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1.
Lancet Respir Med ; 9(11): 1255-1265, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34391547

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Heterologous vaccine regimens have been widely discussed as a way to mitigate intermittent supply shortages and to improve immunogenicity and safety of COVID-19 vaccines. We aimed to assess the reactogenicity and immunogenicity of heterologous immunisations with ChAdOx1 nCov-19 (AstraZeneca, Cambridge, UK) and BNT162b2 (Pfizer-BioNtech, Mainz, Germany) compared with homologous BNT162b2 and ChAdOx1 nCov-19 immunisation. METHODS: This is an interim analysis of a prospective observational cohort study enrolling health-care workers in Berlin (Germany) who received either homologous ChAdOx1 nCov-19 or heterologous ChAdOx1 nCov-19-BNT162b2 vaccination with a 10-12-week vaccine interval or homologous BNT162b2 vaccination with a 3-week vaccine interval. We assessed reactogenicity after the first and second vaccination by use of electronic questionnaires on days 1, 3, 5, and 7. Immunogenicity was measured by the presence of SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies (full spike-IgG, S1-IgG, and RBD-IgG), by an RBD-ACE2 binding inhibition assay (surrogate SARS-CoV-2 virus neutralisation test), a pseudovirus neutralisation assay against two variants of concerns (alpha [B.1.1.7] and beta [B.1.351]), and anti-S1-IgG avidity. T-cell reactivity was measured by IFN-γ release assay. FINDINGS: Between Dec 27, 2020, and June 14, 2021, 380 participants were enrolled in the study, with 174 receiving homologous BNT162b2 vaccination, 38 receiving homologous ChAdOx1 nCov-19 vaccination, and 104 receiving ChAdOx1 nCov-19-BNT162b2 vaccination. Systemic symptoms were reported by 103 (65%, 95% CI 57·1-71·8) of 159 recipients of homologous BNT162b2, 14 (39%, 24·8-55·1) of 36 recipients of homologous ChAdOx1 nCov-19, and 51 (49%, 39·6-58·5) of 104 recipients of ChAdOx1 nCov-19-BNT162b2 after the booster immunisation. Median anti-RBD IgG levels 3 weeks after boost immunisation were 5·4 signal to cutoff ratio (S/co; IQR 4·8-5·9) in recipients of homologous BNT162b2, 4·9 S/co (4·3-5·6) in recipients of homologous ChAdOx1 nCov-19, and 5·6 S/co (5·1-6·1) in recipients of ChAdOx1 nCov-19- BNT162b2. Geometric mean of 50% inhibitory dose against alpha and beta variants were highest in recipients of ChAdOx1 nCov-19-BNT162b2 (956·6, 95% CI 835·6-1095, against alpha and 417·1, 349·3-498·2, against beta) compared with those in recipients of homologous ChAdOx1 nCov-19 (212·5, 131·2-344·4, against alpha and 48·5, 28·4-82·8, against beta; both p<0·0001) or homologous BNT162b2 (369·2, 310·7-438·6, against alpha and 72·4, 60·5-86·5, against beta; both p<0·0001). SARS-CoV-2 S1 T-cell reactivity 3 weeks after boost immunisation was highest in recipients of ChAdOx1 nCov-19-BNT162b2 (median IFN-γ concentration 4762 mIU/mL, IQR 2723-8403) compared with that in recipients of homologous ChAdOx1 nCov-19 (1061 mIU/mL, 599-2274, p<0·0001) and homologous BNT162b2 (2026 mIU/mL, 1459-4621, p=0·0008) vaccination. INTERPRETATION: The heterologous ChAdOx1 nCov-19-BNT162b2 immunisation with 10-12-week interval, recommended in Germany, is well tolerated and improves immunogenicity compared with homologous ChAdOx1 nCov-19 vaccination with 10-12-week interval and BNT162b2 vaccination with 3-week interval. Heterologous prime-boost immunisation strategies for COVID-19 might be generally applicable. FUNDING: Forschungsnetzwerk der Universitätsmedizin zu COVID-19, the German Ministry of Education and Research, Zalando SE.

2.
Transpl Int ; 34(9): 1680-1688, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34448272

RESUMO

Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) reactivation is a very common and potentially lethal complication of renal transplantation. However, its risk factors and effects on transplant outcome are not well known. Here, we have analysed a large, multi-centre cohort (N = 512) in which 18.4% of the patients experienced EBV reactivation during the first post-transplant year. The patients were characterized pre-transplant and two weeks post-transplant by a multi-level biomarker panel. EBV reactivation was episodic for most patients, only 12 patients showed prolonged viraemia for over four months. Pre-transplant EBV shedding and male sex were associated with significantly increased incidence of post-transplant EBV reactivation. Importantly, we also identified a significant association of post-transplant EBV with acute rejection and with decreased haemoglobin levels. No further severe complications associated with EBV, either episodic or chronic, could be detected. Our data suggest that despite relatively frequent EBV reactivation, it had no association with serious complications during the first post-transplantation year. EBV shedding prior to transplantation could be employed as biomarkers for personalized immunosuppressive therapy. In summary, our results support the employed immunosuppressive regimes as relatively safe with regard to EBV. However, long-term studies are paramount to support these conclusions.


Assuntos
Infecções por Vírus Epstein-Barr , Transplante de Rim , Transtornos Linfoproliferativos , DNA Viral , Infecções por Vírus Epstein-Barr/etiologia , Herpesvirus Humano 4/genética , Humanos , Transplante de Rim/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco
3.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 27(8): 2174-2178, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34102097

RESUMO

We detected delayed and reduced antibody and T-cell responses after BNT162b2 vaccination in 71 elderly persons (median age 81 years) compared with 123 healthcare workers (median age 34 years) in Germany. These data emphasize that nonpharmaceutical interventions for coronavirus disease remain crucial and that additional immunizations for the elderly might become necessary.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2 , Linfócitos T , Vacinação
4.
Cell ; 182(6): 1419-1440.e23, 2020 09 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32810438

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a mild to moderate respiratory tract infection, however, a subset of patients progress to severe disease and respiratory failure. The mechanism of protective immunity in mild forms and the pathogenesis of severe COVID-19 associated with increased neutrophil counts and dysregulated immune responses remain unclear. In a dual-center, two-cohort study, we combined single-cell RNA-sequencing and single-cell proteomics of whole-blood and peripheral-blood mononuclear cells to determine changes in immune cell composition and activation in mild versus severe COVID-19 (242 samples from 109 individuals) over time. HLA-DRhiCD11chi inflammatory monocytes with an interferon-stimulated gene signature were elevated in mild COVID-19. Severe COVID-19 was marked by occurrence of neutrophil precursors, as evidence of emergency myelopoiesis, dysfunctional mature neutrophils, and HLA-DRlo monocytes. Our study provides detailed insights into the systemic immune response to SARS-CoV-2 infection and reveals profound alterations in the myeloid cell compartment associated with severe COVID-19.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Células Mieloides/imunologia , Mielopoese , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Adulto , Idoso , Antígenos CD11/genética , Antígenos CD11/metabolismo , COVID-19 , Células Cultivadas , Infecções por Coronavirus/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Feminino , Antígenos HLA-DR/genética , Antígenos HLA-DR/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Células Mieloides/citologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/sangue , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Proteoma/genética , Proteoma/metabolismo , Proteômica , Análise de Célula Única
5.
Infection ; 48(4): 619-626, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32535877

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has spread worldwide causing a global health emergency. Pa-COVID-19 aims to provide comprehensive data on clinical course, pathophysiology, immunology and outcome of COVID-19, to identify prognostic biomarkers, clinical scores, and therapeutic targets for improved clinical management and preventive interventions. METHODS: Pa-COVID-19 is a prospective observational cohort study of patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection treated at Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin. We collect data on epidemiology, demography, medical history, symptoms, clinical course, and pathogen testing and treatment. Systematic, serial blood sampling will allow deep molecular and immunological phenotyping, transcriptomic profiling, and comprehensive biobanking. Longitudinal data and sample collection during hospitalization will be supplemented by long-term follow-up. RESULTS: Outcome measures include the WHO clinical ordinal scale on day 15 and clinical, functional, and health-related quality-of-life assessments at discharge and during follow-up. We developed a scalable dataset to (i) suit national standards of care, (ii) facilitate comprehensive data collection in medical care facilities with varying resources, and (iii) allow for rapid implementation of interventional trials based on the standardized study design and data collection. We propose this scalable protocol as blueprint for harmonized data collection and deep phenotyping in COVID-19 in Germany. CONCLUSION: We established a basic platform for harmonized, scalable data collection, pathophysiological analysis, and deep phenotyping of COVID-19, which enables rapid generation of evidence for improved medical care and identification of candidate therapeutic and preventive strategies. The electronic database accredited for interventional trials allows fast trial implementation for candidate therapeutic agents. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Registered at the German registry for clinical studies (DRKS00021688).


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Sistema de Registros , Berlim/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus , Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos , COVID-19 , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Gerenciamento Clínico , Humanos , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , Pandemias , Fenótipo , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , SARS-CoV-2 , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Organização Mundial da Saúde
6.
Front Pharmacol ; 11: 534681, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33519427

RESUMO

Post-transplantation cytomegalovirus (CMV) syndrome can be prevented using the antiviral drug (val)ganciclovir. (Val)ganciclovir is typically administered following a prophylactic or a pre-emptive strategy. The prophylactic strategy entails early universal administration, the pre-emptive strategy, early treatment in case of infection. However, it is not clear which strategy is superior with respect to transplantation outcome; sex-specific effects of these prevention strategies are not known. We have retrospectively analyzed 540 patients from the multi-centre Harmony study along eight pre-defined visits: 308 were treated according to a prophylactic, 232 according to a pre-emptive strategy. As expected, we observed an association of prophylactic strategy with lower incidence of CMV syndrome, delayed onset and lower viral loads compared to the pre-emptive strategy. However, in female patients, the prophylactic strategy was associated with a strong impairment of glomerular filtration rate one year post-transplant (difference: -11.8 ± 4.3 ml min-1·1.73 m-2, p = 0.006). Additionally, we observed a tendency of higher incidence of acute rejection and severe BK virus reactivation in the prophylactic strategy group. While the prophylactic strategy was more effective for preventing CMV syndrome, our results suggest for the first time that the prophylactic strategy might lead to inferior transplantation outcomes in female patients, providing evidence for a strong association with sex. Further randomized controlled studies are necessary to confirm this potential negative effect.

7.
EBioMedicine ; 34: 113-121, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30072213

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: BK virus (BKV), Cytomegalovirus (CMV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) reactivations are common after kidney transplantation and associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Although CMV might be a risk factor for BKV and EBV, the effects of combined reactivations remain unknown. The purpose of this study is to ascertain the interaction and effects on graft function of these reactivations. METHODS: 3715 serum samples from 540 kidney transplant recipients were analysed for viral load by qPCR. Measurements were performed throughout eight visits during the first post-transplantation year. Clinical characteristics, including graft function (GFR), were collected in parallel. FINDINGS: BKV had the highest prevalence and viral loads. BKV or CMV viral loads over 10,000 copies·mL-1 led to significant GFR impairment. 57 patients had BKV-CMV combined reactivation, both reactivations were significantly associated (p = 0.005). Combined reactivation was associated with a significant GFR reduction one year post-transplantation of 11.7 mL·min-1·1.73 m-2 (p = 0.02) at relatively low thresholds (BKV > 1000 and CMV > 4000 copies·mL-1). For EBV, a significant association was found with CMV reactivation (p = 0.02), but no GFR reduction was found. Long cold ischaemia times were a further risk factor for high CMV load. INTERPRETATION: BKV-CMV combined reactivation has a deep impact on renal function one year post-transplantation and therefore most likely on long-term allograft function, even at low viral loads. Frequent viral monitoring and subsequent interventions for low BKV and/or CMV viraemia levels and/or long cold ischaemia time are recommended. FUND: Investigator Initiated Trial; financial support by German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF).


Assuntos
Vírus BK , Citomegalovirus , Herpesvirus Humano 4 , Transplante de Rim , Viremia , Adulto , Idoso , Isquemia Fria , Feminino , Infecções por Herpesviridae/virologia , Humanos , Masculino , Interações Microbianas , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infecções por Polyomavirus/virologia , Infecções Tumorais por Vírus/virologia , Carga Viral , Adulto Jovem
8.
Eur J Immunol ; 45(8): 2286-98, 2015 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26046663

RESUMO

Mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells are characterized by an invariant TCRVα7.2 chain recognizing microbial vitamin B metabolites presented by the MHC-Ib molecule MR1. They are mainly detectable in the CD8(+) and CD8(-) CD4(-) "double negative" T-cell compartments of mammals and exhibit both Th1- and Th17-associated features. As MAIT cells show a tissue-homing phenotype and operate at mucosal surfaces with myriads of pathogenic encounters, we wondered how IL-15, a multifaceted cytokine being part of the intestinal mucosal barrier, impacts on their functions. We demonstrate that in the absence of TCR cross-linking, human MAIT cells secrete IFN-γ, increase perforin expression and switch on granzyme B production in response to IL-15. As this mechanism was dependent on the presence of CD14(+) cells and sensitive to IL-18 blockade, we identified IL-15 induced IL-18 production by monocytes as an inflammatory, STAT5-dependent feedback mechanism predominantly activating the MAIT-cell population. IL-15 equally affects TCR-mediated MAIT-cell functions since it dramatically amplifies bacteria-induced IFN-γ secretion, granzyme production, and cytolytic activity at early time points, an effect being most pronounced under suboptimal TCR stimulation conditions. Our data reveal a new quality of IL-15 as player in an inflammatory cytokine network impacting on multiple MAIT-cell functions.


Assuntos
Interleucina-15/imunologia , Interleucina-18/imunologia , Ativação Linfocitária/fisiologia , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T/imunologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Feminino , Humanos , Capeamento Imunológico , Interferon gama/imunologia , Masculino , Membrana Mucosa/citologia , Membrana Mucosa/imunologia , Linfócitos T/citologia
9.
Med Microbiol Immunol ; 203(1): 35-45, 2014 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24057515

RESUMO

Renal transplant recipients (RTR) are considered at high risk for influenza-associated complications due to immunosuppression. The efficacy of standard influenza vaccination in RTRs is unclear. Hence, we evaluated activation of the adaptive immunity by the pandemic influenza A(H1N1) 2009 (A(H1N1)pdm09) vaccine in RTRs as compared to healthy controls. To determine cross-reactivity and/or bystander activation, seasonal trivalent influenza vaccine and tetanus/diphteria toxoid (TT/DT) vaccine-specific T cells along with allospecific T cells were quantified before and after A(H1N1)pdm09 vaccination. Vaccination-induced alloimmunity was additionally determined by quantifying serum creatinine and proinflammatory protein IP-10. Contrary to healthy controls, RTRs required a booster vaccination to achieve seroconversion (13.3 % day 21; 90 % day 90). In contrast to humoral immunity, sufficient A(H1N1)pdm09-specific T-cell responses were mounted in RTRs already after the first immunization with a magnitude comparable with healthy controls. Interestingly, vaccination simultaneously boosted T cells reacting to seasonal flu but not to TT/DT, suggesting cross-activation. No alloimmune effects were recorded. In conclusion, protective antibody responses required booster vaccination. However, sufficient cellular immunity is established already after the first vaccination, demonstrating differential kinetics of humoral and cellular immunity.


Assuntos
Imunidade Celular , Imunidade Humoral , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/imunologia , Transplante de Rim , Adulto , Idoso , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Imunização Secundária , Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido , Vacinas contra Influenza/efeitos adversos , Vacinas contra Influenza/imunologia , Influenza Humana/imunologia , Leucócitos Mononucleares/imunologia , Leucócitos Mononucleares/virologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Especificidade do Receptor de Antígeno de Linfócitos T , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Vacinação , Adulto Jovem
10.
Transplantation ; 92(11): 1269-77, 2011 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22124284

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: BKV-associated nephropathy represents a serious complication of the posttransplant period in kidney transplant recipients. Monitoring BKV-specific immunity is of a special importance for estimation of clinical course in patients with BKV reactivation. Our recent data demonstrated that all five BKV antigens are immunogenic and elicit T-cell responses varying within patients. Therefore, all five BKV proteins should be evaluated for the assessment of BKV-specific immunity. However, analysis of five proteins performed separately is time- and cost-intensive and requires large amount of blood. METHODS: Using novel approach of a mixture of overlapping peptide pools encompassing all five BKV antigens (viral protein [VP] 1, VP2, VP3, large tumor antigen, and small tumor antigen) and multiparameter flow cytometry, we evaluate BKV-specific T cells in patients with a previous/present severe long-lasting or transient BKV reactivation. Patients without BKV reactivation were used as control. RESULTS: In this study, we show that using mixture of overlapping peptide pool results in the magnitude of CD4- and CD8-positive BKV-specific T-cell response, which is significantly higher compared with any frequencies detected by previously used single BKV antigen stimulation. Of interest, patients with a history of rapid BKV clearance had significantly higher frequency of multifunctional interferon gamma-γ/interleukin (IL)-2/tumor necrosis factor-α and IL-2/tumor necrosis factor-α CD4-positive T cells, suggesting protective potential of polyfunctional T cells. Furthermore, we did not find IL-17-producing BKV-specific memory T cells in patients recovered from BKV reactivation. CONCLUSIONS: Here, we established a fast and sensitive approach allowing the most comprehensive assessment of the total BKV immunity performed to date and offer a new platform for further prospective studies.


Assuntos
Vírus BK/imunologia , Citometria de Fluxo/métodos , Nefropatias/virologia , Transplante de Rim , Fenótipo , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Adulto , Idoso , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/metabolismo , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/patologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/metabolismo , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Interleucina-2/metabolismo , Rim/imunologia , Rim/patologia , Rim/virologia , Nefropatias/imunologia , Nefropatias/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Linfócitos T/patologia , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
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