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1.
J Thorac Oncol ; 15(6): 1037-1053, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32165206

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Histologic subtypes of malignant pleural mesothelioma are a major prognostic indicator and decision denominator for all therapeutic strategies. In an ambiguous case, a rare transitional mesothelioma (TM) pattern may be diagnosed by pathologists either as epithelioid mesothelioma (EM), biphasic mesothelioma (BM), or sarcomatoid mesothelioma (SM). This study aimed to better characterize the TM subtype from a histological, immunohistochemical, and molecular standpoint. Deep learning of pathologic slides was applied to this cohort. METHODS: A random selection of 49 representative digitalized sections from surgical biopsies of TM was reviewed by 16 panelists. We evaluated BAP1 expression and CDKN2A (p16) homozygous deletion. We conducted a comprehensive, integrated, transcriptomic analysis. An unsupervised deep learning algorithm was trained to classify tumors. RESULTS: The 16 panelists recorded 784 diagnoses on the 49 cases. Even though a Kappa value of 0.42 is moderate, the presence of a TM component was diagnosed in 51%. In 49% of the histological evaluation, the reviewers classified the lesion as EM in 53%, SM in 33%, or BM in 14%. Median survival was 6.7 months. Loss of BAP1 observed in 44% was less frequent in TM than in EM and BM. p16 homozygous deletion was higher in TM (73%), followed by BM (63%) and SM (46%). RNA sequencing unsupervised clustering analysis revealed that TM grouped together and were closer to SM than to EM. Deep learning analysis achieved 94% accuracy for TM identification. CONCLUSION: These results revealed that the TM pattern should be classified as non-EM or at minimum as a subgroup of the SM type.

2.
Cancers (Basel) ; 12(2)2020 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32085544

RESUMO

A large interindividual variability has been observed in anti Programmed cell Death 1 (anti-PD1) therapies efficacy. The aim of this study is to assess the correlation of soluble PD-1 (sPD-1), soluble Programmed cell Death Ligand 1 (sPD-L1), Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A (VEGFA), soluble CD40 ligand (sCD40L) and soluble CD44 (sCD44), with survival in nivolumab-treated metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. Plasma biomarkers were assayed at baseline and after two cycles of nivolumab. A cut-off of positivity for sPD-1, sPD-L1 and sCD40L expressions was defined as a plasma level above the lower limit of quantification. Baseline sPD-1 and sPD-L1 levels were subsequently analyzed in a control group of EGFR-mutated (Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor) NSCLC patients. Association between survival and biomarkers was investigated using Cox proportional hazard regression model. Eighty-seven patients were included (51 nivolumab-treated patients, 36 in EGFR-mutated group). In nivolumab group, baseline sPD-1, sPD-L1 and sCD40L were positive for 15(29.4%), 27(52.9%) and 18(50%) patients, respectively. We defined a composite criteria (sCombo) corresponding to sPD-1 and/or sPD-L1 positivity for each patient. In nivolumab group, baseline sCombo positivity was associated with shorter median progression-free survival (PFS) (78 days 95%CI (55-109) vs. 658 days (222-not reached); HR: 4.12 (1.95-8.71), p = 0.0002) and OS (HR: 3.99(1.63-9.80), p = 0.003). In multivariate analysis, baseline sCombo independently correlated with PFS (HR: 2.66 (1.17-6.08), p = 0.02) but not OS. In EGFR-mutated group, all patients were baseline sCombo positive; therefore this factor was not associated with survival. After two cycles of nivolumab, an increased or stable sPD-1 level independently correlated with longer PFS (HR: 0.49, 95%CI (0.30-0.80), p = 0.004) and OS (HR: 0.39, 95%CI (0.21-0.71), p = 0.002). VEGFA, sCD40L and sCD44 did not correlate with survival. We propose a composite biomarker using sPD-1and sPDL-1 to predict nivolumab efficacy in NSCLC patients. A larger validation study is warranted.

3.
Bull Cancer ; 107(1): 41-47, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31916995

RESUMO

A growing number of studies suggest a tumor suppressor role for the SWI/SNF complex involved in the remodeling of chromatin. Alterations of this complex have been found in many tumors of different origins, with topographic, morphologic and phenotypic diversity. Notably, they define 2 types of thoracic tumors: SMARCA4-deficient non-small cell lung carcinoma and SMARCA4-deficient sarcoma. Some clinical features appear to be common to both, such as intrathoracic localization, smoking exposure, male predominance and poor prognosis. However, the histological distinction between these two entities is sometimes difficult and it is not excluded that these entities belong to the same tumor spectrum with different degrees of differentiation. The therapy of these tumors is not yet codified. These tumors do not seem associated with oncogenic driver mutations allowing the prescription of targeted therapy, but immunotherapy has been shown to be effective in rare reported cases. More specific treatments using EZH2 inhibitors also seem promising in SMARCA4 deficient sarcomas.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/genética , Montagem e Desmontagem da Cromatina , DNA Helicases/deficiência , Proteínas de Neoplasias/deficiência , Proteínas Nucleares/deficiência , Sarcoma/genética , Neoplasias Torácicas/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/deficiência , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/terapia , Quimiorradioterapia , Montagem e Desmontagem da Cromatina/genética , Montagem e Desmontagem da Cromatina/fisiologia , Terapia Combinada , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos de Citorredução , DNA Helicases/fisiologia , Proteína Potenciadora do Homólogo 2 de Zeste/antagonistas & inibidores , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/fisiologia , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/terapia , Neoplasias do Mediastino/genética , Neoplasias do Mediastino/patologia , Neoplasias do Mediastino/terapia , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Complexos Multiproteicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Complexos Multiproteicos/fisiologia , Invasividade Neoplásica , Proteínas de Neoplasias/fisiologia , Proteínas Nucleares/fisiologia , Proteína SMARCB1/fisiologia , Sarcoma/patologia , Sarcoma/terapia , Neoplasias Torácicas/patologia , Neoplasias Torácicas/terapia , Fatores de Transcrição/fisiologia
4.
Cancers (Basel) ; 11(11)2019 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31766292

RESUMO

Pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic data from real-world cohort are sparse in non small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients treated with nivolumab. The aim of this prospective observational study was to explore the exposure-response relationship for effectiveness and toxicity of nivolumab in 81 outpatients with metastatic lung cancer. Nivolumab plasma trough concentrations (Cmin) were assayed at days 14, 28, and 42. Prognostic factors (including Cmin) regarding progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were explored using a multivariate Cox model. A Spearman's rank test was used to investigate the relationship between Cmin and grade >2 immune-related adverse events (irAE). Mean nivolumab Cmin was 16.2 ± 6.0 µg/mL (n = 76), 25.6 ± 10.2 µg/mL (n = 64) and 33.4 ± 11.3 µg/mL (n = 53) at days 14, 28, and 42, respectively. No pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) relationship was observed with either survival or onset of irAE. Multivariable Cox regression analysis identified Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group Performance Status (hazard ratio 1.85, 95%confidence interval 1.02-3.38, p-value = 0.043) and baseline use of corticosteroids (HR 8.08, 95%CI 1.78-36.62, p-value = 0.007) as independent risk factor for PFS and only baseline use of corticosteroids (HR 6.29, 95%CI 1.46-27.08, p-value = 0.013) for OS. No PK/PD relationship for nivolumab was observed in real-world NSCLC patients. This supports the recent use of flat dose regimens without plasma drug monitoring.

5.
Blood ; 134(Supplement_1): 21, 2019 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31724008

RESUMO

DISCLOSURES: Sarkozy: Takeda: Research Funding. Salles:Merck: Consultancy, Honoraria, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees; Novartis, Servier, AbbVie, Karyopharm, Kite, MorphoSys: Consultancy, Honoraria, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Other: Educational events; Autolus: Consultancy, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees; Takeda: Consultancy, Honoraria, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Other: Educational events; Epizyme: Consultancy, Honoraria; BMS: Honoraria; Amgen: Honoraria, Other: Educational events; Roche, Janssen, Gilead, Celgene: Consultancy, Honoraria, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Other: Educational events. Savage:BMS, Merck, Novartis, Verastem, Abbvie, Servier, and Seattle Genetics: Consultancy, Honoraria; Seattle Genetics, Inc.: Consultancy, Honoraria, Research Funding. Scott:Celgene: Consultancy; Roche/Genentech: Research Funding; Janssen: Consultancy, Research Funding; NanoString: Patents & Royalties: Named inventor on a patent licensed to NanoSting [Institution], Research Funding. Steidl:Juno Therapeutics: Consultancy; Tioma: Research Funding; Roche: Consultancy; Bristol-Myers Squibb: Research Funding; Nanostring: Patents & Royalties: Filed patent on behalf of BC Cancer; Seattle Genetics: Consultancy; Bayer: Consultancy.

6.
J Transl Med ; 17(1): 357, 2019 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31684954

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The 18-gene tumor inflammation signature (TIS) is a clinical research assay that enriches for clinical benefit to immune checkpoint blockade. We evaluated its ability to predict clinical benefit of immunotherapy in cancer patients treated with PD-1 checkpoint inhibitors in routine clinical care. METHODS: The CERTIM cohort is a prospective cohort which includes patients receiving immune checkpoint inhibitors in Cochin University hospital. RNA extracted from 58 archival formalin fixed paraffin embedded tumor blocks (including 38 lung cancers, 5 melanomas, 10 renal carcinomas, 4 urothelial carcinomas and 1 colon carcinoma) was hybridized to a beta version of the NanoString® PanCancer IO360™ CodeSet using nCounter® technology. Gene expression signatures were correlated with tumor responses (by RECIST criteria) and overall survival. PD-L1 immunostaining on tumor cells was assessed in 37 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) samples and tumor mutational burden (TMB) measured by whole exome sequencing in 19 of these. RESULTS: TIS scores were significantly associated with complete or partial response to anti-PD-1 treatment in the whole cohort (odds ratio = 2.64, 95% CI [1.4; 6.0], p = 0.008), as well as in the NSCLC population (odds ratio = 3.27, 95% CI [1.2; 11.6], p = 0.03). Patients whose tumor had a high TIS score (upper tertile) showed prolonged overall survival compared to patients whose tumor had lower TIS scores, both in the whole cohort (hazard ratio = 0.37, 95% CI [0.18, 0.76], p = 0.005) and in the NSCLC population (hazard ratio = 0.36, 95% CI [0.14, 0.90], p = 0.02). In the latter, the TIS score was independent from either PD-L1 staining on tumor cells (spearman coefficient 0.2) and TMB (spearman coefficient - 0.2). CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that validated gene expression assay measuring the level of tumor microenvironment inflammation such as TIS, are accurate and independent predictive biomarkers and can be easily implemented in the clinical practice.

7.
Ann Pathol ; 39(6): 425-432, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31604575

RESUMO

Gross examination is an essential step for pathological report of a surgical sample. It includes the description of the surgical specimen and their disease(s), the precise and exhaustive sampling of tumoral and adjacent tumoral tissue areas. This examination requires a good knowledge of the updated pTNM classification. Pathologists from the PATTERN group have collaborated with thoracic surgeons, under the auspices of the Sociéte française de pathologie, to propose guidelines for resected specimen management. This approach fits into the context of the elaboration of structured pathological report proposed by the société française de pathologie, which is necessary for a standardized management of patients.

8.
EBioMedicine ; 48: 191-202, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31648983

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma (MPM) is an aggressive disease related to asbestos exposure, with no effective therapeutic options. METHODS: We undertook unsupervised analyses of RNA-sequencing data of 284 MPMs, with no assumption of discreteness. Using immunohistochemistry, we performed an orthogonal validation on a subset of 103 samples and a biological replication in an independent series of 77 samples. FINDINGS: A continuum of molecular profiles explained the prognosis of the disease better than any discrete model. The immune and vascular pathways were the major sources of molecular variation, with strong differences in the expression of immune checkpoints and pro-angiogenic genes; the extrema of this continuum had specific molecular profiles: a "hot" bad-prognosis profile, with high lymphocyte infiltration and high expression of immune checkpoints and pro-angiogenic genes; a "cold" bad-prognosis profile, with low lymphocyte infiltration and high expression of pro-angiogenic genes; and a "VEGFR2+/VISTA+" better-prognosis profile, with high expression of immune checkpoint VISTA and pro-angiogenic gene VEGFR2. We validated the gene expression levels at the protein level for a subset of five selected genes belonging to the immune and vascular pathways (CD8A, PDL1, VEGFR3, VEGFR2, and VISTA), in the validation series, and replicated the molecular profiles as well as their prognostic value in the replication series. INTERPRETATION: The prognosis of MPM is best explained by a continuous model, which extremes show specific expression patterns of genes involved in angiogenesis and immune response.

9.
Oncol Lett ; 18(4): 3471-3480, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31516565

RESUMO

Promoter mutations of pleckstrin homology domain-containing S1 (PLEKHS1) are frequent in several cancer types. To evaluate the DNA mutations, the mRNA expression and prognostic value of PLEKHS1 was evaluated in bladder cancer. We investigated DNA mutations and mRNA expression of PLEKHS1 in a first series of 154 bladder tumors [71 non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) and 83 muscle-invasive bladder cancers (MIBC)] from patients who underwent transurethral bladder resection or radical cystectomy between 2001 and 2006, and 20 normal bladder samples. Results were then validated in a second series of 181 bladder tumors (91 NMIBC and 90 MIBC). All patients have signed an informed consent form. DNA mutations were analysed by high-resolution melt analysis and sanger sequencing. The mRNA expression was measured by real-time reverse-transcriptase quantitative PCR. The results of the molecular analysis were compared with survival data. PLEKHS1 mutations occurred in 25.0 and 32.2% of NMIBC and MIBC, respectively in the first series. These results were confirmed in the second series (33.0 and 37.8% of NMIBC and MIBC, respectively). In MIBC, DNA mutations were significantly more frequent with the basal than non-basal phenotype (61.5 vs. 27.1%; P=0.0025). The PLEKHS1 mRNA level was increased in 22.5 and 27.7% of NMIBC and MIBC tumors but was not associated with DNA mutations. In NMIBC, PLEKHS1 mRNA overexpression was significantly associated with progression to muscle-invasive disease (P=0.0069) and remained an independent prognostic factor on multivariate analysis (P=0.034). DNA mutations of PLEKHS1 occurred in one-third of bladder tumors and was frequent in the basal MIBC phenotype. PLEKHS1 mRNA overexpression may be an independent prognostic factor of progression-free survival in NMIBC.

10.
BMC Cardiovasc Disord ; 19(1): 212, 2019 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31519196

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Smoking is a strong risk factor for cancer and atherosclerosis. Cancer mortality, especially from lung cancer, overtakes cardiovascular (CV) death rate in patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD). Only a few patients with lung cancer after PAD management may benefit from surgical excision. Circulating tumor cells (CTC) associated with low-dose chest CT (LDCT) may improve early cancer detection. This study focuses on a screening strategy that can address not only lung cancer but all tobacco-related cancers in this high-risk population. METHODS: DETECTOR Project is a prospective cohort study in two French University hospitals. Participants are smokers or former smokers (≥30 pack-years, quitted ≤15 years), aged ≥55 to 80 years, with atherosclerotic PAD or abdominal aortic aneurysm. After the first screening round combining LDCT and CTC search on a blood sample, two other screening rounds will be performed at one-year interval. Incidental lung nodule volume, volume doubling time and presence of CTC will be taken into consideration for adapted diagnostic management. In case of negative LDCT and presence of CTC, a contrast enhanced whole-body PET/CT will be performed for extra-pulmonary malignancy screening. Psychological impact of this screening strategy will be evaluated in population study using a qualitative methodology. Assuming 10% prevalence of smoking-associated cancer in the studied population, a total of at least 300 participants will be enrolled. DISCUSSION: Epidemiological data underline an increase incidence in cancer and related death in the follow-up of patients with PAD, compared with the general population, particularly for tobacco-related cancers. The clinical benefit of a special workup for neoplasms in patients with PAD and a history of cigarette smoking has never been investigated. By considering CTCs detection in this very high-risk selected PAD population for tobacco-induced cancer, we expect to detect earlier pulmonary and extra-pulmonary malignancies, at a potentially curable stage. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The study was registered in the French National Agency for Medicines and Health Products Safety (No N° EUDRACT_ID RCB: 2016-A00657-44) and was approved by the ethics Committee for Persons Protection (IRB number 1072 and n° initial agreement 2016-08-02; ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT02849041).

11.
Cancer Lett ; 464: 5-14, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31404614

RESUMO

The number of clinical protocols testing combined therapies including immune check-point inhibitors and platinum salts is currently increasing in lung cancer treatment, however preclinical studies and rationale are often lacking. Here, we evaluated the impact of cisplatin treatment on PD-L1 expression analyzing the clinicopathological characteristics of patients who received cisplatin-based neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by surgery and showed that cisplatin-based induction treatment significantly increased PD-L1 staining in both tumor and immune cells from the microenvironment. Twenty-two patients exhibited positive PD-L1 staining variation after neoadjuvant chemotherapy; including 9 (23.1%) patients switching from <50% to ≥50% of stained tumor-cells. We also confirmed the up-regulation of PD-L1 by cisplatin, at both RNA and protein levels, in nude and immunocompetent mice bearing tumors grafted with A549, LNM-R, or LLC1 lung cancer cell lines. The combined administration of anti-PD-L1 antibodies (3 mg/kg) and cisplatin (1 mg/kg) to mice harboring lung carcinoma significantly reduced tumor growth compared to single agent treatments and controls. Overall, these results suggest that cisplatin treatment could synergize with PD-1/PD-L1 blockade to increase the clinical response, in particular through early and sustainable enhancement of PD-L1 expression.

12.
Clin Nutr ; 2019 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31443979

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the first cause of cancer death worldwide. Increased resting energy expenditure (REE) is frequent among cancer patients and may contribute to cancer cachexia. The aim of this study was to examine the prognostic value of increased REE in metastatic NSCLC patients. METHODS: This observational study was conducted between June 2012 and November 2017 in the outpatient unit of the oncology department of Cochin hospital, Paris. Consecutive patients with newly diagnosed stage IV NSCLC underwent measurement of REE by indirect calorimetry before treatment initiation. Uni- and multivariate analysis of overall survival (OS, Cox models) included age, sex, smoking habit, histological subtype, performance status, body mass index, weight loss, albumin and CRP levels and the ratio of measured REE to the REE predicted by the Harris Benedict formula (mREE/pREE). RESULTS: 144 patients were enrolled: mean age 64 years, 63% male, 90% non-squamous carcinoma, including 17% with ALK/EGFR alteration. In univariate analysis, tobacco consumption (p = 0.007), histo-molecular subtype (p < 10-3), performance status (p = 0.04), weight loss (p < 10-4), albumin (p < 10-4), CRP (p = 0.001) and mREE/pREE ratio (>vs ≤ 120%: HR = 2.16, p < 10-3) were significant prognostic factors of OS. Median OS were 6.1 and 17.3 months in patients with mREE/pREE ratio > and ≤120%, respectively. In multivariate analysis, histo-molecular subtype (non-squamous ALK/EGFR mutated vs squamous carcinoma: HR = 0.25, p = 0.006), weight loss (>vs ≤ 5%: HR = 1.98, p = 0.004), albumin (≥vs < 35 g/L: HR = 0.56, p = 0.02) and mREE/pREE ratio (> vs ≤120%: HR = 1.90, p = 0.004) were identified as independent prognostic factors. CONCLUSIONS: Elevated resting energy expenditure emerges as an independent prognostic factor in metastatic NSCLC.

14.
Clin Lung Cancer ; 20(6): 405-411, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31281051

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Adrenal gland metastases occur in up to 20% of patients with non-small-lung cancer. In selected cases with limited burden of disease, surgery may be offered to improve patient outcome; furthermore, tissue analysis would provide useful information on genotype of primary and secondary neoplasms. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We report our experience in the management of adrenal metastasis by retrospectively reviewing data of 21 consecutive patients treated with curative intent to the primary tumor followed by adrenalectomy in a 15-year time span. Targeted next generation sequencing was performed to compare molecular profile of primary lung cancers and adrenal metastases. Patient overall survival was assessed by Kaplan-Meier method, using adrenalectomy as time zero. Survival rates were compared by log rank test. RESULTS: No surgery-related mortality or morbidity was observed. Median survival was 50 months; 5-year overall survival was 34.5% (95% confidence interval, 12%-66%). No significant survival difference was observed with respect to timing of onset (synchronous vs. metachronous) or side (homolateral vs. contralateral) of adrenal metastasis, T or N status of primary lung cancer, mutational asset, and histologic type. Mutations in TP53 genes were found in 61% and 85% of primary and metastatic tumors, respectively. In 3 of 15 cases, we found differences between molecular mutation patterns in primary lung cancer and corresponding adrenal metastasis. CONCLUSIONS: Adrenalectomy is a safe and effective approach in selected cases. Discordance between primary and secondary tumor mutational profile was found in 20% of assessable patients.

15.
Cancer Med ; 8(9): 4330-4337, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31199580

RESUMO

The tumor suppressor gene neurofibromin 1 (NF1) is a major regulator of the RAS-MAPK pathway. NF1 mutations occur in lung cancer but were not extensively explored. We hypothesized that NF1-mutated tumors could define a specific population with a distinct clinical and molecular profile. We performed NF1 sequencing using next generation sequencing (NGS) in 154 lung adenocarcinoma surgical specimens with known KRAS, EGFR, TP53, BRAF, HER2, and PIK3CA status, to evaluate the molecular and clinical specificities of NF1-mutated lung cancers. Clinical data were retrospectively collected, and their associations with molecular profiles assessed. In this series, 24 tumors were NF1 mutated (17.5%) and 11 were NF1 deleted (8%). There was no mutation hotspot. NF1 mutations were rarely associated with other RAS-MAPK pathway mutations. Most of patients with NF1 alterations were males (74.3%) and smokers (74.3%). Overall survival and disease-free survival were statistically better in patients with NF1 alterations (N = 34) than in patients with KRAS mutations (N = 30) in univariate analysis. Our results confirm that NF1 is frequently mutated and represents a distinct molecular and clinical subtype of lung adenocarcinoma.

16.
Oncoimmunology ; 8(5): e1581556, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31069145

RESUMO

Although immune checkpoint inhibitors have shown improvement in survival in comparison to chemotherapy in urothelial bladder cancer, many patients still fail to respond to these treatments and actual efforts are made to identify predictive factors of response to immunotherapy. Understanding the tumor-intrinsic molecular basis, like oncogenic pathways conditioning the presence or absence of tumor-infiltrating T cells (TILs), should provide a new rationale for improved anti-tumor immune therapies. In this study, we found that urothelial bladder cancer from human samples bearing PIK3CA gene mutations was significantly associated with lower expression of a defined immune gene signature, compared to unmutated ones. We identified a reduced 10-gene immune gene signature that discriminates muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC) samples according to immune infiltration and PIK3CA mutation. Using a humanized mouse model, we observed that BKM120, a pan-PI3K inhibitor, significantly inhibited the growth of a human bladder cancer cell line bearing a PIK3CA mutation, associated to increased immune cell infiltration (hCD45+). Using qRT-PCR, we also found an increase in the expression of chemokines and immune genes in PIK3CA-mutated tumors from mice treated with BKM120, reflecting an active immune infiltrate in comparison to untreated ones. Moreover, the addition of BKM120 rendered PIK3CA-mutated tumors sensitive to PD-1 blockade. Our results provide a relevant rationale for combination strategies of PI3K inhibitors with immune checkpoint inhibitors to overcome resistance to immune checkpoint inhibitors.

17.
J Immunother Cancer ; 7(1): 121, 2019 05 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31060602

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Immune checkpoint therapies (ICTs) targeting the programmed cell death-1 (PD1)/programmed cell death ligand-1 (PD-L1) pathway have improved outcomes for patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), particularly those with high PD-L1 expression. However, the predictive value of manual PD-L1 scoring is imperfect and alternative measures are needed. We report an automated image analysis solution to determine the predictive and prognostic values of the product of PD-L1+ cell and CD8+ tumor infiltrating lymphocyte (TIL) densities (CD8xPD-L1 signature) in baseline tumor biopsies. METHODS: Archival or fresh tumor biopsies were analyzed for PD-L1 and CD8 expression by immunohistochemistry. Samples were collected from 163 patients in Study 1108/NCT01693562, a Phase 1/2 trial to evaluate durvalumab across multiple tumor types, including NSCLC, and a separate cohort of 199 non-ICT- patients. Digital images were automatically scored for PD-L1+ and CD8+ cell densities using customized algorithms applied with Developer XD™ 2.7 software. RESULTS: For patients who received durvalumab, median overall survival (OS) was 21.0 months for CD8xPD-L1 signature-positive patients and 7.8 months for signature-negative patients (p = 0.00002). The CD8xPD-L1 signature provided greater stratification of OS than high densities of CD8+ cells, high densities of PD-L1+ cells, or manually assessed tumor cell PD-L1 expression ≥25%. The CD8xPD-L1 signature did not stratify OS in non-ICT patients, although a high density of CD8+ cells was associated with higher median OS (high: 67 months; low: 39.5 months, p = 0.0009) in this group. CONCLUSIONS: An automated CD8xPD-L1 signature may help to identify NSCLC patients with improved response to durvalumab therapy. Our data also support the prognostic value of CD8+ TILS in NSCLC patients who do not receive ICT. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01693562 . Study code: CD-ON-MEDI4736-1108. Interventional study (ongoing but not currently recruiting). Actual study start date: August 29, 2012. Primary completion date: June 23, 2017 (final data collection date for primary outcome measure).

18.
Eur J Cancer ; 115: 47-56, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31082693

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Long-term efficacy of anti-PD1 therapy and the need for a consolidation with allogenic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) remain unclear in patients with relapsed/refractory (R/R) Hodgkin lymphoma (HL). METHODS: We retrospectively analysed 78 patients with R/R HL treated with nivolumab in the French Early Access Program and compared their outcomes according to subsequent allo-HSCT. RESULTS: After a median follow-up of 34.3 months, the best overall response rate was 65.8%, including 38.2% complete responses (CRs). The median progression-free survival (PFS) was 12.1 months. Patients reaching a CR upon nivolumab had a significantly longer PFS than those reaching a partial response (PR) (median = not reached vs 9.3 months, p < 0.001). In our cohort, 13 patients who responded (i.e. in CR or PR) to nivolumab monotherapy underwent consolidation with allo-HSCT. Among responding patients, none of those who underwent subsequent allo-HSCT (N = 13) relapsed, whereas 62.2% of those who were not consolidated with allo-HSCT (N = 37) relapsed (p < 0.001). There was no difference in overall survival (OS) between the two groups. Five of 6 patients who were not in CR at the time of transplantation (4 PRs and 1 progressive disease) converted into a CR after allo-HSCT. CONCLUSION: Most patients with R/R HL treated with anti-PD1 monotherapy eventually progressed, notably those who did not achieve a CR. Patients undergoing consolidation with allo-HSCT after anti-PD1 therapy experienced prolonged disease-free survival compared with non-transplanted patients, but this difference did not translate into a benefit in OS. This information should be considered when evaluating the risk/benefit ratio of allo-HSCT after anti-PD1 therapy.

19.
Cancer Med ; 8(6): 3036-3046, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31025552

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In uveal melanomas, immune infiltration is a marker of poor prognosis. This work intended to decipher the biological characteristics of intra-tumor immune population, compare it to other established biomarkers and to patients' outcome. METHODS: Primary, untreated, and mainly large uveal melanomas with retinal detachment were analyzed using: transcriptomic profiling (n = 15), RT-qPCR (n = 36), immunohistochemistry (n = 89), Multiplex Ligation-dependent Probe Amplification (MLPA) for copy number alterations (CNA) analysis (n = 89), array-CGH (n = 17), and survival statistics (n = 86). RESULTS: Gene expression analysis divided uveal melanomas into two groups, according to the IFNγ/STAT1-IRF1 pathway activation. Tumors with IFNγ-signature had poorer prognosis and showed increased infiltration of CD8+ T lymphocytes and macrophages. Cox multivariate analyses of immune cell infiltration with MLPA data delineated better prognostic value for three prognostic groups (three-tier stratification) than two (two-tier stratification). CNA-based model comprising monosomy 3, 8q amplification, and LZTS1and NBL1 deletions emerged as the best predictor for disease-free survival. It outperformed immune cell infiltration in receiver operating characteristic curves. The model that combined CNA and immune infiltration defined risk-groups according to the number of DNA alterations. Immune cell infiltration was increased in the high-risk group (73.7%), where it did not correlate with patient survival, while it was associated with poorer outcome in the intermediate risk-group. CONCLUSIONS: High degree of immune cell infiltration occurs in a subset of uveal melanomas, is interferon-gamma-related, and associated with poor survival. It allows for two-tier stratification, which is prognostically less efficient than a three-tier one. The best prognostic stratification is by CNA model with three risk-groups where immune cell infiltration impacts only some subgroups.

20.
J Thorac Dis ; 11(Suppl 1): S89-S101, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30775032

RESUMO

Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death worldwide with low response rates to conventional chemotherapy. New promising therapies have emerged based on programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) immunity checkpoint inhibitors (ICI), including anti-PD-1, such as nivolumab and pembrolizumab, or programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) inhibitors, such as atezolizumab, durvalumab, and avelumab. The prescription of pembrolizumab has been approved by FDA and EMA for advanced stages non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC), restricted for first-line setting to patients whose tumor presents ≥50% of PD-L1 positive tumor cells (TC), and ≥1% for second-line and beyond, leading to consider PD-L1 assay as a companion diagnostic tool for pembrolizumab. Very recently, the EMA has approved durvalumab for the treatment of patients with unresectable stage III NSCLC not progressing after chemoradiotherapy and whose tumors express PD-L1 on ≥1% of TC. Four standardized PD-L1 immunohistochemistry assays have been used in clinical trials; 22C3 and 28-8 PharmDx assays on Dako/Agilent platforms, and SP142 and SP263 assays on Ventana platforms, each test having been developed initially for a specific ICI. They differ in terms of primary monoclonal antibody, platform, detection system and scoring methods with different thresholds of positivity validated in clinical trials. Several studies have shown a close analytical performance of the 22C3, 28-8 and SP263 assays regarding TC staining in NSCLC, with poor concordance with SP142 assay and for immune cells. However, as dedicated platforms are not available in all pathology laboratories and because of the high cost of these assays, laboratory developed tests are widely used in many countries. Their validation must guarantee the same sensitivities and specificities as compared to standardized assays. Overall, PD-L1 test is of great help to select patients who could benefit for ICI and most pathologists have included this test in their daily practice for advanced stages NSCLC, besides ALK and ROS1 IHC.

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