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Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32396611


We aimed to examine the relationship between APOE*4 carriage on cognitive decline, and whether these associations were moderated by sex, baseline age, ethnicity, and vascular risk factors. Participants were 19,225 individuals aged 54-103 years from 15 longitudinal cohort studies with a mean follow up duration ranging between 1.2 and 10.7 years. Two-step individual participant data (IPD) meta-analysis was used to pool results of study-wise analyses predicting memory and general cognitive decline from carriage of one or two APOE*4 alleles, and moderation of these associations by age, sex, vascular risk factors and ethnicity. Separate pooled estimates were calculated in both men and women who were younger (i.e., 62 years) and older (i.e., 80 years) at baseline. Results showed that APOE*4 carriage was related to faster general cognitive decline in women, and faster memory decline in men. A stronger dose-dependent effect was observed in older men, with faster general cognitive and memory decline in those carrying two versus one APOE*4 allele. Vascular risk factors were related to an increased effect of APOE*4 on memory decline in younger women, but a weaker effect of APOE*4 on general cognitive decline in older men. The relationship between APOE*4 carriage and memory decline was larger in older-aged Asians than Whites. In sum, APOE*4 is related to cognitive decline in men and women, although these effects are enhanced by age and carriage of two APOE*4 alleles in men, a higher numbers of vascular risk factors during the early stages of late adulthood in women, and Asian ethnicity.

Gerontologist ; 60(2): 239-249, 2020 Feb 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31774118


BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Globally, obesity influences the risk of many major chronic diseases. Our study examines the association between individual nativity and neighborhood level concentration of immigrants with 10-year changes in weight, body mass index (BMI), and waist circumference (WC) among older Latinos. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: The Sacramento Area Latino Study on Aging (SALSA) is a population-based prospective study of community-dwelling older adults of Mexican origin (baseline ages 58-101 years). The primary outcome was repeated measures of weight over a 10-year period for 1,628 respondents. Nativity was defined by participants' reported place of birth (US-born or Latin American foreign born). Neighborhood immigrant concentration was measured as the percentage of foreign born at census tract level (2000 US Census). We used linear mixed models with repeated measures of weight, height, BMI, and WC as dependent variables (level 1), clustered within individuals (level 2) and neighborhood migrant concentration (level 3). RESULTS: Foreign born (FB) respondents had lower baseline weight than the US-born (mean, 160 vs. 171 lbs, p < .0001). Over time, weight differences between the FB and the US-born decreased by 1.7 lbs/5 years as US-born weight decreased more rapidly. We observed a significant interaction between individual nativity and neighborhood immigrant concentration (p = .012). We found similar patterns for BMI, but did not find statistically significant differences in WC trajectories. DISCUSSION AND IMPLICATIONS: Our study observed significant differences by foreign born vs. US nativity in baseline weight/BMI and in their trajectories over time. Additionally, we found weight/BMI differences in neighborhood immigrant concentration for the FB, but not for the US-born.

PLoS Med ; 16(7): e1002853, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31335910


BACKGROUND: With no effective treatments for cognitive decline or dementia, improving the evidence base for modifiable risk factors is a research priority. This study investigated associations between risk factors and late-life cognitive decline on a global scale, including comparisons between ethno-regional groups. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We harmonized longitudinal data from 20 population-based cohorts from 15 countries over 5 continents, including 48,522 individuals (58.4% women) aged 54-105 (mean = 72.7) years and without dementia at baseline. Studies had 2-15 years of follow-up. The risk factors investigated were age, sex, education, alcohol consumption, anxiety, apolipoprotein E ε4 allele (APOE*4) status, atrial fibrillation, blood pressure and pulse pressure, body mass index, cardiovascular disease, depression, diabetes, self-rated health, high cholesterol, hypertension, peripheral vascular disease, physical activity, smoking, and history of stroke. Associations with risk factors were determined for a global cognitive composite outcome (memory, language, processing speed, and executive functioning tests) and Mini-Mental State Examination score. Individual participant data meta-analyses of multivariable linear mixed model results pooled across cohorts revealed that for at least 1 cognitive outcome, age (B = -0.1, SE = 0.01), APOE*4 carriage (B = -0.31, SE = 0.11), depression (B = -0.11, SE = 0.06), diabetes (B = -0.23, SE = 0.10), current smoking (B = -0.20, SE = 0.08), and history of stroke (B = -0.22, SE = 0.09) were independently associated with poorer cognitive performance (p < 0.05 for all), and higher levels of education (B = 0.12, SE = 0.02) and vigorous physical activity (B = 0.17, SE = 0.06) were associated with better performance (p < 0.01 for both). Age (B = -0.07, SE = 0.01), APOE*4 carriage (B = -0.41, SE = 0.18), and diabetes (B = -0.18, SE = 0.10) were independently associated with faster cognitive decline (p < 0.05 for all). Different effects between Asian people and white people included stronger associations for Asian people between ever smoking and poorer cognition (group by risk factor interaction: B = -0.24, SE = 0.12), and between diabetes and cognitive decline (B = -0.66, SE = 0.27; p < 0.05 for both). Limitations of our study include a loss or distortion of risk factor data with harmonization, and not investigating factors at midlife. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that education, smoking, physical activity, diabetes, and stroke are all modifiable factors associated with cognitive decline. If these factors are determined to be causal, controlling them could minimize worldwide levels of cognitive decline. However, any global prevention strategy may need to consider ethno-regional differences.

Cognição , Disfunção Cognitiva/etnologia , Grupos Étnicos/psicologia , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Disfunção Cognitiva/diagnóstico , Disfunção Cognitiva/psicologia , Comorbidade , Diabetes Mellitus/etnologia , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Educação em Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Fumar/etnologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etnologia
Am J Epidemiol ; 187(8): 1586-1594, 2018 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29796613


Coal and oil power plant retirements reduce air pollution nearby, but few studies have leveraged these natural experiments for public health research. We used California Department of Public Health birth records and US Energy Information Administration data from 2001-2011 to evaluate the relationship between the retirements of 8 coal and oil power plants and nearby preterm (gestational age of <37 weeks) birth. We conducted a difference-in-differences analysis using adjusted linear mixed models that included 57,005 births-6.3% of which were preterm-to compare the probability of preterm birth before and after power plant retirement among mothers residing within 0-5 km and 5-10 km of the 8 power plants. We found that power plant retirements were associated with a decrease in the proportion of preterm birth within 5 km (-0.019, 95% CI: -0.031, -0.008) and 5-10 km (-0.015, 95% CI: -0.024, -0.007), controlling for secular trends with mothers living 10-20 km away. For the 0-5-km area, this corresponds to a reduction in preterm birth from 7.0% to 5.1%. Subgroup analyses indicated a potentially larger association among non-Hispanic black and Asian mothers than among non-Hispanic white and Hispanic mothers and no differences in educational attainment. Future coal and oil power plant retirements may reduce preterm birth among nearby populations.

Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/prevenção & controle , Carvão Mineral , Petróleo , Centrais Elétricas , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Saúde Pública , California/epidemiologia , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro/etnologia