromethyloxirane, upon ionization by circularly polarized VUV synchrotron radiation. Vibrationally-resolved photoelectron circular dichroism (PECD) measurements of the outermost orbital ionization reveal unanticipated large fluctuations in the magnitude of the forward-backward electron scattering asymmetry, including even a complete reversal of direction. Identification and assignment of the vibrational excitations is supported by Franck-Condon simulations of the photoelectron spectra. A previously proposed quasi-diatomic model for PECD is developed and extended to treat polyatomic systems. The parametric dependence of the electronic dipole matrix elements on nuclear geometry is evaluated in the adiabatic approximation. It provokes vibrational level dependent shifts in amplitude and phase, to which the chiral photoelectron angular distributions are especially sensitive. It is shown that single quantum excitation of those vibrational modes, which experience only a relatively small displacement of the ion equilibrium geometry along the normal coordinate and which are then only weakly excited in the Franck-Condon limit, can be accompanied by big shifts in scattering phase; hence the observed big fluctuations in PECD asymmetry for such modes.

13.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 55(37): 11054-8, 2016 09 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27445202

RESUMO

A competition between chiral characteristics alternatively attributable to either conformation or to absolute configuration is identified. Circular dichroism associated with photoexcitation of the outer orbital of configurational enantiomers of 1,3- and 2,3-butanediols has been examined with a focus on the large changes in electron chiral asymmetry produced by different molecular conformations. Experimental gas-phase measurements offer support for the theoretical modeling of this chiroptical effect. A surprising prediction is that a conformationally produced pseudo-enantiomerism in 1,3-butanediol generates a chiral response in the frontier electron dynamics that outweighs the influence of the permanent configurational handedness established at the asymmetrically substituted carbon. Induced conformation, and specifically induced conformational chirality, may thus be a dominating factor in chiral molecular recognition in such systems.

14.
Chemphyschem ; 17(19): 3129-3138, 2016 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27428813

RESUMO

Action spectroscopy has emerged as an analytical tool to probe excited states in the gas phase. Although comparison of gas-phase absorption properties with quantum-chemical calculations is, in principle, straightforward, popular methods often fail to describe many molecules of interest-such as xanthene analogues. We, therefore, face their nano- and picosecond laser-induced photofragmentation with excited-state computations by using the CC2 method and time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT). Whereas the extracted absorption maxima agree with CC2 predictions, the TDDFT excitation energies are blueshifted. Lowering the amount of Hartree-Fock exchange in the DFT functional can reduce this shift but at the cost of changing the nature of the excited state. Additional bandwidth observed in the photofragmentation spectra is rationalized in terms of multiphoton processes. Observed fragmentation from higher-lying excited states conforms to intense excited-to-excited state transitions calculated with CC2. The CC2 method is thus suitable for the comparison with photofragmentation in xanthene analogues.

15.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 7(13): 2586-90, 2016 Jul 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27327376

RESUMO

Single-photon, two-electron photodetachment from nickel phthalocyanine tetrasulfonic acid tetra anions, [NiPc](4-), was examined in the gas-phase using a linear ion trap coupled to the DESIRS VUV beamline of the SOLEIL Synchrotron. This system was chosen since it has a low detachment energy, known charge localization, and well-defined geometrical and electronic structures. A threshold for two-electron loss is observed at 10.2 eV, around 1 eV lower than previously observed double detachment thresholds on multiple charged protein anions. The photodetachment energy of [NiPc](4-) has been previously determined to be 3.5 eV and the photodetachment energy of [NiPc](3-•) is determined in this work to be 4.3 eV. The observed single photon double electron detachment threshold is hence 5.9 eV higher than the energy required for sequential single electron loss. Possible mechanisms are for double photodetachment are discussed. These observations pave the way toward new, exciting experiments for probing double photodetachment at relatively low energies, including correlation measurements on emitted photoelectrons.

16.
Nat Commun ; 7: 11746, 2016 06 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27265868

RESUMO

Metalloenzymes preorganize the reaction environment to steer substrate(s) along the required reaction coordinate. Here, we show that phosphine ligands selectively facilitate protonation of binuclear silver hydride cations, [LAg2(H)](+) by optimizing the geometry of the active site. This is a key step in the selective, catalysed extrusion of carbon dioxide from formic acid, HO2CH, with important applications (for example, hydrogen storage). Gas-phase ion-molecule reactions, collision-induced dissociation (CID), infrared and ultraviolet action spectroscopy and computational chemistry link structure to reactivity and mechanism. [Ag2(H)](+) and [Ph3PAg2(H)](+) react with formic acid yielding Lewis adducts, while [(Ph3P)2Ag2(H)](+) is unreactive. Using bis(diphenylphosphino)methane (dppm) reshapes the geometry of the binuclear Ag2(H)(+) scaffold, triggering reactivity towards formic acid, to produce [dppmAg2(O2CH)](+) and H2. Decarboxylation of [dppmAg2(O2CH)](+) via CID regenerates [dppmAg2(H)](+). These gas-phase insights inspired variable temperature NMR studies that show CO2 and H2 production at 70 °C from solutions containing dppm, AgBF4, NaO2CH and HO2CH.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono/química , Formiatos/química , Prata/química , Catálise , Descarboxilação , Íons , Ligantes , Teoria Quântica , Soluções , Espectrofotometria Infravermelho , Espectrofotometria Ultravioleta , Termodinâmica
17.
J Phys Chem A ; 120(20): 3484-90, 2016 May 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27118657

RESUMO

The use of the xanthene family of dyes as fluorescent probes in a wide range of applications has provided impetus for the studying of their photophysical properties. In particular, recent advances in gas-phase techniques such as FRET that utilize such chromophores have placed a greater importance on the characterization of these properties in the gas phase. Additionally, the use of synthetic linker chains to graft the chromophores in a site-specific manner to their target system is ubiquitous. There is, however, often limited information on how the addition of such a linker chain may affect the photophysical properties of the chromophores, which is of fundamental importance for interpretation of experimental data reliant on grafted chromophores. Here, we present data on the optical spectroscopy of different protonation states of Eosin Y, a fluorescein derivative. We compare the photophysics of Eosin Y to its maleimide conjugate, and to the thioether product of the reaction of this conjugate with cysteamine. Comparison of the mass spectra following laser irradiation shows that very different relaxation takes place upon addition of the maleimide moiety but that the photophysics of the bare chromophore are restored upon addition of cysteamine. This radical change in the photophysics is interpreted in terms of charge-transfer states, whose energy relative to the S1 ← S0 transition of the chromophore is dependent on the conjugation of the maleimide moiety. We also show that the shape of the absorption band is unchanged in the gas-phase as compared to the solution-phase, showing a maximum with a shoulder toward the blue, and examination of isotope distributions of the isolated ions show that this shoulder cannot be due to the presence of dimers. Consideration of the fluorescence emission spectrum allows a tentative assignment of the shoulder to be due to a vibrational progression with a high Franck-Condon factor.

18.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 18(13): 9061-9, 2016 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26972232

RESUMO

We present theoretical modelling, ion mobility spectrometry and action-FRET experiments for chromophore-grafted amyloid-ß(12-28) dimers. A first-principles global minimum search based on replica-exchange molecular dynamics (REMD) leads to a compact structure with strong interstrand interactions. We use REMD with a distance restraint that implements an adaptive effective bias upon average FRET-efficiencies and thus guides the sampling by the action-FRET measurement. This procedure leads to a pair of weakly interacting peptides. Ion-mobility confirms that the weakly interacting structure and not the global minimum with strongly interacting peptides is populated in the experiment. The presence of a high energy barrier between the two structural families, as evidenced from the MD data, suggests that a kinetically trapped structure is observed in the experiment.


Assuntos
Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/química , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/química , Transferência Ressonante de Energia de Fluorescência , Conformação Proteica
19.
J Phys Chem B ; 120(4): 709-14, 2016 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26756462

RESUMO

Monitoring the chromism induced by intramolecular hydrogen and charge transfers within proteins as well as the isomerization of both protein and cofactor is essential not only to understand photoactive signaling pathways but also to design targeted opto-switchable proteins. We used a dual-ion mobility drift tube coupled to a tunable picosecond laser to explore the optical and structural properties of a peptide chain bound to a chromophore-a prototype system allowing for a proton transfer coupled to conformational change. With the support of molecular dynamics and DFT calculations, we show how proton transfer between the peptide and its cofactor can dramatically modify the optical properties of the system and demonstrate that these changes can be triggered by collisional activation in the gas phase.


Assuntos
Cor , Peptídeos/química , Conformação Proteica , Isomerismo
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