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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35021205

RESUMO

AIMS: Sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT-2) inhibitors have cardiovascular (CV) benefits in patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). Whether these medications improve CV outcomes irrespective of heart failure history or left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) in HFrEF remains unknown. METHODS AND RESULTS: All randomized, placebo-controlled trials of SGLT-2 inhibitors reporting similar CV outcomes were searched in PubMed from January 1, 2010 to October 1, 2021. The primary outcome was the composite of hospitalization for heart failure or CV death. Secondary outcomes included all-cause mortality. Pooled hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were used as effect estimates and calculated with a random-effects model. Data from eleven trials and a total of 66,957 patients (n = 36,758 SGLT-2 group, n = 30,199 placebo group) were included. SGLT-2 inhibitors reduced the risk of hospitalization for heart failure or CV death in patients with (HR 0.76 95% CI 0.71-0.80) and without (HR 0.76 95% CI 0.68-0.86; pinteraction = 0.69) heart failure. Patients with (HR 0.87 95% CI 0.80-0.95) and without (HR 0.84 95% CI 0.73-0.95; pinteraction = 0.67) heart failure treated with SGLT-2 inhibitors had a reduction in all-cause mortality. Reduction in the primary outcome was consistently observed in HFrEF patients with (HR 0.68 95% CI 0.59-0.78) and without (HR 0.84 95% CI 0.71-0.99; pinteraction = 0.13) severely reduced LVEF, and in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction patients (HR 0.80 95% CI 0.70-0.92; pinteraction = 0.65). CONCLUSION: SGLT-2 inhibitors improved CV outcomes irrespective of heart failure history or type, and severity of LVEF reduction.PROSPERO registration: https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero/CRD42020219082.

2.
Circulation ; 145(1): 61-78, 2022 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34965168

RESUMO

Inflammation plays a prominent role in the development of atherosclerosis and other cardiovascular diseases, and anti-inflammatory agents may improve cardiovascular outcomes. For years, colchicine has been used as a safe and well-tolerated agent in diseases such as gout and familial Mediterranean fever. The widely available therapeutic has several anti-inflammatory effects, however, that have proven effective in a broad spectrum of cardiovascular diseases as well. It is considered standard-of-care therapy for pericarditis, and several clinical trials have evaluated its role in postoperative and postablation atrial fibrillation, postpericardiotomy syndrome, coronary artery disease, percutaneous coronary interventions, and cerebrovascular disease. We aim to summarize colchicine's pharmacodynamics and the mechanism behind its anti-inflammatory effect, outline thus far accumulated evidence on treatment with colchicine in cardiovascular disease, and present ongoing randomized clinical trials. We also emphasize real-world clinical implications that should be considered on the basis of the merits and limitations of completed trials. Altogether, colchicine's simplicity, low cost, and effectiveness may provide an important addition to other standard cardiovascular therapies. Ongoing studies will address complementary questions pertaining to the use of low-dose colchicine for the treatment of cardiovascular disease.

3.
Catheter Cardiovasc Interv ; 98(7): 1285-1286, 2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34851024
4.
Nat Rev Cardiol ; 2021 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34611327

RESUMO

Patients who have undergone coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery are susceptible to bypass graft failure and progression of native coronary artery disease. Although the saphenous vein graft (SVG) was traditionally the most-used conduit, arterial grafts (including the left and right internal thoracic arteries and the radial artery) have improved patency rates. However, the need for secondary revascularization remains common, and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) has become the most common modality of secondary revascularization after CABG surgery. Procedural characteristics and clinical outcomes differ considerably from those associated with PCI in patients without previous CABG surgery, owing to altered coronary anatomy and differences in conduit pathophysiology. In particular, SVG PCI carries an increased risk of complications, and operators are shifting their focus towards embolic protection strategies and complex native-vessel interventions, increasingly using SVGs as conduits to facilitate native-vessel PCI rather than pursuing SVG PCI. In this Review, we discuss the differences in conduit pathophysiology, changes in CABG surgery techniques, and the latest evidence in terms of PCI in patients with previous CABG surgery, with a particular emphasis on safety and long-term efficacy. We explore the subject of contemporary CABG surgery and subsequent percutaneous revascularization in this complex patient population.

5.
Curr Cardiol Rep ; 23(11): 154, 2021 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34599425

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Accurate imaging of the aortic root during valve implantation is crucial for proper prosthesis positioning during TAVR. The purpose of this review was to determine if routine use of the cusp-overlap view should be adopted for self-expanding valves. RECENT FINDINGS: The use of the cusp-overlap view with the Evolut, Portico, ACURATE neo/neo2, and JenaValve systems is associated with lower post-procedural new permanent pacemaker implantation rates when compared with the standard 3-cusp view, presumably due to more precise valve implantation relative to the conduction system by the non-coronary cusp. By elongating the left ventricular outflow tract and accentuating the right-non commissure in the center of the fluoroscopic view, the cusp-overlap technique allows operators to more precisely control the prosthesis implant depth during self-expanding valve deployment. While the early experience with this approach in Evolut TAVR has been promising, the results of larger studies with longer follow-up across multiple self-expanding systems are warranted.


Assuntos
Estenose da Valva Aórtica , Próteses Valvulares Cardíacas , Substituição da Valva Aórtica Transcateter , Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico por imagem , Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico por imagem , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Humanos , Desenho de Prótese , Resultado do Tratamento
6.
Circulation ; 144(16): 1323-1343, 2021 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34662163

RESUMO

Contemporary evidence supports device-based transcatheter interventions for the management of patients with structural heart disease. These procedures, which include aortic valve implantation, mitral or tricuspid valve repair/implantation, left atrial appendage occlusion, and patent foramen ovale closure, profoundly differ with respect to clinical indications and procedural aspects. Yet, patients undergoing transcatheter cardiac interventions require antithrombotic therapy before, during, or after the procedure to prevent thromboembolic events. However, these therapies are associated with an increased risk of bleeding complications. To date, challenges and controversies exist regarding balancing the risk of thrombotic and bleeding complications in these patients such that the optimal antithrombotic regimens to adopt in each specific procedure is still unclear. In this review, we summarize current evidence on antithrombotic therapies for device-based transcatheter interventions targeting structural heart disease and emphasize the importance of a tailored approach in these patients.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34386899

RESUMO

Perioperative cardiovascular complications are important causes of morbidity and mortality associated with non-cardiac surgery, especially in patients with recent percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). We aimed to illustrate the types and timing of different surgeries occurring after PCI, and to evaluate the risk of thrombotic and bleeding events according to the perioperative antiplatelet management. Patients undergoing urgent or elective non-cardiac surgery within 1 year of PCI at a tertiary-care center between 2011 and 2018 were included. The primary outcome was major adverse cardiac events (MACE; composite of death, myocardial infarction, or stent thrombosis) at 30 days. Perioperative bleeding was defined as ≥ 2 units of blood transfusion. A total of 1092 surgeries corresponding to 747 patients were classified by surgical risk (low: 50.9%, intermediate: 38.4%, high: 10.7%) and priority (elective: 88.5%, urgent/emergent: 11.5%). High-risk and urgent/emergent surgeries tended to occur earlier post-PCI compared to low-risk and elective ones, and were associated with an increased risk of both MACE and bleeding. Preoperative interruption of antiplatelet therapy (of any kind) occurred in 44.6% of all NCS and was more likely for procedures occurring later post-PCI and at intermediate risk. There was no significant association between interruption of antiplatelet therapy and adverse cardiac events. Among patients undergoing NCS within 1 year of PCI, perioperative ischemic and bleeding events primarily depend on the estimated surgical risk and urgency of the procedure, which are increased early after PCI. Preoperative antiplatelet interruption was not associated with an increased risk of cardiac events.

11.
Catheter Cardiovasc Interv ; 98(5): 904-913, 2021 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34398509

RESUMO

The Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions (SCAI) Think Tank is a collaborative venture that brings together interventional cardiologists, administrative partners, and select members of the cardiovascular industry community annually for high-level field-wide discussions. The 2021 Think Tank was organized into four parallel sessions reflective of the field of interventional cardiology: (a) coronary intervention, (b) endovascular medicine, (c) structural heart disease, and (d) congenital heart disease. Each session was moderated by a senior content expert and co-moderated by a member of SCAI's Emerging Leader Mentorship program. This document presents the proceedings to the wider cardiovascular community in order to enhance participation in this discussion, create additional dialog from a broader base, and thereby aid SCAI, the industry community and external stakeholders in developing specific action items to move these areas forward.

13.
N Engl J Med ; 385(23): 2150-2160, 2021 12 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34449183

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The role of direct oral anticoagulants as compared with vitamin K antagonists for atrial fibrillation after successful transcatheter aortic-valve replacement (TAVR) has not been well studied. METHODS: We conducted a multicenter, prospective, randomized, open-label, adjudicator-masked trial comparing edoxaban with vitamin K antagonists in patients with prevalent or incident atrial fibrillation as the indication for oral anticoagulation after successful TAVR. The primary efficacy outcome was a composite of adverse events consisting of death from any cause, myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke, systemic thromboembolism, valve thrombosis, or major bleeding. The primary safety outcome was major bleeding. On the basis of a hierarchical testing plan, the primary efficacy and safety outcomes were tested sequentially for noninferiority, with noninferiority of edoxaban established if the upper boundary of the 95% confidence interval for the hazard ratio did not exceed 1.38. Superiority testing of edoxaban for efficacy would follow if noninferiority and superiority were established for major bleeding. RESULTS: A total of 1426 patients were enrolled (713 in each group). The mean age of the patients was 82.1 years, and 47.5% of the patients were women. Almost all the patients had atrial fibrillation before TAVR. The rate of the composite primary efficacy outcome was 17.3 per 100 person-years in the edoxaban group and 16.5 per 100 person-years in the vitamin K antagonist group (hazard ratio, 1.05; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.85 to 1.31; P = 0.01 for noninferiority). Rates of major bleeding were 9.7 per 100 person-years and 7.0 per 100 person-years, respectively (hazard ratio, 1.40; 95% CI, 1.03 to 1.91; P = 0.93 for noninferiority); the difference between groups was mainly due to more gastrointestinal bleeding with edoxaban. Rates of death from any cause or stroke were 10.0 per 100 person-years in the edoxaban group and 11.7 per 100 person-years in the vitamin K antagonist group (hazard ratio, 0.85; 95% CI, 0.66 to 1.11). CONCLUSIONS: In patients with mainly prevalent atrial fibrillation who underwent successful TAVR, edoxaban was noninferior to vitamin K antagonists as determined by a hazard ratio margin of 38% for a composite primary outcome of adverse clinical events. The incidence of major bleeding was higher with edoxaban than with vitamin K antagonists. (Funded by Daiichi Sankyo; ENVISAGE-TAVI AF ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02943785.).

15.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 12252, 2021 06 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34112841

RESUMO

The structural morphology of coronary stents (e.g. stent expansion, lumen scaffolding, strut apposition, tissue protrusion, side branch jailing, strut fracture), and the local hemodynamic environment after stent deployment are key determinants of procedural success and subsequent clinical outcomes. High-resolution intracoronary imaging has the potential to enable the geometrically accurate three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction of coronary stents. The aim of this work was to present a novel algorithm for 3D stent reconstruction of coronary artery stents based on optical coherence tomography (OCT) and angiography, and test experimentally its accuracy, reproducibility, clinical feasibility, and ability to perform computational fluid dynamics (CFD) studies. Our method has the following steps: 3D lumen reconstruction based on OCT and angiography, stent strut segmentation in OCT images, packaging, rotation and straightening of the segmented struts, planar unrolling of the segmented struts, planar stent wireframe reconstruction, rolling back of the planar stent wireframe to the 3D reconstructed lumen, and final stent volume reconstruction. We tested the accuracy and reproducibility of our method in stented patient-specific silicone models using micro-computed tomography (µCT) and stereoscopy as references. The clinical feasibility and CFD studies were performed in clinically stented coronary bifurcations. The experimental and clinical studies showed that our algorithm (1) can reproduce the complex spatial stent configuration with high precision and reproducibility, (2) is feasible in 3D reconstructing stents deployed in bifurcations, and (3) enables CFD studies to assess the local hemodynamic environment within the stent. Notably, the high accuracy of our algorithm was consistent across different stent designs and diameters. Our method coupled with patient-specific CFD studies can lay the ground for optimization of stenting procedures, patient-specific computational stenting simulations, and research and development of new stent scaffolds and stenting techniques.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/cirurgia , Vasos Coronários/cirurgia , Imageamento Tridimensional , Stents , Cirurgia Assistida por Computador , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica , Algoritmos , Angiografia Coronária , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/patologia , Vasos Coronários/patologia , Humanos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Cirurgia Assistida por Computador/métodos , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica/métodos , Microtomografia por Raio-X
16.
Circulation ; 144(5): e107-e119, 2021 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34187171

RESUMO

Cardiac catheterization procedures have rapidly evolved and expanded in scope and techniques over the past few decades. However, although some practices have emerged based on evidence, many traditions have persisted based on beliefs and theoretical concerns. The aim of this review is to highlight common preprocedure, intraprocedure, and postprocedure catheterization laboratory practices where evidence has accumulated over the past few decades to support or discount traditionally held practices.

17.
BMJ ; 373: n1332, 2021 06 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34135011

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the risks and benefits of P2Y12 inhibitor monotherapy compared with dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) and whether these associations are modified by patients' characteristics. DESIGN: Individual patient level meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. DATA SOURCES: Searches were conducted in Ovid Medline, Embase, and three websites (www.tctmd.com, www.escardio.org, www.acc.org/cardiosourceplus) from inception to 16 July 2020. The primary authors provided individual participant data. ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: Randomised controlled trials comparing effects of oral P2Y12 monotherapy and DAPT on centrally adjudicated endpoints after coronary revascularisation in patients without an indication for oral anticoagulation. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome was a composite of all cause death, myocardial infarction, and stroke, tested for non-inferiority against a margin of 1.15 for the hazard ratio. The key safety endpoint was Bleeding Academic Research Consortium (BARC) type 3 or type 5 bleeding. RESULTS: The meta-analysis included data from six trials, including 24 096 patients. The primary outcome occurred in 283 (2.95%) patients with P2Y12 inhibitor monotherapy and 315 (3.27%) with DAPT in the per protocol population (hazard ratio 0.93, 95% confidence interval 0.79 to 1.09; P=0.005 for non-inferiority; P=0.38 for superiority; τ2=0.00) and in 303 (2.94%) with P2Y12 inhibitor monotherapy and 338 (3.36%) with DAPT in the intention to treat population (0.90, 0.77 to 1.05; P=0.18 for superiority; τ2=0.00). The treatment effect was consistent across all subgroups, except for sex (P for interaction=0.02), suggesting that P2Y12 inhibitor monotherapy lowers the risk of the primary ischaemic endpoint in women (hazard ratio 0.64, 0.46 to 0.89) but not in men (1.00, 0.83 to 1.19). The risk of bleeding was lower with P2Y12 inhibitor monotherapy than with DAPT (97 (0.89%) v 197 (1.83%); hazard ratio 0.49, 0.39 to 0.63; P<0.001; τ2=0.03), which was consistent across subgroups, except for type of P2Y12 inhibitor (P for interaction=0.02), suggesting greater benefit when a newer P2Y12 inhibitor rather than clopidogrel was part of the DAPT regimen. CONCLUSIONS: P2Y12 inhibitor monotherapy was associated with a similar risk of death, myocardial infarction, or stroke, with evidence that this association may be modified by sex, and a lower bleeding risk compared with DAPT. REGISTRATION: PROSPERO CRD42020176853.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana/tratamento farmacológico , Terapia Antiplaquetária Dupla/efeitos adversos , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/efeitos adversos , Antagonistas do Receptor Purinérgico P2Y/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/cirurgia , Terapia Antiplaquetária Dupla/métodos , Feminino , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Hemorragia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mortalidade/tendências , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/prevenção & controle , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/mortalidade , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/normas , Antagonistas do Receptor Purinérgico P2Y/uso terapêutico , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Medição de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Trombose/tratamento farmacológico , Trombose/prevenção & controle
18.
Catheter Cardiovasc Interv ; 98(6): E908-E917, 2021 11 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34117817

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To describe the incidence, predictors, and clinical impact of permanent pacemaker insertion (PPI) following transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) in women. BACKGROUND: Data on pacemaker insertion complicating TAVR in women are scarce. METHODS: The Women's International Transcatheter Aortic Valve implantation (WIN-TAVI) is a prospective registry evaluating the safety and efficacy of TAVR in women. We included patients without preprocedural pacemakers and divided them into two groups: (1) PPI and (2) no-PPI. We identified PPI predictors using logistic regression and studied its clinical impact on the Valve Academic Research Consortium (VARC)-2 efficacy and safety endpoints. RESULTS: Out of 1019 patients, 922 were included in the analysis. Post-TAVR PPI occurred in 132 (14.3%) patients. Clinical and procedural characteristics were similar in both groups. Pre-existing right bundle branch block (RBBB) was associated with a high risk of post-TAVR PPI (OR 3.62, 95% CI 1.85-7.06, p < 0.001), while implantation of balloon-expandable prosthesis was associated with a lower risk (OR 0.47, 95% CI 0.30-0.74, p < 0.001). Post-TAVR PPI prolonged in-hospital stay by a median of 2 days (11 [9-16] days in PPI vs. 9 [7-14] days in no-PPI, p = 0.005), yet risks of VARC-2 efficacy and safety endpoints at 1 year were similar in both groups (adj HR 0.95, 95% CI 0.60-1.52, p = 0.84 and adj HR 1.22, 95% CI 0.83-1.79, p = 0.31, respectively). CONCLUSION: Pacemaker implantation following TAVR is frequent among women and is associated with pre-existing RBBB and valve type. PPI prolongs hospital stay, albeit without any significant impact on 1-year outcomes.

20.
J Card Surg ; 36(7): 2410-2418, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33797788

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM OF THE STUDY: A systematic approach to quantify mitral annular calcification (MAC) in all-comers by multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) is essential to guide treatment, but lacking. METHODS: From September 2015 to July 2019, 82 patients with MAC underwent MDCT at two institutions to evaluate for surgical mitral valve replacement (SMVR), transcatheter mitral valve replacement (TMVR), or medical management. Type 1 MAC was defined as <270° annular calcium and Type 2 as ≥270°. Absence/presence of predicted left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) obstruction with virtual valve placement was used to further define Type 2 MAC into 2A/B for our treatment algorithm. RESULTS: Type 1 MAC was present in 51.2%, Type 2A in 18.3%, and Type 2B in 30.5%. Operable Type 1 patients (50.0%) underwent hybrid transatrial TMVR or SMVR. Type 2A underwent a variety of treatments, and Type 2B surgical candidates (40.0%) underwent hybrid transatrial TMVR secondary to difficult suture anchoring with significant MAC and predicted LVOT obstruction. At a follow-up of 29.6 ± 12.0 months, mortality was 42.7% with 46.3% in the intervention group and 39.0% in the medical group (p = 0.47). All percutaneous TMVR patients expired. This translated to a disproportionate number of Type 2A deaths (80.0% with intervention), but all were high/extreme surgical risk. The hybrid TMVR group consisted of 95.0% Type 1/2B patients and had a lower Society of Thoracic Surgeons predicted risk of operative mortality (7.4% vs. 9.2%, p = 0.43)/mortality. CONCLUSIONS: The highest mortality was seen in percutaneous TMVR Type 2A MAC patients, but they were at the greatest risk. Here we provide an objective MAC treatment algorithm for all-comers based on operability/anatomy.


Assuntos
Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca , Próteses Valvulares Cardíacas , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral , Obstrução do Fluxo Ventricular Externo , Cateterismo Cardíaco , Humanos , Valva Mitral/diagnóstico por imagem , Valva Mitral/cirurgia , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/cirurgia , Resultado do Tratamento
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