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1.
Sci Data ; 10(1): 64, 2023 01 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36720882

RESUMO

Metabolic biomarker data quantified by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy in approximately 121,000 UK Biobank participants has recently been released as a community resource, comprising absolute concentrations and ratios of 249 circulating metabolites, lipids, and lipoprotein sub-fractions. Here we identify and characterise additional sources of unwanted technical variation influencing individual biomarkers in the data available to download from UK Biobank. These included sample preparation time, shipping plate well, spectrometer batch effects, drift over time within spectrometer, and outlier shipping plates. We developed a procedure for removing this unwanted technical variation, and demonstrate that it increases signal for genetic and epidemiological studies of the NMR metabolic biomarker data in UK Biobank. We subsequently developed an R package, ukbnmr, which we make available to the wider research community to enhance the utility of the UK Biobank NMR metabolic biomarker data and to facilitate rapid analysis.


Assuntos
Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/normas , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Controle de Qualidade , Reino Unido
2.
Nat Med ; 28(11): 2321-2332, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36357675

RESUMO

Garrod's concept of 'chemical individuality' has contributed to comprehension of the molecular origins of human diseases. Untargeted high-throughput metabolomic technologies provide an in-depth snapshot of human metabolism at scale. We studied the genetic architecture of the human plasma metabolome using 913 metabolites assayed in 19,994 individuals and identified 2,599 variant-metabolite associations (P < 1.25 × 10-11) within 330 genomic regions, with rare variants (minor allele frequency ≤ 1%) explaining 9.4% of associations. Jointly modeling metabolites in each region, we identified 423 regional, co-regulated, variant-metabolite clusters called genetically influenced metabotypes. We assigned causal genes for 62.4% of these genetically influenced metabotypes, providing new insights into fundamental metabolite physiology and clinical relevance, including metabolite-guided discovery of potential adverse drug effects (DPYD and SRD5A2). We show strong enrichment of inborn errors of metabolism-causing genes, with examples of metabolite associations and clinical phenotypes of non-pathogenic variant carriers matching characteristics of the inborn errors of metabolism. Systematic, phenotypic follow-up of metabolite-specific genetic scores revealed multiple potential etiological relationships.


Assuntos
Erros Inatos do Metabolismo , Metaboloma , Humanos , Metaboloma/genética , Metabolômica , Plasma/metabolismo , Fenótipo , Erros Inatos do Metabolismo/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , 3-Oxo-5-alfa-Esteroide 4-Desidrogenase/genética , 3-Oxo-5-alfa-Esteroide 4-Desidrogenase/metabolismo
3.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 7356, 2022 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36446790

RESUMO

Understanding how genetic variants influence disease risk and complex traits (variant-to-function) is one of the major challenges in human genetics. Here we present a model-driven framework to leverage human genome-scale metabolic networks to define how genetic variants affect biochemical reaction fluxes across major human tissues, including skeletal muscle, adipose, liver, brain and heart. As proof of concept, we build personalised organ-specific metabolic flux models for 524,615 individuals of the INTERVAL and UK Biobank cohorts and perform a fluxome-wide association study (FWAS) to identify 4312 associations between personalised flux values and the concentration of metabolites in blood. Furthermore, we apply FWAS to identify 92 metabolic fluxes associated with the risk of developing coronary artery disease, many of which are linked to processes previously described to play in role in the disease. Our work demonstrates that genetically personalised metabolic models can elucidate the downstream effects of genetic variants on biochemical reactions involved in common human diseases.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo , Doença da Artéria Coronariana , Humanos , Encéfalo , Genoma Humano , Coração
4.
Neurology ; 2022 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36240095

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Current genome-wide association studies of ischemic stroke have focused primarily on late onset disease. As a complement to these studies, we sought to identifythe contribution of common genetic variants to risk of early onset ischemic stroke. METHODS: We performed a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies of early onset stroke (EOS), ages 18-59, using individual level data or summary statistics in 16,730 cases and 599,237 non-stroke controls obtained across 48 different studies. We further compared effect sizes at associated loci between EOS and late onset stroke (LOS) and compared polygenic risk scores for venous thromboembolism between EOS and LOS. RESULTS: We observed genome-wide significant associations of EOS with two variants in ABO, a known stroke locus. These variants tag blood subgroups O1 and A1, and the effect sizes of both variants were significantly larger in EOS compared to LOS. The odds ratio (OR) for rs529565, tagging O1, 0.88 (95% CI: 0.85-0.91) in EOS vs 0.96 (95% CI: 0.92-1.00) in LOS, and the OR for rs635634, tagging A1, was 1.16 (1.11-1.21) for EOS vs 1.05 (0.99-1.11) in LOS; p-values for interaction = 0.001 and 0.005, respectively. Using polygenic risk scores, we observed that greater genetic risk for venous thromboembolism, another prothrombotic condition, was more strongly associated with EOS compared to LOS (p=0.008). DISCUSSION: The ABO locus, genetically predicted blood group A, and higher genetic propensity for venous thrombosis are more strongly associated with EOS than with LOS, supporting a stronger role of prothrombotic factors in EOS.

5.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 6143, 2022 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36253349

RESUMO

Stroke is the second leading cause of death with substantial unmet therapeutic needs. To identify potential stroke therapeutic targets, we estimate the causal effects of 308 plasma proteins on stroke outcomes in a two-sample Mendelian randomization framework and assess mediation effects by stroke risk factors. We find associations between genetically predicted plasma levels of six proteins and stroke (P ≤ 1.62 × 10-4). The genetic associations with stroke colocalize (Posterior Probability >0.7) with the genetic associations of four proteins (TFPI, TMPRSS5, CD6, CD40). Mendelian randomization supports atrial fibrillation, body mass index, smoking, blood pressure, white matter hyperintensities and type 2 diabetes as stroke risk factors (P ≤ 0.0071). Body mass index, white matter hyperintensity and atrial fibrillation appear to mediate the TFPI, IL6RA, TMPRSS5 associations with stroke. Furthermore, thirty-six proteins are associated with one or more of these risk factors using Mendelian randomization. Our results highlight causal pathways and potential therapeutic targets for stroke.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Fibrilação Atrial/genética , Proteínas Sanguíneas/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Proteoma/genética , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/genética
6.
Circ Genom Precis Med ; : 101161CIRCGEN121003598, 2022 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36215124

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A key goal of precision medicine is to disaggregate common, complex diseases into discrete molecular subtypes. Rare coding variants in the low-density lipoprotein receptor gene (LDLR) are identified in 1% to 2% of coronary artery disease (CAD) patients, defining a molecular subtype with risk driven by hypercholesterolemia. METHODS: To search for additional subtypes, we compared the frequency of rare, predicted loss-of-function and damaging missense variants aggregated within a given gene in 41 081 CAD cases versus 217 115 controls. RESULTS: Rare variants in LDLR were most strongly associated with CAD, present in 1% of cases and associated with 4.4-fold increased CAD risk. A second subtype was characterized by variants in endothelial nitric oxide synthase gene (NOS3), a key enzyme regulating vascular tone, endothelial function, and platelet aggregation. A rare predicted loss-of-function or damaging missense variants in NOS3 was present in 0.6% of cases and associated with 2.42-fold increased risk of CAD (95% CI, 1.80-3.26; P=5.5×10-9). These variants were associated with higher systolic blood pressure (+3.25 mm Hg; [95% CI, 1.86-4.65]; P=5.0×10-6) and increased risk of hypertension (adjusted odds ratio 1.31; [95% CI, 1.14-1.51]; P=0.0002) but not circulating cholesterol concentrations, suggesting that, beyond lipid pathways, nitric oxide synthesis is a key nonlipid driver of CAD risk. CONCLUSIONS: Beyond LDLR, we identified an additional nonlipid molecular subtype of CAD characterized by rare variants in the NOS3 gene.

7.
PLoS Genet ; 18(9): e1010294, 2022 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36048760

RESUMO

For Alzheimer's disease-a leading cause of dementia and global morbidity-improved identification of presymptomatic high-risk individuals and identification of new circulating biomarkers are key public health needs. Here, we tested the hypothesis that a polygenic predictor of risk for Alzheimer's disease would identify a subset of the population with increased risk of clinically diagnosed dementia, subclinical neurocognitive dysfunction, and a differing circulating proteomic profile. Using summary association statistics from a recent genome-wide association study, we first developed a polygenic predictor of Alzheimer's disease comprised of 7.1 million common DNA variants. We noted a 7.3-fold (95% CI 4.8 to 11.0; p < 0.001) gradient in risk across deciles of the score among 288,289 middle-aged participants of the UK Biobank study. In cross-sectional analyses stratified by age, minimal differences in risk of Alzheimer's disease and performance on a digit recall test were present according to polygenic score decile at age 50 years, but significant gradients emerged by age 65. Similarly, among 30,541 participants of the Mass General Brigham Biobank, we again noted no significant differences in Alzheimer's disease diagnosis at younger ages across deciles of the score, but for those over 65 years we noted an odds ratio of 2.0 (95% CI 1.3 to 3.2; p = 0.002) in the top versus bottom decile of the polygenic score. To understand the proteomic signature of inherited risk, we performed aptamer-based profiling in 636 blood donors (mean age 43 years) with very high or low polygenic scores. In addition to the well-known apolipoprotein E biomarker, this analysis identified 27 additional proteins, several of which have known roles related to disease pathogenesis. Differences in protein concentrations were consistent even among the youngest subset of blood donors (mean age 33 years). Of these 28 proteins, 7 of the 8 proteins with concentrations available were similarly associated with the polygenic score in participants of the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. These data highlight the potential for a DNA-based score to identify high-risk individuals during the prolonged presymptomatic phase of Alzheimer's disease and to enable biomarker discovery based on profiling of young individuals in the extremes of the score distribution.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , Adulto , Idoso , Doença de Alzheimer/patologia , Biomarcadores , Estudos Transversais , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteômica
8.
J Bone Miner Res ; 37(10): 1997-2004, 2022 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35880304

RESUMO

We investigated independent associations between telomere length and risk of fracture and arthroplasty in UK Biobank participants. Leukocyte telomere length (LTL) was measured in baseline samples using a validated polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method. We used, in men and women separately, Cox proportional hazards models to calculate the hazard ratio (HR) for incident fracture (any, osteoporotic) or arthroplasty (hip or knee) over 1,186,410 person-years of follow-up. Covariates included age, white cell count, ethnicity, smoking, alcohol, physical activity, and menopause (women). In further analyses we adjusted for either estimated bone mineral density (eBMD) from heel quantitative ultrasound, handgrip strength, gait speed, total fat mass (bioimpedance), or blood biomarkers, all measured at baseline (2006-2010). We studied 59,500 women and 51,895 men, mean ± standard deviation (SD) age 56.4 ± 8.0 and 57.0 ± 8.3 years, respectively. During follow-up there were 5619 fractures; 5285 hip and 4261 knee arthroplasties. In confounder-adjusted models, longer LTL was associated with reduced risk of incident knee arthroplasty in both men (HR/SD 0.93; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.88-0.97) and women (0.92; 95% CI, 0.88-0.96), and hip arthroplasty in men (0.91; 95% CI, 0.87-0.95), but not women (0.98; 95% CI, 0.94-1.01). Longer LTL was weakly associated with reduced risk of any incident fracture in women (HR/SD 0.96; 95% CI, 0.93-1.00) with less evidence in men (0.98; 95% CI, 0.93-1.02). Associations with incident outcomes were not materially altered by adjustment for heel eBMD, grip strength, gait speed, fat mass, or blood biomarker measures. In this, the largest study to date, longer LTL was associated with lower risk of incident knee or hip arthroplasty, but only weakly associated with lower risk of fracture. The relative risks were low at a population level, but our findings suggest that common factors acting on the myeloid and musculoskeletal systems might influence later life musculoskeletal outcomes. © 2022 The Authors. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research published by Wiley Periodicals LLC on behalf of American Society for Bone and Mineral Research (ASBMR).


Assuntos
Artroplastia de Quadril , Artroplastia do Joelho , Fraturas Ósseas , Fraturas do Quadril , Fraturas por Osteoporose , Feminino , Masculino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Força da Mão , Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos , Fraturas Ósseas/epidemiologia , Fraturas Ósseas/genética , Densidade Óssea , Telômero , Reino Unido/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Fraturas por Osteoporose/epidemiologia , Fraturas do Quadril/epidemiologia
9.
Lancet Healthy Longev ; 3(5): e321-e331, 2022 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35685390

RESUMO

Background: Telomere length is associated with risk of several age-related diseases and cancers. We aimed to investigate the extent to which telomere length might be modifiable through lifestyle and behaviour, and whether such modification has any clinical consequences. Methods: In this population-based study, we included participants from UK Biobank who had leukocyte telomere length (LTL) measurement, ethnicity, and white blood cell count data. We investigated associations of LTL with 117 potentially modifiable traits, as well as two indices of healthy behaviours incorporating between them smoking, physical activity, diet, maintenance of a healthy bodyweight, and alcohol intake, using both available and imputed data. To help interpretation, associations were summarised as the number of equivalent years of age-related change in LTL by dividing the trait ß coefficients with the age ß coefficient. We used mendelian randomisation to test causality of selected associations. We investigated whether the associations of LTL with 22 diseases were modified by the number of healthy behaviours and the extent to which the associations of more healthy behaviours with greater life expectancy and lower risk of coronary artery disease might be mediated through LTL. Findings: 422 797 participants were available for the analysis (227 620 [53·8%] were women and 400 036 [94·6%] were White). 71 traits showed significant (p<4·27 × 10-4) associations with LTL but most were modest, equivalent to less than 1 year of age-related change in LTL. In multivariable analyses of 17 traits with stronger associations (equivalent to ≥2 years of age-related change in LTL), oily fish intake, educational attainment, and general health status retained a significant association of this magnitude, with walking pace and current smoking being additionally significant at this level of association in the imputed models. Mendelian randomisation analysis suggested that educational attainment and smoking behaviour causally affect LTL. Both indices of healthy behaviour were positively and linearly associated with LTL, with those with the most healthy behaviours having longer LTL equivalent to about 3·5 years of age-related change in LTL than those with the least heathy behaviours (p<0·001). However, healthy behaviours explained less than 0·2% of the total variation in LTL and did not significantly modify the association of LTL with risk of any of the diseases studied. Neither the association of more healthy behaviours on greater life expectancy or lower risk of coronary artery disease were substantially mediated through LTL. Interpretation: Although several potentially modifiable traits and healthy behaviours have a quantifiable association with LTL, at least some of which are likely to be causal, these effects are not of a sufficient magnitude to substantially alter the association between LTL and various diseases or life expectancy. Attempts to change telomere length through lifestyle or behavioural changes might not confer substantial clinical benefit. Funding: UK Medical Research Council, UK Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council, and British Heart Foundation.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana , Telômero , Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Leucócitos , Masculino , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Reino Unido
11.
Am J Hum Genet ; 109(6): 1038-1054, 2022 06 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35568032

RESUMO

Metabolite levels measured in the human population are endophenotypes for biological processes. We combined sequencing data for 3,924 (whole-exome sequencing, WES, discovery) and 2,805 (whole-genome sequencing, WGS, replication) donors from a prospective cohort of blood donors in England. We used multiple approaches to select and aggregate rare genetic variants (minor allele frequency [MAF] < 0.1%) in protein-coding regions and tested their associations with 995 metabolites measured in plasma by using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. We identified 40 novel associations implicating rare coding variants (27 genes and 38 metabolites), of which 28 (15 genes and 28 metabolites) were replicated. We developed algorithms to prioritize putative driver variants at each locus and used mediation and Mendelian randomization analyses to test directionality at associations of metabolite and protein levels at the ACY1 locus. Overall, 66% of reported associations implicate gene targets of approved drugs or bioactive drug-like compounds, contributing to drug targets' validating efforts.


Assuntos
Exoma , Exoma/genética , Frequência do Gene/genética , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
12.
Eur J Prev Cardiol ; 29(12): 1618-1629, 2022 09 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35403197

RESUMO

AIMS: This study aimed to evaluate the association between physical activity and the incidence of coronary heart disease (CHD) in individuals with and without CHD risk factors. METHODS AND RESULTS: EPIC-CVD is a case-cohort study of 29 333 participants that included 13 582 incident CHD cases and a randomly selected sub-cohort nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. Self-reported physical activity was summarized using the Cambridge physical activity index (inactive, moderately inactive, moderately active, and active). Participants were categorized into sub-groups based on the presence or the absence of the following risk factors: obesity (body mass index ≥30 kg/m2), hypercholesterolaemia (total cholesterol ≥6.2 mmol/L), history of diabetes, hypertension (self-reported or ≥140/90 mmHg), and current smoking. Prentice-weighted Cox regression was used to assess the association between physical activity and incident CHD events (non-fatal and fatal).Compared to inactive participants without the respective CHD risk factor (referent), excess CHD risk was highest in physically inactive and lowest in moderately active participants with CHD risk factors. Corresponding excess CHD risk estimates amongst those with obesity were 47% [95% confidence interval (CI) 32-64%] and 21% (95%CI 2-44%), with hypercholesterolaemia were 80% (95%CI 55-108%) and 48% (95%CI 22-81%), with hypertension were 80% (95%CI 65-96%) and 49% (95%CI 28-74%), with diabetes were 142% (95%CI 63-260%), and 100% (95%CI 32-204%), and amongst smokers were 152% (95%CI 122-186%) and 109% (95%CI 74-150%). CONCLUSIONS: In people with CHD risk factors, moderate physical activity, equivalent to 40 mins of walking per day, attenuates but does not completely offset CHD risk.


Assuntos
Doença das Coronárias , Hipercolesterolemia , Hipertensão , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Doença das Coronárias/diagnóstico , Doença das Coronárias/epidemiologia , Doença das Coronárias/prevenção & controle , Exercício Físico , Humanos , Hipercolesterolemia/diagnóstico , Hipercolesterolemia/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Incidência , Obesidade/diagnóstico , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
13.
PLoS Genet ; 18(4): e1010093, 2022 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35381001

RESUMO

Novel drug targets for sustained reduction in body mass index (BMI) are needed to curb the epidemic of obesity, which affects 650 million individuals worldwide and is a causal driver of cardiovascular and metabolic disease and mortality. Previous studies reported that the Arg95Ter nonsense variant of GPR151, an orphan G protein-coupled receptor, is associated with reduced BMI and reduced risk of Type 2 Diabetes (T2D). Here, we further investigate GPR151 with the Pakistan Genome Resource (PGR), which is one of the largest exome biobanks of human homozygous loss-of-function carriers (knockouts) in the world. Among PGR participants, we identify eleven GPR151 putative loss-of-function (plof) variants, three of which are present at homozygosity (Arg95Ter, Tyr99Ter, and Phe175LeufsTer7), with a cumulative allele frequency of 2.2%. We confirm these alleles in vitro as loss-of-function. We test if GPR151 plof is associated with BMI, T2D, or other metabolic traits and find that GPR151 deficiency in complete human knockouts is not associated with clinically significant differences in these traits. Relative to Gpr151+/+ mice, Gpr151-/- animals exhibit no difference in body weight on normal chow and higher body weight on a high-fat diet. Together, our findings indicate that GPR151 antagonism is not a compelling therapeutic approach to treatment of obesity.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas G/metabolismo , Animais , Índice de Massa Corporal , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Exoma , Frequência do Gene , Humanos , Camundongos , Obesidade/genética
14.
PLoS One ; 17(4): e0264828, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35381005

RESUMO

IMPORTANCE: A lack of internationally agreed standards for combining available data sources at scale risks inconsistent disease phenotyping limiting research reproducibility. OBJECTIVE: To develop and then evaluate if a rules-based algorithm can identify coronary artery disease (CAD) sub-phenotypes using electronic health records (EHR) and questionnaire data from UK Biobank (UKB). DESIGN: Case-control and cohort study. SETTING: Prospective cohort study of 502K individuals aged 40-69 years recruited between 2006-2010 into the UK Biobank with linked hospitalization and mortality data and genotyping. PARTICIPANTS: We included all individuals for phenotyping into 6 predefined CAD phenotypes using hospital admission and procedure codes, mortality records and baseline survey data. Of these, 408,470 unrelated individuals of European descent had a polygenic risk score (PRS) for CAD estimated. EXPOSURE: CAD Phenotypes. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Association with baseline risk factors, mortality (n = 14,419 over 7.8 years median f/u), and a PRS for CAD. RESULTS: The algorithm classified individuals with CAD into prevalent MI (n = 4,900); incident MI (n = 4,621), prevalent CAD without MI (n = 10,910), incident CAD without MI (n = 8,668), prevalent self-reported MI (n = 2,754); prevalent self-reported CAD without MI (n = 5,623), yielding 37,476 individuals with any type of CAD. Risk factors were similar across the six CAD phenotypes, except for fewer men in the self-reported CAD without MI group (46.7% v 70.1% for the overall group). In age- and sex- adjusted survival analyses, mortality was highest following incident MI (HR 6.66, 95% CI 6.07-7.31) and lowest for prevalent self-reported CAD without MI at baseline (HR 1.31, 95% CI 1.15-1.50) compared to disease-free controls. There were similar graded associations across the six phenotypes per SD increase in PRS, with the strongest association for prevalent MI (OR 1.50, 95% CI 1.46-1.55) and the weakest for prevalent self-reported CAD without MI (OR 1.08, 95% CI 1.05-1.12). The algorithm is available in the open phenotype HDR UK phenotype library (https://portal.caliberresearch.org/). CONCLUSIONS: An algorithmic, EHR-based approach distinguished six phenotypes of CAD with distinct survival and PRS associations, supporting adoption of open approaches to help standardize CAD phenotyping and its wider potential value for reproducible research in other conditions.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana , Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos , Estudos de Coortes , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/epidemiologia , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Fenótipo , Estudos Prospectivos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Fatores de Risco , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
16.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 1222, 2022 03 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35264566

RESUMO

Many individual genetic risk loci have been associated with multiple common human diseases. However, the molecular basis of this pleiotropy often remains unclear. We present an integrative approach to reveal the molecular mechanism underlying the PROCR locus, associated with lower coronary artery disease (CAD) risk but higher venous thromboembolism (VTE) risk. We identify PROCR-p.Ser219Gly as the likely causal variant at the locus and protein C as a causal factor. Using genetic analyses, human recall-by-genotype and in vitro experimentation, we demonstrate that PROCR-219Gly increases plasma levels of (activated) protein C through endothelial protein C receptor (EPCR) ectodomain shedding in endothelial cells, attenuating leukocyte-endothelial cell adhesion and vascular inflammation. We also associate PROCR-219Gly with an increased pro-thrombotic state via coagulation factor VII, a ligand of EPCR. Our study, which links PROCR-219Gly to CAD through anti-inflammatory mechanisms and to VTE through pro-thrombotic mechanisms, provides a framework to reveal the mechanisms underlying similar cross-phenotype associations.


Assuntos
Trombose , Tromboembolia Venosa , Antígenos CD/genética , Cruzamentos Genéticos , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Receptor de Proteína C Endotelial/genética , Humanos , Proteína C/metabolismo , Receptores de Superfície Celular/genética , Trombose/genética , Tromboembolia Venosa/genética
17.
J Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle ; 13(3): 1741-1751, 2022 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35297226

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Frailty is a multidimensional syndrome of decline that affects multiple systems and predisposes to adverse health outcomes. Although chronological age is the major risk factor, inter-individual variation in risk is not fully understood. Leucocyte telomere length (LTL), a proposed marker of biological age, has been associated with risk of many diseases. We sought to determine whether LTL is associated with risk of frailty. METHODS: We utilized cross-sectional data from 441 781 UK Biobank participants (aged 40-69 years), with complete data on frailty indicators and LTL. Frailty was defined as the presence of at least three of five indicators: weaker grip strength, slower walking pace, weight loss in the past year, lower physical activity, and exhaustion in the past 2 weeks. LTL was measured using a validated qPCR method and reported as a ratio of the telomere repeat number (T) to a single-copy gene (S) (T/S ratio). Association of LTL with frailty was evaluated using adjusted (chronological age, sex, deprivation, smoking, alcohol intake, body mass index, and multimorbidity) multinomial and ordinal regression models, and results are presented as relative risk (RRR) or odds ratios (OR), respectively, alongside the 95% confidence interval (CI). Mendelian randomization (MR), using 131 genetic variants associated with LTL, was used to assess if the association of LTL with frailty was causal. RESULTS: Frail participants (4.6%) were older (median age difference (95% CI): 3 (2.5; 3.5) years, P = 2.73 × 10-33 ), more likely to be female (61%, P = 1.97 × 10-129 ), and had shorter LTL (-0.13SD vs. 0.03SD, P = 5.43 × 10-111 ) than non-frail. In adjusted analyses, both age and LTL were associated with frailty (RRR = 1.03 (95% CI: 1.02; 1.04) per year of older chronological age, P = 3.99 × 10-12 ; 1.10 (1.08; 1.11) per SD shorter LTL, P = 1.46 × 10-30 ). Within each age group (40-49, 50-59, 60-69 years), the prevalence of frailty was about 33% higher in participants with shorter (-2SD) versus longer telomeres (+2SD). MR analysis showed an association of LTL with frailty that was directionally consistent with the observational association, but not statistically significant (MR-Median: OR (95% CI): 1.08 (0.98; 1.19) per SD shorter LTL, P = 0.13). CONCLUSIONS: Inter-individual variation in LTL is associated with the risk of frailty independently of chronological age and other risk factors. Our findings provide evidence for an additional biological determinant of frailty.


Assuntos
Fragilidade , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Fragilidade/epidemiologia , Fragilidade/genética , Humanos , Leucócitos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Telômero/genética
18.
JMIR Res Protoc ; 11(2): e31885, 2022 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35142634

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although the burden of premature myocardial infarction (MI) is high in Malaysia, direct evidence on the determinants of MI in this multi-ethnic population remains sparse. OBJECTIVE: The Malaysian Acute Vascular Events Risk (MAVERIK) study is a retrospective case-control study established to investigate the genomic, lipid-related, and other determinants of acute MI in Malaysia. In this paper, we report the study protocol and early results. METHODS: By June 2019, we had enrolled approximately 2500 patients with their first MI and 2500 controls without cardiovascular disease, who were frequency-matched by age, sex, and ethnicity, from 17 hospitals in Malaysia. For each participant, serum and whole blood have been collected and stored. Clinical, demographic, and behavioral information has been obtained using a 200-item questionnaire. RESULTS: Tobacco consumption, a history of diabetes, hypertension, markers of visceral adiposity, indicators of lower socioeconomic status, and a family history of coronary disease were more prevalent in cases than in controls. Adjusted (age and sex) logistic regression models for traditional risk factors indicated that current smoking (odds ratio [OR] 4.11, 95% CI 3.56-4.75; P<.001), previous smoking (OR 1.34, 95% CI 1.12-1.60; P=.001), a history of high blood pressure (OR 2.13, 95% CI 1.86-2.44; P<.001), a history of diabetes mellitus (OR 2.72, 95% CI 2.34-3.17; P<.001), a family history of coronary heart disease (OR 1.28, 95% CI 1.07-1.55; P=.009), and obesity (BMI >30 kg/m2; OR 1.19, 95% CI 1.05-1.34; P=.009) were associated with MI in age- and sex-adjusted models. CONCLUSIONS: The MAVERIK study can serve as a useful platform to investigate genetic and other risk factors for MI in an understudied Southeast Asian population. It should help to hasten the discovery of disease-causing pathways and inform regionally appropriate strategies that optimize public health action. INTERNATIONAL REGISTERED REPORT IDENTIFIER (IRRID): RR1-10.2196/31885.

19.
Cell Genom ; 2(1): None, 2022 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35072137

RESUMO

Genetic association studies for blood cell traits, which are key indicators of health and immune function, have identified several hundred associations and defined a complex polygenic architecture. Polygenic scores (PGSs) for blood cell traits have potential clinical utility in disease risk prediction and prevention, but designing PGS remains challenging and the optimal methods are unclear. To address this, we evaluated the relative performance of 6 methods to develop PGS for 26 blood cell traits, including a standard method of pruning and thresholding (P + T) and 5 learning methods: LDpred2, elastic net (EN), Bayesian ridge (BR), multilayer perceptron (MLP) and convolutional neural network (CNN). We evaluated these optimized PGSs on blood cell trait data from UK Biobank and INTERVAL. We find that PGSs designed using common machine learning methods EN and BR show improved prediction of blood cell traits and consistently outperform other methods. Our analyses suggest EN/BR as the top choices for PGS construction, showing improved performance for 25 blood cell traits in the external validation, with correlations with the directly measured traits increasing by 10%-23%. Ten PGSs showed significant statistical interaction with sex, and sex-specific PGS stratification showed that all of them had substantial variation in the trajectories of blood cell traits with age. Genetic correlations between the PGSs for blood cell traits and common human diseases identified well-known as well as new associations. We develop machine learning-optimized PGS for blood cell traits, demonstrate their relationships with sex, age, and disease, and make these publicly available as a resource.

20.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 1131, 2022 01 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35064169

RESUMO

Haematological traits are linked to cardiovascular, metabolic, infectious and immune disorders, as well as cancer. Here, we examine the role of genetic variation in shaping haematological traits in two isolated Mediterranean populations. Using whole-genome sequencing data at 22× depth for 1457 individuals from Crete (MANOLIS) and 1617 from the Pomak villages in Greece, we carry out a genome-wide association scan for haematological traits using linear mixed models. We discover novel associations (p < 5 × 10-9) of five rare non-coding variants with alleles conferring effects of 1.44-2.63 units of standard deviation on red and white blood cell count, platelet and red cell distribution width. Moreover, 10.0% of individuals in the Pomak population and 6.8% in MANOLIS carry a pathogenic mutation in the Haemoglobin Subunit Beta (HBB) gene. The mutational spectrum is highly diverse (10 different mutations). The most frequent mutation in MANOLIS is the common Mediterranean variant IVS-I-110 (G>A) (rs35004220). In the Pomak population, c.364C>A ("HbO-Arab", rs33946267) is most frequent (4.4% allele frequency). We demonstrate effects on haematological and other traits, including bilirubin, cholesterol, and, in MANOLIS, height and gestation age. We find less severe effects on red blood cell traits for HbS, HbO, and IVS-I-6 (T>C) compared to other b+ mutations. Overall, we uncover allelic diversity of HBB in Greek isolated populations and find an important role for additional rare variants outside of HBB.


Assuntos
Índices de Eritrócitos/genética , Genética Populacional , Globinas beta/genética , Estudos de Coortes , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Contagem de Eritrócitos , Frequência do Gene , Variação Genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Grécia , Humanos , Contagem de Leucócitos , Mutação , Testes de Função Plaquetária , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
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