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1.
Int J Cancer ; 148(8): 1895-1909, 2021 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33368296

RESUMO

Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in over 180 loci have been associated with breast cancer (BC) through genome-wide association studies involving mostly unselected population-based case-control series. Some of them modify BC risk of women carrying a BRCA1 or BRCA2 (BRCA1/2) mutation and may also explain BC risk variability in BC-prone families with no BRCA1/2 mutation. Here, we assessed the contribution of SNPs of the iCOGS array in GENESIS consisting of BC cases with no BRCA1/2 mutation and a sister with BC, and population controls. Genotyping data were available for 1281 index cases, 731 sisters with BC, 457 unaffected sisters and 1272 controls. In addition to the standard SNP-level analysis using index cases and controls, we performed pedigree-based association tests to capture transmission information in the sibships. We also performed gene- and pathway-level analyses to maximize the power to detect associations with lower-frequency SNPs or those with modest effect sizes. While SNP-level analyses identified 18 loci, gene-level analyses identified 112 genes. Furthermore, 31 Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes and 7 Atlas of Cancer Signaling Network pathways were highlighted (false discovery rate of 5%). Using results from the "index case-control" analysis, we built pathway-derived polygenic risk scores (PRS) and assessed their performance in the population-based CECILE study and in a data set composed of GENESIS-affected sisters and CECILE controls. Although these PRS had poor predictive value in the general population, they performed better than a PRS built using our SNP-level findings, and we found that the joint effect of family history and PRS needs to be considered in risk prediction models.

2.
Transl Lung Cancer Res ; 9(5): 2233-2244, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33209646

RESUMO

Large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNECs) and small cell lung carcinomas (SCLCs) are high-grade neuroendocrine carcinomas of the lung with very aggressive behavior and poor prognosis. Their histological classification as well as their therapeutic management has not changed much in recent years, but genomic and transcriptomic analyses have revealed different molecular subtypes raising hopes for more personalized treatment. Indeed, four subtypes of SCLCs have been recently described, SCLC-A driven by the master gene ASCL1, SCLC-N driven by NEUROD1, SCLC-Y by YAP1 and SCLC-P by POU2F3. Whereas SCLC standard of care is based on concurrent chemoradiation for limited stages and on chemotherapy alone or chemotherapy combined with anti-PD-L1 checkpoint inhibitors for extensive stage SCLC, SCLC-A variants could benefit from DLL3 or BCL2 inhibitors, and SCLC-N variants from Aurora kinase inhibitors combined with chemotherapy, or PI3K/mTOR or HSP90 inhibitors. In addition, a new SCLC variant (SCLC-IM) with high-expression of immune checkpoints has been also reported, which could benefit from immunotherapies. PARP inhibitors also gave promising results in combination with chemotherapy in a subset of SCLCs. Regarding LCNECs, they represent a heterogeneous group of tumors, some of them exhibiting mutations also found in SCLC but with a pattern of expression of NSCLC, while others harbor mutations also found in NSCLC but with a pattern of expression of SCLC, questioning their clinical management as NSCLCs or SCLCs. Overall, we are probably entering a new area, which, if personalized treatments are effective, will also lead to the implementation in practice of molecular testing or biomarkers detection for the selection of patients who can benefit from them.

3.
Transl Lung Cancer Res ; 9(3): 906-916, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32676356

RESUMO

Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) including programmed death 1 (PD-1) inhibitors, such as nivolumab and pembrolizumab, or programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) inhibitors, such as atezolizumab and durvalumab, have recently emerged in advanced stage lung cancer as new standards of care. They are now indicated in first- line and second- or later-line treatment of metastatic or locally-advanced stage III non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), as well as for metastatic small cell lung cancer (SCLC), as single agent immunotherapy or in combination with chemotherapy. Four PD-L1 immunohistochemistry (IHC) assays have been established and validated in randomized trials, each for a specific ICI. They use different primary monoclonal antibodies, platforms and detection systems, as well as different scoring systems to assess PD-L1 expression either by tumor cells (TCs) and/or by infiltrating immune cells (ICs). Most studies have shown a close analytical performance of three of these clinically-validated standardized assays, but their use restricted to dedicated platforms, which are not all available in most laboratories, questions their applicability. In addition, the relative high costs of the assays have led to the development of in-house protocols in many pathology laboratories. Their use in clinical practice to assess the predictive value of PD-L1 expression for prescription of ICI raises the issue of their reliability and their validation as compared to standardized assays. This article discusses the main comparative studies available between LDT and assays, with clear evidence that LDT can reach a performance equivalent to the trial-validated assays. The requirements are an adequate validation as compared to an appropriate standard, and the participation to external quality assurance programs and training programs for PD-L1 IHC assessment for pathologists.

4.
J Thorac Oncol ; 15(6): 1037-1053, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32165206

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Histologic subtypes of malignant pleural mesothelioma are a major prognostic indicator and decision denominator for all therapeutic strategies. In an ambiguous case, a rare transitional mesothelioma (TM) pattern may be diagnosed by pathologists either as epithelioid mesothelioma (EM), biphasic mesothelioma (BM), or sarcomatoid mesothelioma (SM). This study aimed to better characterize the TM subtype from a histological, immunohistochemical, and molecular standpoint. Deep learning of pathologic slides was applied to this cohort. METHODS: A random selection of 49 representative digitalized sections from surgical biopsies of TM was reviewed by 16 panelists. We evaluated BAP1 expression and CDKN2A (p16) homozygous deletion. We conducted a comprehensive, integrated, transcriptomic analysis. An unsupervised deep learning algorithm was trained to classify tumors. RESULTS: The 16 panelists recorded 784 diagnoses on the 49 cases. Even though a Kappa value of 0.42 is moderate, the presence of a TM component was diagnosed in 51%. In 49% of the histological evaluation, the reviewers classified the lesion as EM in 53%, SM in 33%, or BM in 14%. Median survival was 6.7 months. Loss of BAP1 observed in 44% was less frequent in TM than in EM and BM. p16 homozygous deletion was higher in TM (73%), followed by BM (63%) and SM (46%). RNA sequencing unsupervised clustering analysis revealed that TM grouped together and were closer to SM than to EM. Deep learning analysis achieved 94% accuracy for TM identification. CONCLUSION: These results revealed that the TM pattern should be classified as non-EM or at minimum as a subgroup of the SM type.

5.
J Clin Oncol ; 38(7): 674-685, 2020 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31841383

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To estimate age-specific relative and absolute cancer risks of breast cancer and to estimate risks of ovarian, pancreatic, male breast, prostate, and colorectal cancers associated with germline PALB2 pathogenic variants (PVs) because these risks have not been extensively characterized. METHODS: We analyzed data from 524 families with PALB2 PVs from 21 countries. Complex segregation analysis was used to estimate relative risks (RRs; relative to country-specific population incidences) and absolute risks of cancers. The models allowed for residual familial aggregation of breast and ovarian cancer and were adjusted for the family-specific ascertainment schemes. RESULTS: We found associations between PALB2 PVs and risk of female breast cancer (RR, 7.18; 95% CI, 5.82 to 8.85; P = 6.5 × 10-76), ovarian cancer (RR, 2.91; 95% CI, 1.40 to 6.04; P = 4.1 × 10-3), pancreatic cancer (RR, 2.37; 95% CI, 1.24 to 4.50; P = 8.7 × 10-3), and male breast cancer (RR, 7.34; 95% CI, 1.28 to 42.18; P = 2.6 × 10-2). There was no evidence for increased risks of prostate or colorectal cancer. The breast cancer RRs declined with age (P for trend = 2.0 × 10-3). After adjusting for family ascertainment, breast cancer risk estimates on the basis of multiple case families were similar to the estimates from families ascertained through population-based studies (P for difference = .41). On the basis of the combined data, the estimated risks to age 80 years were 53% (95% CI, 44% to 63%) for female breast cancer, 5% (95% CI, 2% to 10%) for ovarian cancer, 2%-3% (95% CI females, 1% to 4%; 95% CI males, 2% to 5%) for pancreatic cancer, and 1% (95% CI, 0.2% to 5%) for male breast cancer. CONCLUSION: These results confirm PALB2 as a major breast cancer susceptibility gene and establish substantial associations between germline PALB2 PVs and ovarian, pancreatic, and male breast cancers. These findings will facilitate incorporation of PALB2 into risk prediction models and optimize the clinical cancer risk management of PALB2 PV carriers.

6.
EBioMedicine ; 48: 191-202, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31648983

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma (MPM) is an aggressive disease related to asbestos exposure, with no effective therapeutic options. METHODS: We undertook unsupervised analyses of RNA-sequencing data of 284 MPMs, with no assumption of discreteness. Using immunohistochemistry, we performed an orthogonal validation on a subset of 103 samples and a biological replication in an independent series of 77 samples. FINDINGS: A continuum of molecular profiles explained the prognosis of the disease better than any discrete model. The immune and vascular pathways were the major sources of molecular variation, with strong differences in the expression of immune checkpoints and pro-angiogenic genes; the extrema of this continuum had specific molecular profiles: a "hot" bad-prognosis profile, with high lymphocyte infiltration and high expression of immune checkpoints and pro-angiogenic genes; a "cold" bad-prognosis profile, with low lymphocyte infiltration and high expression of pro-angiogenic genes; and a "VEGFR2+/VISTA+" better-prognosis profile, with high expression of immune checkpoint VISTA and pro-angiogenic gene VEGFR2. We validated the gene expression levels at the protein level for a subset of five selected genes belonging to the immune and vascular pathways (CD8A, PDL1, VEGFR3, VEGFR2, and VISTA), in the validation series, and replicated the molecular profiles as well as their prognostic value in the replication series. INTERPRETATION: The prognosis of MPM is best explained by a continuous model, which extremes show specific expression patterns of genes involved in angiogenesis and immune response.


Assuntos
Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/etiologia , Mesotelioma/diagnóstico , Mesotelioma/etiologia , Neovascularização Patológica/imunologia , Neoplasias Pleurais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Pleurais/etiologia , Microambiente Tumoral/imunologia , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Masculino , Mesotelioma/patologia , Neoplasias Pleurais/patologia , Transcriptoma
7.
Int J Cancer ; 144(8): 1962-1974, 2019 04 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30303537

RESUMO

Pathogenic variants in BRCA1 and BRCA2 only explain the underlying genetic cause of about 10% of hereditary breast and ovarian cancer families. Because of cost-effectiveness, multigene panel testing is often performed even if the clinical utility of testing most of the genes remains questionable. The purpose of our study was to assess the contribution of rare, deleterious-predicted variants in DNA repair genes in familial breast cancer (BC) in a well-characterized and homogeneous population. We analyzed 113 DNA repair genes selected from either an exome sequencing or a candidate gene approach in the GENESIS study, which includes familial BC cases with no BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation and having a sister with BC (N = 1,207), and general population controls (N = 1,199). Sequencing data were filtered for rare loss-of-function variants (LoF) and likely deleterious missense variants (MV). We confirmed associations between LoF and MV in PALB2, ATM and CHEK2 and BC occurrence. We also identified for the first time associations between FANCI, MAST1, POLH and RTEL1 and BC susceptibility. Unlike other associated genes, carriers of an ATM LoF had a significantly higher risk of developing BC than carriers of an ATM MV (ORLoF = 17.4 vs. ORMV = 1.6; p Het = 0.002). Hence, our approach allowed us to specify BC relative risks associated with deleterious-predicted variants in PALB2, ATM and CHEK2 and to add MAST1, POLH, RTEL1 and FANCI to the list of DNA repair genes possibly involved in BC susceptibility. We also highlight that different types of variants within the same gene can lead to different risk estimates.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Reparo do DNA/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Testes Genéticos/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medição de Risco/métodos , Irmãos
9.
Oncotarget ; 9(25): 17334-17348, 2018 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29707112

RESUMO

Germline pathogenic variants in the BRCA2 gene are associated with a cumulative high risk of breast/ovarian cancer. Several BRCA2 variants result in complete loss of the exon-3 at the transcript level. The pathogenicity of these variants and the functional impact of loss of exon 3 have yet to be established. As a collaboration of the COVAR clinical trial group (France), and the ENIGMA consortium for investigating breast cancer gene variants, this study evaluated 8 BRCA2 variants resulting in complete deletion of exon 3. Clinical information for 39 families was gathered from Portugal, France, Denmark and Sweden. Multifactorial likelihood analyses were conducted using information from 293 patients, for 7 out of the 8 variants (including 6 intronic). For all variants combined the likelihood ratio in favor of causality was 4.39*1025. These results provide convincing evidence for the pathogenicity of all examined variants that lead to a total exon 3 skipping, and suggest that other variants that result in complete loss of exon 3 at the molecular level could be associated with a high risk of cancer comparable to that associated with classical pathogenic variants in BRCA1 or BRCA2 gene. In addition, our functional study shows, for the first time, that deletion of exon 3 impairs the ability of cells to survive upon Mitomycin-C treatment, supporting lack of function for the altered BRCA2 protein in these cells. Finally, this study demonstrates that any variant leading to expression of only BRCA2 delta-exon 3 will be associated with an increased risk of breast and ovarian cancer.

10.
BMC Cancer ; 17(1): 328, 2017 05 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28499365

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genetic factors may influence an individual's sensitivity to ionising radiation and therefore modify his/her risk of developing papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). Previously, we reported that common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the DNA damage recognition gene ATM contribute to PTC risk in Belarusian children exposed to fallout from the Chernobyl power plant accident. Here we explored in the same population the contribution of a panel of DNA repair-related SNPs in genes acting downstream of ATM. METHODS: The association of 141 SNPs located in 43 DNA repair genes was examined in 75 PTC cases and 254 controls from the Gomel region in Belarus. All subjects were younger than 15 years at the time of the Chernobyl accident. Conditional logistic regressions accounting for radiation dose were performed with PLINK using the additive allelic inheritance model, and a linkage disequilibrium (LD)-based Bonferroni correction was used for correction for multiple testing. RESULTS: The intronic SNP rs2296675 in MGMT was associated with an increased PTC risk [per minor allele odds ratio (OR) 2.54 95% CI 1.50, 4.30, P per allele = 0.0006, P corr.= 0.05], and gene-wide association testing highlighted a possible role for ERCC5 (P Gene = 0.01) and PCNA (P Gene = 0.05) in addition to MGMT (P Gene = 0.008). CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicate that several genes acting in distinct DNA repair mechanisms contribute to PTC risk. Further investigation is needed to decipher the functional properties of the methyltransferase encoded by MGMT and to understand how alteration of such functions may lead to the development of the most common type of thyroid cancer.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Papilar/genética , Acidente Nuclear de Chernobyl , Metilases de Modificação do DNA/genética , Enzimas Reparadoras do DNA/genética , Reparo do DNA/genética , Neoplasias Induzidas por Radiação/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/genética , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/genética , Proteínas Mutadas de Ataxia Telangiectasia/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Desequilíbrio de Ligação/genética , Masculino , Radiação Ionizante , República de Belarus , Câncer Papilífero da Tireoide
12.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 161(1): 117-134, 2017 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27796716

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Cis-acting regulatory SNPs resulting in differential allelic expression (DAE) may, in part, explain the underlying phenotypic variation associated with many complex diseases. To investigate whether common variants associated with DAE were involved in breast cancer susceptibility among BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers, a list of 175 genes was developed based of their involvement in cancer-related pathways. METHODS: Using data from a genome-wide map of SNPs associated with allelic expression, we assessed the association of ~320 SNPs located in the vicinity of these genes with breast and ovarian cancer risks in 15,252 BRCA1 and 8211 BRCA2 mutation carriers ascertained from 54 studies participating in the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2. RESULTS: We identified a region on 11q22.3 that is significantly associated with breast cancer risk in BRCA1 mutation carriers (most significant SNP rs228595 p = 7 × 10-6). This association was absent in BRCA2 carriers (p = 0.57). The 11q22.3 region notably encompasses genes such as ACAT1, NPAT, and ATM. Expression quantitative trait loci associations were observed in both normal breast and tumors across this region, namely for ACAT1, ATM, and other genes. In silico analysis revealed some overlap between top risk-associated SNPs and relevant biological features in mammary cell data, which suggests potential functional significance. CONCLUSION: We identified 11q22.3 as a new modifier locus in BRCA1 carriers. Replication in larger studies using estrogen receptor (ER)-negative or triple-negative (i.e., ER-, progesterone receptor-, and HER2-negative) cases could therefore be helpful to confirm the association of this locus with breast cancer risk.


Assuntos
Alelos , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/etiologia , Genes BRCA1 , Genes BRCA2 , Heterozigoto , Mutação , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Cromossomos Humanos Par 11 , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Variação Genética , Humanos , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Risco
13.
PLoS One ; 11(7): e0158801, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27463617

RESUMO

Population-based genome wide association studies have identified a locus at 9p22.2 associated with ovarian cancer risk, which also modifies ovarian cancer risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. We conducted fine-scale mapping at 9p22.2 to identify potential causal variants in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. Genotype data were available for 15,252 (2,462 ovarian cancer cases) BRCA1 and 8,211 (631 ovarian cancer cases) BRCA2 mutation carriers. Following genotype imputation, ovarian cancer associations were assessed for 4,873 and 5,020 SNPs in BRCA1 and BRCA 2 mutation carriers respectively, within a retrospective cohort analytical framework. In BRCA1 mutation carriers one set of eight correlated candidate causal variants for ovarian cancer risk modification was identified (top SNP rs10124837, HR: 0.73, 95%CI: 0.68 to 0.79, p-value 2× 10-16). These variants were located up to 20 kb upstream of BNC2. In BRCA2 mutation carriers one region, up to 45 kb upstream of BNC2, and containing 100 correlated SNPs was identified as candidate causal (top SNP rs62543585, HR: 0.69, 95%CI: 0.59 to 0.80, p-value 1.0 × 10-6). The candidate causal in BRCA1 mutation carriers did not include the strongest associated variant at this locus in the general population. In sum, we identified a set of candidate causal variants in a region that encompasses the BNC2 transcription start site. The ovarian cancer association at 9p22.2 may be mediated by different variants in BRCA1 mutation carriers and in the general population. Thus, potentially different mechanisms may underlie ovarian cancer risk for mutation carriers and the general population.


Assuntos
Cromossomos Humanos Par 9 , Genes BRCA1 , Genes BRCA2 , Triagem de Portadores Genéticos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Feminino , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
14.
Nat Commun ; 7: 11375, 2016 04 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27117709

RESUMO

Common variants in 94 loci have been associated with breast cancer including 15 loci with genome-wide significant associations (P<5 × 10(-8)) with oestrogen receptor (ER)-negative breast cancer and BRCA1-associated breast cancer risk. In this study, to identify new ER-negative susceptibility loci, we performed a meta-analysis of 11 genome-wide association studies (GWAS) consisting of 4,939 ER-negative cases and 14,352 controls, combined with 7,333 ER-negative cases and 42,468 controls and 15,252 BRCA1 mutation carriers genotyped on the iCOGS array. We identify four previously unidentified loci including two loci at 13q22 near KLF5, a 2p23.2 locus near WDR43 and a 2q33 locus near PPIL3 that display genome-wide significant associations with ER-negative breast cancer. In addition, 19 known breast cancer risk loci have genome-wide significant associations and 40 had moderate associations (P<0.05) with ER-negative disease. Using functional and eQTL studies we implicate TRMT61B and WDR43 at 2p23.2 and PPIL3 at 2q33 in ER-negative breast cancer aetiology. All ER-negative loci combined account for ∼11% of familial relative risk for ER-negative disease and may contribute to improved ER-negative and BRCA1 breast cancer risk prediction.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Receptores Estrogênicos/genética , Proteína BRCA1/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 2/genética , Ciclofilinas/genética , Feminino , Genótipo , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Mutação , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fatores de Risco , tRNA Metiltransferases
15.
J Med Genet ; 53(5): 298-309, 2016 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26921362

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: BRCA1 interacting protein C-terminal helicase 1 (BRIP1) is one of the Fanconi Anaemia Complementation (FANC) group family of DNA repair proteins. Biallelic mutations in BRIP1 are responsible for FANC group J, and previous studies have also suggested that rare protein truncating variants in BRIP1 are associated with an increased risk of breast cancer. These studies have led to inclusion of BRIP1 on targeted sequencing panels for breast cancer risk prediction. METHODS: We evaluated a truncating variant, p.Arg798Ter (rs137852986), and 10 missense variants of BRIP1, in 48 144 cases and 43 607 controls of European origin, drawn from 41 studies participating in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC). Additionally, we sequenced the coding regions of BRIP1 in 13 213 cases and 5242 controls from the UK, 1313 cases and 1123 controls from three population-based studies as part of the Breast Cancer Family Registry, and 1853 familial cases and 2001 controls from Australia. RESULTS: The rare truncating allele of rs137852986 was observed in 23 cases and 18 controls in Europeans in BCAC (OR 1.09, 95% CI 0.58 to 2.03, p=0.79). Truncating variants were found in the sequencing studies in 34 cases (0.21%) and 19 controls (0.23%) (combined OR 0.90, 95% CI 0.48 to 1.70, p=0.75). CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that truncating variants in BRIP1, and in particular p.Arg798Ter, are not associated with a substantial increase in breast cancer risk. Such observations have important implications for the reporting of results from breast cancer screening panels.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Mutação , RNA Helicases/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Estudos de Coortes , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Proteínas de Grupos de Complementação da Anemia de Fanconi , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Risco
16.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 24(9): 1324-9, 2016 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26785832

RESUMO

Although a wide number of breast cancer susceptibility alleles associated with various levels of risk have been identified to date, about 50% of the heritability is still missing. Although the major BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes are being extensively screened for truncating and missense variants in breast and/or ovarian cancer families, potential regulatory variants affecting their expression remain largely unexplored. In an attempt to identify such variants, we focused our attention on gene regulation mediated by microRNAs (miRs). We screened two genes, MIR146A and MIR146B, producing miR-146a and miR-146b-5p, respectively, that regulate BRCA1, and the 3'- untranslated regions (3'-UTRs) of BRCA1 and BRCA2 in the GENESIS French national case/control study (BRCA1- and BRCA2-negative breast cancer cases with at least one sister with breast cancer and matched controls). We identified one rare variant in MIR146A, four in MIR146B, five in BRCA1 3'-UTR and one in BRCA2 3'-UTR in 716 index cases and 619 controls. Among these 11 rare variants, 7 were identified each in 1 index case. None of the three relevant MIR146A/MIR146B variants affected the pre-miR sequences. The potential causality of the four relevant BRCA1/BRCA2 3'-UTRs variants was evaluated with luciferase reporter assays and co-segregation studies, as well as with bioinformatics analyses to predict miRs-binding sites, RNA secondary structures and RNA accessibility. This is the first study to report the screening of miR genes and of BRCA2 3'-UTR in a large series of familial breast cancer cases. None of the variant identified in this study gave convincing evidence of potential pathogenicity.


Assuntos
Regiões 3' não Traduzidas , Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , MicroRNAs/genética , Mutação , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Células HeLa , Humanos , Células MCF-7 , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
17.
BMC Cancer ; 16: 13, 2016 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26758370

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Less than 20% of familial breast cancer patients who undergo genetic testing for BRCA1 and BRCA2 carry a pathogenic mutation in one of these two genes. The GENESIS (GENE SISter) study was designed to identify new breast cancer susceptibility genes in women attending cancer genetics clinics and with no BRCA1/2 mutation. METHODS: The study involved the French national network of family cancer clinics. It was based on enrichment in genetic factors of the recruited population through case selection relying on familial criteria, but also on the consideration of environmental factors and endophenotypes like mammary density or tumor characteristics to assess potential genetic heterogeneity. One of the initial aims of GENESIS was to recruit affected sibpairs. Siblings were eligible when index cases and at least one affected sister were diagnosed with infiltrating mammary or ductal adenocarcinoma, with no BRCA1/2 mutation. In addition, unrelated controls and unaffected sisters were recruited. The enrolment of patients, their relatives and their controls, the collection of the clinical, epidemiological, familial and biological data were centralized by a coordinating center. RESULTS: Inclusion of participants started in February 2007 and ended in December 2013. A total of 1721 index cases, 826 affected sisters, 599 unaffected sisters and 1419 controls were included. 98% of participants completed the epidemiological questionnaire, 97% provided a blood sample, and 76% were able to provide mammograms. Index cases were on average 59 years old at inclusion, were born in 1950, and were 49.7 years of age at breast cancer diagnosis. The mean age at diagnosis of affected sisters was slightly higher (51.4 years). The representativeness of the control group was verified. CONCLUSIONS: The size of the study, the availability of biological specimens and the clinical data collection together with the detailed and complete epidemiological questionnaire make this a unique national resource for investigation of the missing heritability of breast cancer, by taking into account environmental and life style factors and stratifying data on endophenotypes to decrease genetic heterogeneity.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Proteínas de Neoplasias/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Feminino , França/epidemiologia , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Testes Genéticos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
18.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 108(2)2016 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26586665

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The K3326X variant in BRCA2 (BRCA2*c.9976A>T; p.Lys3326*; rs11571833) has been found to be associated with small increased risks of breast cancer. However, it is not clear to what extent linkage disequilibrium with fully pathogenic mutations might account for this association. There is scant information about the effect of K3326X in other hormone-related cancers. METHODS: Using weighted logistic regression, we analyzed data from the large iCOGS study including 76 637 cancer case patients and 83 796 control patients to estimate odds ratios (ORw) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for K3326X variant carriers in relation to breast, ovarian, and prostate cancer risks, with weights defined as probability of not having a pathogenic BRCA2 variant. Using Cox proportional hazards modeling, we also examined the associations of K3326X with breast and ovarian cancer risks among 7183 BRCA1 variant carriers. All statistical tests were two-sided. RESULTS: The K3326X variant was associated with breast (ORw = 1.28, 95% CI = 1.17 to 1.40, P = 5.9x10(-) (6)) and invasive ovarian cancer (ORw = 1.26, 95% CI = 1.10 to 1.43, P = 3.8x10(-3)). These associations were stronger for serous ovarian cancer and for estrogen receptor-negative breast cancer (ORw = 1.46, 95% CI = 1.2 to 1.70, P = 3.4x10(-5) and ORw = 1.50, 95% CI = 1.28 to 1.76, P = 4.1x10(-5), respectively). For BRCA1 mutation carriers, there was a statistically significant inverse association of the K3326X variant with risk of ovarian cancer (HR = 0.43, 95% CI = 0.22 to 0.84, P = .013) but no association with breast cancer. No association with prostate cancer was observed. CONCLUSIONS: Our study provides evidence that the K3326X variant is associated with risk of developing breast and ovarian cancers independent of other pathogenic variants in BRCA2. Further studies are needed to determine the biological mechanism of action responsible for these associations.


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA2/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Códon de Terminação , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Lisina/genética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Invasividade Neoplásica , Razão de Chances , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco
19.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 154(3): 463-71, 2015 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26564480

RESUMO

Several population-based and family-based studies have demonstrated that germline mutations of the PALB2 gene (Partner and Localizer of BRCA2) are associated with an increased risk of breast cancer. Distinct mutation frequencies and spectrums have been described depending on the population studied. Here we describe the first complete PALB2 coding sequence screening in the French population. We screened the complete coding sequence and intron-exon boundaries of PALB2, using the EMMA technique, to assess the contribution of pathogenic mutations in a set of 835 familial breast cancer cases and 662 unrelated controls from the French national study GENESIS and the Paul Strauss Cancer Centre, all previously tested negative for BRCA1 and BRCA2 pathogenic mutations. Our analysis revealed the presence of four novel deleterious mutations: c.1186insT, c.1857delT and c.2850delC in three cases, c.3418dupT in one control. In addition, we identified two in-frame insertion/deletion, 19 missense substitutions (two of them predicted as pathogenic), 9 synonymous variants, 28 variants located in introns and 2 in UTRs, as well as frequent variants. Truncating PALB2 mutations were found in 0.36% of familial breast cancer cases, a frequency lower than the one detected in comparable studies in other populations (0.73-3.40%). This suggests a small but significant contribution of PALB2 mutations to the breast cancer susceptibility in the French population.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Neoplasias da Mama Masculina/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Éxons , Proteína do Grupo de Complementação N da Anemia de Fanconi , Feminino , França , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genética Populacional , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética
20.
PLoS One ; 10(9): e0136192, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26406445

RESUMO

Breast Cancer is a complex multifactorial disease for which high-penetrance mutations have been identified. Approaches used to date have identified genomic features explaining about 50% of breast cancer heritability. A number of low- to medium penetrance alleles (per-allele odds ratio < 1.5 and 4.0, respectively) have been identified, suggesting that the remaining heritability is likely to be explained by the cumulative effect of such alleles and/or by rare high-penetrance alleles. Relatively few studies have specifically explored the mitochondrial genome for variants potentially implicated in breast cancer risk. For these reasons, we propose an exploration of the variability of the mitochondrial genome in individuals diagnosed with breast cancer, having a positive breast cancer family history but testing negative for BRCA1/2 pathogenic mutations. We sequenced the mitochondrial genome of 436 index breast cancer cases from the GENESIS study. As expected, no pathogenic genomic pattern common to the 436 women included in our study was observed. The mitochondrial genes MT-ATP6 and MT-CYB were observed to carry the highest number of variants in the study. The proteins encoded by these genes are involved in the structure of the mitochondrial respiration chain, and variants in these genes may impact reactive oxygen species production contributing to carcinogenesis. More functional and epidemiological studies are needed to further investigate to what extent variants identified may influence familial breast cancer risk.


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA1 , Proteína BRCA2 , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Genoma Mitocondrial/genética , ATPases Mitocondriais Próton-Translocadoras/genética , Mutação , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Feminino , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Penetrância
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