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1.
J Mol Med (Berl) ; 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34528115

RESUMO

In malignant hypertension, far more severe kidney injury occurs than in the "benign" form of the disease. The role of high blood pressure and the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system is well recognized, but the pathogenesis of the renal injury of malignant hypertension (MH) remains incompletely understood. Using the rat model of two-kidney, one-clip renovascular hypertension in which some but not all animals develop MH, we performed a transcriptomic analysis of gene expression by RNA sequencing to identify transcriptional changes in the kidney cortex specific for MH. Differential gene expression was assessed in three groups: MH, non-malignant hypertension (NMH), and normotensive, sham-operated controls. To distinguish MH from NMH, we considered two factors: weight loss and typical renovascular lesions. Mean blood pressure measured intraarterially was elevated in MH (220 ± 6.5 mmHg) as well as in NMH (192 ± 6.4 mmHg), compared to controls (119 ± 1.7 mmHg, p < 0.05). Eight hundred eighty-six genes were exclusively regulated in MH only. Principal component analysis revealed a separated clustering of the three groups. The data pointed to an upregulation of many inflammatory mechanisms in MH including pathways which previously attracted relatively little attention in the setting of hypertensive kidney injury: Transcripts from all three complement activation pathways were upregulated in MH compared to NMH but not in NMH compared with controls; immunohistochemistry confirmed complement deposition in MH exclusively. The expression of chemokines attracting neutrophil granulocytes (CXCL6) and infiltration of myeloperoxidase-positive cells were increased only in MH rats. The data suggest that these pathways, especially complement deposition, may contribute to kidney injury under MH. KEY MESSAGES: The most severe hypertension-induced kidney injury occurs in malignant hypertension. In a rat model of malignant hypertension, we assessed transcriptional responses in the kidney exposed to high blood pressure. A broad stimulation of inflammatory mechanisms was observed, but a few specific pathways were activated only in the malignant form of the disease, notably activation of the complement cascades. Complement inhibitors may alleviate the thrombotic microangiopathy of malignant hypertension even in the absence of primary complement abnormalities.

2.
Front Immunol ; 12: 696810, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34335609

RESUMO

Changed dietary habits in Western countries such as reduced fiber intake represent an important lifestyle factor contributing to the increase in inflammatory immune-mediated diseases. The mode of action of beneficial fiber effects is not fully elucidated, but short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) and gut microbiota have been implicated. The aim of this study was to explore the impact of dietary fiber on lupus pathology and to understand underlying mechanisms. Here, we show that in lupus-prone NZB/WF1 mice low fiber intake deteriorates disease progression reflected in accelerated mortality, autoantibody production and immune dysregulation. In contrast to our original assumption, microbiota suppression by antibiotics or direct SCFA feeding did not influence the course of lupus-like disease. Mechanistically, our data rather indicate that in low fiber-fed mice, an increase in white adipose tissue mass, fat-inflammation and a disrupted intestinal homeostasis go along with systemic, low-grade inflammation driving autoimmunity. The links between obesity, intestinal leakage and low-grade inflammation were confirmed in human samples, while adaptive immune activation predominantly correlated with lupus activity. We further propose that an accelerated gastro-intestinal passage along with energy dilution underlies fiber-mediated weight regulation. Thus, our data highlight the often-overlooked effects of dietary fiber on energy homeostasis and obesity prevention. Further, they provide insight into how intricately the pathologies of inflammatory immune-mediated conditions, such as obesity and autoimmunity, might be interlinked, possibly sharing common pathways.

3.
Dis Model Mech ; 14(9)2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34423816

RESUMO

Susceptibility to doxorubicin-induced nephropathy (DIN), a toxic model for the induction of proteinuria in mice, is related to the single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) C6418T of the Prkdc gene encoding for the DNA-repair enzyme DNA-PKcs. In addition, plasminogen (Plg) has been reported to play a role in glomerular damage. Here, we investigated the interdependence of both factors for the development of DIN. Genotyping confirmed the SNP of the Prkdc gene in C57BL/6 (PrkdcC6418/C6418) and 129S1/SvImJ (PrkdcT6418/T6418) mice. Intercross of heterozygous 129SB6F1 mice led to 129SB6F2 hybrids with Mendelian inheritance of the SNP. After doxorubicin injection, only homozygous F2 mice with PrkdcT6418/T6418 developed proteinuria. Genetic deficiency of Plg (Plg-/-) in otherwise susceptible 129S1/SvImJ mice led to resistance to DIN. Immunohistochemistry revealed glomerular binding of Plg in Plg+/+ mice after doxorubicin injection involving histone H2B as Plg receptor. In doxorubicin-resistant C57BL/6 mice, Plg binding was absent. In conclusion, susceptibility to DIN in 129S1/SvImJ mice is determined by a hierarchical two-hit process requiring the C6418T SNP in the Prkdc gene and subsequent glomerular binding of Plg. This article has an associated First Person interview with the first author of the paper.

4.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 15464, 2021 07 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34326417

RESUMO

In renal transplantation, complement is involved in ischemia reperfusion injury, graft rejection and dysfunction. However, it is still unclear how induction of complement and its activation are initiated. Using allograft biopsies of a well-characterized cohort of 28 renal transplant patients with no rejection (Ctrl), delayed graft function (DGF), acute T-cell-mediated (TCMR) or antibody-mediated rejection (ABMR) we analyzed differences in complement reaction. For that mRNA was isolated from FFPE sections, quantified with a multiplex gene expression panel and correlated with transplant conditions and follow-up of patients. Additionally, inflammatory cells were quantified by multiplex immunohistochemistry. In allograft biopsies with TCMR and ABMR gene expression of C1QB was 2-4 fold elevated compared to Ctrl. In TCMR biopsies, mRNA counts of several complement-related genes including C1S, C3, CFB and complement regulators CFH, CR1 and SERPING1 were significantly increased compared to Ctrl. Interestingly, expression levels of about 75% of the analyzed complement related genes correlated with cold ischemia time (CIT) and markers of inflammation. In conclusion, this study suggest an important role of complement in transplant pathology which seems to be at least in part triggered by CIT. Multiplex mRNA analysis might be a useful method to refine diagnosis and explore new pathways involved in rejection.

5.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4402, 2021 07 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34285231

RESUMO

Acute kidney injury (AKI) is morphologically characterized by a synchronized plasma membrane rupture of cells in a specific section of a nephron, referred to as acute tubular necrosis (ATN). Whereas the involvement of necroptosis is well characterized, genetic evidence supporting the contribution of ferroptosis is lacking. Here, we demonstrate that the loss of ferroptosis suppressor protein 1 (Fsp1) or the targeted manipulation of the active center of the selenoprotein glutathione peroxidase 4 (Gpx4cys/-) sensitize kidneys to tubular ferroptosis, resulting in a unique morphological pattern of tubular necrosis. Given the unmet medical need to clinically inhibit AKI, we generated a combined small molecule inhibitor (Nec-1f) that simultaneously targets receptor interacting protein kinase 1 (RIPK1) and ferroptosis in cell lines, in freshly isolated primary kidney tubules and in mouse models of cardiac transplantation and of AKI and improved survival in models of ischemia-reperfusion injury. Based on genetic and pharmacological evidence, we conclude that GPX4 dysfunction hypersensitizes mice to ATN during AKI. Additionally, we introduce Nec-1f, a solid inhibitor of RIPK1 and weak inhibitor of ferroptosis.


Assuntos
Injúria Renal Aguda/patologia , Ferroptose/fisiologia , Túbulos Renais/patologia , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/patologia , Injúria Renal Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Injúria Renal Aguda/etiologia , Animais , Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/genética , Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/metabolismo , Cisplatino/administração & dosagem , Cisplatino/toxicidade , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Células Epiteliais , Feminino , Ferroptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Células HT29 , Transplante de Coração/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Imidazóis/química , Imidazóis/farmacologia , Imidazóis/uso terapêutico , Indóis/química , Indóis/farmacologia , Indóis/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Microssomos Hepáticos , Proteínas Mitocondriais/metabolismo , Células NIH 3T3 , Necrose/tratamento farmacológico , Necrose/etiologia , Necrose/patologia , Oxirredutases/genética , Oxirredutases/metabolismo , Fosfolipídeo Hidroperóxido Glutationa Peroxidase/antagonistas & inibidores , Fosfolipídeo Hidroperóxido Glutationa Peroxidase/metabolismo , Cultura Primária de Células , Proteína Serina-Treonina Quinases de Interação com Receptores/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteína Serina-Treonina Quinases de Interação com Receptores/metabolismo , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/tratamento farmacológico , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/etiologia
6.
Amyloid ; 28(3): 199-208, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34060395

RESUMO

Amyloidosis is a disease group caused by pathological aggregation and deposition of peptides in diverse tissue sites. Apart from the fibril protein, amyloid deposits frequently enclose non-fibrillar constituents. In routine diagnostics, we noticed the presence of complement 9 (C9) in amyloid. Based on this observation, we systematically explored the occurrence of C9 in amyloid. Apolipoprotein E (apoE), caspase 3 and complement 3 (C3) served as controls. From the Amyloid Registry Kiel, we retrieved 118 formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissue samples, including eight different amyloid- and 18 different tissue types. The expression patterns were assessed immunohistochemically in relation to amyloid deposits. A literature search on proteomic data was performed. Amyloid deposits stained for C9 and apoE in 117 (99.2%) and 112 of 118 (94.9%) cases, respectively. A homogeneous immunostaining of the entire amyloid deposits was found in 75.4% (C9) and 61.9% (apoE) of the cases. Caspase 3 and C3 were present only in 22 (19.3%) of 114 and 20 (36%) of 55 assessable cases, respectively. Caspase 3 and C3 immunostaining rarely covered substantial areas of the amyloid deposits. The literature search on proteomic data confirmed the frequent detection of apoE and the occurrence of C9 and C3 in amyloid deposits. No data were found regarding caspase 3. Our findings demonstrate the ubiquitous, spatial and specific enrichment of C9 in amyloid deposits irrespective of amyloid-, organ- or tissue type. Our findings lend support to the hypothesis that amyloidosis might activate the complement cascade, which could lead to the formation of the membrane attack complex and cell death.

7.
Kidney Blood Press Res ; 46(3): 362-376, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34077925

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Complement deposition is prevalent in kidney biopsies of patients with arterial hypertension and hypertensive nephropathy, but an association of hypertension and complement deposition or involvement of complement in the pathogenesis of hypertensive nephropathy has not been shown to date. METHODS: In this study, we analyzed complement C1q and C3c deposition in a rat model of overload and hypertension by subtotal nephrectomy (SNX) and in archival human renal biopsies from 217 patients with known hypertension and 91 control patients with no history of hypertension using semiquantitative scoring of C1q and C3c immunohistochemistry and correlation with parameters of renal function. To address whether complement was only passively deposited or actively expressed by renal cells, C1q and C3 mRNA expression were additionally analyzed. RESULTS: Glomerular C1q and C3c complement deposition were significantly higher in kidneys of hypertensive SNX rats and hypertensive compared to nonhypertensive patients. Mean arterial blood pressure (BP) in SNX rats correlated well with the amount of glomerular C1q and C3c deposition and with left ventricular weight, as an indirect parameter of high BP. Quantitative mRNA analysis showed that C3 was not only deposited but also actively produced by glomerular cells of hypertensive SNX rats and in human renal biopsies. Of note, in patients CKD-stage correlated significantly with the intensity of glomerular C3c staining, but not with that of C1q. CONCLUSION: Renal complement deposition correlated with experimental hypertension as well as the presence of hypertension in a variety of renal diseases. To answer the question, if and how exactly renal complement is causative for the pathogenesis of arterial hypertension in men, further studies are needed.


Assuntos
Complemento C1q/análise , Complemento C3c/análise , Hipertensão/patologia , Nefropatias/patologia , Rim/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Biópsia , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/complicações , Nefropatias/complicações , Glomérulos Renais/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ratos
8.
J Cell Mol Med ; 25(16): 7631-7641, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34156149

RESUMO

Under healthy conditions, foot processes of neighbouring podocytes are interdigitating and connected by an electron-dense slit diaphragm. Besides slit diaphragm proteins, typical adherens junction proteins are also found to be expressed at this cell-cell junction. It is therefore considered as a highly specialized type of adherens junction. During podocyte injury, podocyte foot processes lose their characteristic 3D structure and the filtration slits typical meandering structure gets linearized. It is still under debate how this change of structure leads to the phenomenon of proteinuria. Using super-resolution 3D-structured illumination microscopy, we observed a spatially restricted up-regulation of the tight junction protein claudin-5 (CLDN5) in areas where podocyte processes of patients suffering from minimal change disease (MCD), focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) as well as in murine nephrotoxic serum (NTS) nephritis and uninephrectomy DOCA-salt hypertension models, were locally injured. CLDN5/nephrin ratios in human glomerulopathies and NTS-treated mice were significantly higher compared to controls. In patients, the CLDN5/nephrin ratio is significantly correlated with the filtration slit density as a foot process effacement marker, confirming a direct association of local CLDN5 up-regulation in injured foot processes. Moreover, CLDN5 up-regulation was observed in some areas of high filtration slit density, suggesting that CLND5 up-regulation preceded the changes of foot processes. Therefore, CLDN5 could serve as a biomarker predicting early foot process effacement.

9.
Cell Death Differ ; 2021 May 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34031543

RESUMO

SARS-CoV-2 infection poses a major threat to the lungs and multiple other organs, occasionally causing death. Until effective vaccines are developed to curb the pandemic, it is paramount to define the mechanisms and develop protective therapies to prevent organ dysfunction in patients with COVID-19. Individuals that develop severe manifestations have signs of dysregulated innate and adaptive immune responses. Emerging evidence implicates neutrophils and the disbalance between neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation and degradation plays a central role in the pathophysiology of inflammation, coagulopathy, organ damage, and immunothrombosis that characterize severe cases of COVID-19. Here, we discuss the evidence supporting a role for NETs in COVID-19 manifestations and present putative mechanisms, by which NETs promote tissue injury and immunothrombosis. We present therapeutic strategies, which have been successful in the treatment of immunο-inflammatory disorders and which target dysregulated NET formation or degradation, as potential approaches that may benefit patients with severe COVID-19.

10.
FASEB J ; 35(5): e21560, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33860543

RESUMO

Glomerular hypertension induces mechanical load to podocytes, often resulting in podocyte detachment and the development of glomerulosclerosis. Although it is well known that podocytes are mechanosensitive, the mechanosensors and mechanotransducers are still unknown. Since filamin A, an actin-binding protein, is already described to be a mechanosensor and mechanotransducer, we hypothesized that filamins could be important for the outside-in signaling as well as the actin cytoskeleton of podocytes under mechanical stress. In this study, we demonstrate that filamin A is the main isoform of the filamin family that is expressed in cultured podocytes. Together with filamin B, filamin A was significantly up-regulated during mechanical stretch (3 days, 0.5 Hz, and 5% extension). To study the role of filamin A in cultured podocytes under mechanical stress, filamin A was knocked down (Flna KD) by specific siRNA. Additionally, we established a filamin A knockout podocyte cell line (Flna KO) by CRISPR/Cas9. Knockdown and knockout of filamin A influenced the expression of synaptopodin, a podocyte-specific protein, focal adhesions as well as the morphology of the actin cytoskeleton. Moreover, the cell motility of Flna KO podocytes was significantly increased. Since the knockout of filamin A has had no effect on cell adhesion of podocytes during mechanical stress, we simultaneously knocked down the expression of filamin A and B. Thereby, we observed a significant loss of podocytes during mechanical stress indicating a compensatory mechanism. Analyzing hypertensive mice kidneys as well as biopsies of patients suffering from diabetic nephropathy, we found an up-regulation of filamin A in podocytes in contrast to the control. In summary, filamin A and B mediate matrix-actin cytoskeleton interactions which are essential for the adaptation of cultured podocyte to mechanical stress.


Assuntos
Citoesqueleto de Actina/metabolismo , Nefropatias Diabéticas/patologia , Filaminas/metabolismo , Adesões Focais/patologia , Glomérulos Renais/patologia , Podócitos/patologia , Estresse Mecânico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Adesão Celular , Movimento Celular , Nefropatias Diabéticas/metabolismo , Adesões Focais/metabolismo , Humanos , Glomérulos Renais/metabolismo , Camundongos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Podócitos/metabolismo , Estudos Retrospectivos , Transdução de Sinais
11.
Urol Oncol ; 39(5): 303.e1-303.e8, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33685799

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Chemotherapy for testicular germ cell tumors (GCT) is highly effective, with few patients who do not respond. Clinical studies to evaluated novel treatments are challenging given the rarity of these patients. Therefore, we sought to evaluate PD-L1 staining on metastatic and postchemotherapy viable testicular GCTs as a surrogate for potential benefit for immunotherapy targeting the PD-1/PD-L1 axis. METHODS: Ethics research committee approval for this retrospective study was obtained by four participating institutions (CHU de Québec, St. Joseph's Health Care, Halifax Health Science Centre, Johannes Gutenberg University). Patients with viable metastatic testicular GCTs pathology samples were included. Patients with pure teratoma were excluded. PD-L1 staining with the 22C3 clone was evaluated on samples with >100 viable tumor cells using the combined positive score (CPS). RESULTS: From 51 patients identified at participating institutions, 24 postchemotherapy and 18 chemotherapy-naive metastatic samples were available for PD-L1 staining, with 9 matched prechemotherapy samples and 7 matched orchiectomy pathology samples, respectively. The median CPS score was 55.6 (IQR 16-100) for all metastatic samples, 44.9 (IQR 13-100) for postchemotherapy metastatic samples, and 68.8 (IQR 38-100) for chemotherapy-naïve metastatic samples, with the median number of viable tumor cells at 545, 500, and 550, respectively. Differences were not significant between chemotherapy-naïve and postchemotherapy samples (P = 0.07), though among non-seminoma GCT metastatic samples, CPS scores were significantly lower postchemotherapy (P = 0.02). Significant differences among postchemotherapy metastatic tumors were also seen according to predominant subtype, with lower CPS scores for predominant yolk sac and higher values for predominant seminoma and choriocarcinoma. In 7 patients with matched specimens pre- and postchemotherapy, a significant increase in CPS was observed for seminoma (26.7 vs. 81.7, P = 0.045), but not nonseminoma GCTs. Comparing all chemotherapy naïve-samples, PD-L1 expression was higher in metastatic samples versus testicular samples (mean CPS 68.8 vs. 39.8, P = 0.02). This was also seen in matched chemotherapy-naïve samples (mean CPS 77.9 vs. 33.1, P = 0.01). CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that most patients with refractory GCTs postchemotherapy will not benefit from PD-1/PD-L1 immunotherapy. However, the high PD-L1 expression in patients with predominant or pure seminoma post-chemotherapy suggests this may represent a subgroup for whom further trials may be considered.

12.
Acta Physiol (Oxf) ; 232(1): e13640, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33650216

RESUMO

AIM: The serine protease prostasin (Prss8) is expressed in the distal tubule and stimulates proteolytic activation of the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) in co-expression experiments in vitro. The aim of this study was to explore the role of prostasin in proteolytic ENaC activation in the kidney in vivo. METHODS: We used genetically modified knockin mice carrying a Prss8 mutation abolishing proteolytic activity (Prss8-S238A) or a mutation leading to a zymogen-locked state (Prss8-R44Q). Mice were challenged with low sodium diet and diuretics. Regulation of ENaC activity by Prss8-S238A and Prss8-R44Q was studied in vitro using the Xenopus laevis oocyte expression system. RESULTS: Co-expression of murine ENaC with Prss8-wt or Prss8-S238A in oocytes caused maximal proteolytic ENaC activation, whereas ENaC was activated only partially in oocytes co-expressing Prss8-R44Q. This was paralleled by a reduced proteolytic activity at the cell surface of Prss8-R44Q expressing oocytes. Sodium conservation under low sodium diet was preserved in Prss8-S238A and Prss8-R44Q mice but with higher plasma aldosterone concentrations in Prss8-R44Q mice. Treatment with the ENaC inhibitor triamterene over four days was tolerated in Prss8-wt and Prss8-S238A mice, whereas Prss8-R44Q mice developed salt wasting and severe weight loss associated with hyperkalemia and acidosis consistent with impaired ENaC function and renal failure. CONCLUSION: Unlike proteolytically inactive Prss8-S238A, zymogen-locked Prss8-R44Q produces incomplete proteolytic ENaC activation in vitro and causes a severe renal phenotype in mice treated with the ENaC inhibitor triamterene. This indicates that Prss8 plays a role in proteolytic ENaC activation and renal function independent of its proteolytic activity.


Assuntos
Precursores Enzimáticos , Canais Epiteliais de Sódio , Animais , Camundongos , Oócitos/metabolismo , Serina Endopeptidases/metabolismo , Triantereno , Xenopus laevis/metabolismo
13.
Acta Pharmacol Sin ; 2021 Mar 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33758357

RESUMO

Treatment with aprotinin, a broad-spectrum serine protease inhibitor with a molecular weight of 6512 Da, was associated with acute kidney injury, which was one of the reasons for withdrawal from the market in 2007. Inhibition of renal serine proteases regulating the epithelial sodium channel ENaC could be a possible mechanism. Herein, we studied the effect of aprotinin in wild-type 129S1/SvImJ mice on sodium handling, tubular function, and integrity under a control and low-salt diet. Mice were studied in metabolic cages, and aprotinin was delivered by subcutaneously implanted sustained release pellets (2 mg/day over 10 days). Mean urinary aprotinin concentration ranged between 642 ± 135 (day 2) and 127 ± 16 (day 8) µg/mL . Aprotinin caused impaired sodium preservation under a low-salt diet while stimulating excessive hyperaldosteronism and unexpectedly, proteolytic activation of ENaC. Aprotinin inhibited proximal tubular function leading to glucosuria and proteinuria. Plasma urea and cystatin C concentration increased significantly under aprotinin treatment. Kidney tissues from aprotinin-treated mice showed accumulation of intracellular aprotinin and expression of the kidney injury molecule 1 (KIM-1). In electron microscopy, electron-dense deposits were observed. There was no evidence for kidney injury in mice treated with a lower aprotinin dose (0.5 mg/day). In conclusion, high doses of aprotinin exert nephrotoxic effects by accumulation in the tubular system of healthy mice, leading to inhibition of proximal tubular function and counterregulatory stimulation of ENaC-mediated sodium transport.

14.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 4577, 2021 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33633212

RESUMO

Idiopathic forms of Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) are caused by circulating permeability factors, which can lead to early recurrence of FSGS and kidney failure after kidney transplantation. In the past three decades, many research endeavors were undertaken to identify these unknown factors. Even though some potential candidates have been recently discussed in the literature, "the" actual factor remains elusive. Therefore, there is an increased demand in FSGS research for the use of novel technologies that allow us to study FSGS from a yet unexplored angle. Here, we report the successful treatment of recurrent FSGS in a patient after living-related kidney transplantation by removal of circulating factors with CytoSorb apheresis. Interestingly, the classical published circulating factors were all in normal range in this patient but early disease recurrence in the transplant kidney and immediate response to CytoSorb apheresis were still suggestive for pathogenic circulating factors. To proof the functional effects of the patient's serum on podocytes and the glomerular filtration barrier we used a podocyte cell culture model and a proteinuria model in zebrafish to detect pathogenic effects on the podocytes actin cytoskeleton inducing a functional phenotype and podocyte effacement. We then performed Raman spectroscopy in the < 50 kDa serum fraction, on cultured podocytes treated with the FSGS serum and in kidney biopsies of the same patient at the time of transplantation and at the time of disease recurrence. The analysis revealed changes in podocyte metabolome induced by the FSGS serum as well as in focal glomerular and parietal epithelial cell regions in the FSGS biopsy. Several altered Raman spectra were identified in the fractionated serum and metabolome analysis by mass spectrometry detected lipid profiles in the FSGS serum, which were supported by disturbances in the Raman spectra. Our novel innovative analysis reveals changed lipid metabolome profiles associated with idiopathic FSGS that might reflect a new subtype of the disease.

15.
Placenta ; 105: 41-49, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33545630

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Fetal hypoxic events with unclear predictive value are a common indication for placenta examination. We evaluated whether the use of CD15 immunostaining can improve the assessment of severity and duration of fetal hypoxia. METHODS: We compared placentas (37-42 gestational weeks) from stillborns/newborns with birth asphyxia (BA) and non-hypoxic newborns. Placental findings were studied in following groups: (1) acute BA (n = 11) due to placental abruption, (2) non-acute BA (n = 121) due to non-acute conditions, (3) non-BA (n = 46) in pregnancies with preeclampsia and gestational diabetes, and (4) controls (n = 30). RESULTS: A high expression of CD15 in feto-placental resistance vessels (FRVs) was present in non-acute BA (95.9%), but absent in acute BA, non-BA and controls (p < 0.0001). Furthermore, we found no causal relationship of high expression of CD15 in FRVs to coexisting placental conditions, including severity and mechanisms/patterns of placental injury, fetal erythroblastosis, and maternal conditions. According to a multivariate analysis, only a high expression of CD15 in FRVs was independently associated with severe non-acute fetal hypoxia ([OR] = 15.52; 95% [CI] = 5.92-40.67). DISCUSSION: We have defined a characteristic pattern of CD15 expression in FRVs that allows to interpret various clinical/placental conditions with respect to fetal hypoxia, with an improved predictability compared to conventional analyses. This approach represents a novel diagnostic strategy for placenta examination, which could indirectly assess severity and duration of intrauterine hypoxia in a heterogeneous population of newborns.

16.
Am J Physiol Renal Physiol ; 320(4): F644-F653, 2021 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33615887

RESUMO

The kidneys are an important target for angiotensin II (ANG II). In adult kidneys, the effects of ANG II are mediated mainly by ANG II type 1 (AT1) receptors. AT1 receptor expression has been reported for a variety of different cell types within the kidneys, suggesting a broad spectrum of actions for ANG II. Since there have been heterogeneous results in the literature regarding the intrarenal distribution of AT1 receptors, this study aimed to obtain a comprehensive overview about the localization of AT1 receptor expression in mouse, rat, and human kidneys. Using the cell-specific and high-resolution RNAscope technique, we performed colocalization experiments with various cell markers to specifically discriminate between different segments of the tubular and vascular system. Overall, we found a similar pattern of AT1 mRNA expression in mouse, rat, and human kidneys. AT1 receptors were detected in mesangial cells and renin-producing cells. In addition, AT1 mRNA was found in interstitial cells of the cortex and outer medulla. In rodents, late afferent and early efferent arterioles expressed AT1 receptor mRNA, but larger vessels of the investigated species showed no AT1 expression. Tubular expression of AT1 mRNA was species dependent with a strong expression in proximal tubules of mice, whereas expression was undetectable in human tubular cells. These findings suggest that the (juxta)glomerular area and tubulointerstitium are conserved expression sites for AT1 receptors across species and might present the main target sites for ANG II in adult human and rodent kidneys.NEW & NOTEWORTHY Angiotensin II (ANG II) type 1 (AT1) receptors are essential for mediating the effects of ANG II in the kidneys. This study aimed to obtain a comprehensive overview about the cell-specific localization of AT1 receptor expression in rodent and human kidneys using the novel RNAscope technique. We found that the conserved AT1 receptor mRNA expression sites across species are the (juxta)glomerular areas and tubulointerstitium, which might present main target sites for ANG II in adult human and rodent kidneys.


Assuntos
Angiotensina II/farmacologia , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptor Tipo 1 de Angiotensina/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptor Tipo 2 de Angiotensina/efeitos dos fármacos , Circulação Renal/efeitos dos fármacos , Angiotensina I/metabolismo , Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/farmacologia , Animais , Humanos , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Rim/metabolismo , Camundongos , Ratos , Receptor Tipo 1 de Angiotensina/metabolismo , Receptor Tipo 2 de Angiotensina/metabolismo , Receptores de Angiotensina/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptores de Angiotensina/metabolismo , Sistema Renina-Angiotensina/efeitos dos fármacos , Roedores/genética , Roedores/metabolismo
17.
Diabetes Res Clin Pract ; 173: 108691, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33549675

RESUMO

AIMS: Systemic inhibition of dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4) showed a protective effect in several transplant models. Here we assessed the specific role of extrarenal DPP4 in renal transplant rejection. METHODS: Kidneys from wildtype (wt) F344 rats were either transplanted in wt Dark Agouti or congenic rats not expressing DPP4. The remaining, not transplanted donor kidney served as healthy controls. To investigate early inflammatory events rats were sacrificed 3 days after transplantation and kidneys were evaluated for inflammatory cells, capillary rarefaction, proliferation, apoptosis and myofibroblasts by immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: Capillary ERG-1-positive endothelial cells were significantly more abundant in renal cortex when transplanted into DPP4 deficient compared to wt recipients. In contrast, TGF-ß and myofibroblasts were reduced by more than 25% in kidneys transplanted into DPP4 deficient compared to wt recipients. Numbers of CD161a-positive NK-cells were significantly lower in allografts in DPP4 deficient compared to wt recipients. Numbers of all other investigated immune cells were not affected by the lack of extrarenal DPP4. CONCLUSION: In early transplant rejection extrarenal DPP4 is involved in the recruitment of NK-cells and early fibrosis. Beneficial effects were less pronounced than reported for systemic DPP4 inhibition, indicating that renal DPP4 is an important player in transplantation-mediated injury.


Assuntos
Actinas/metabolismo , Dipeptidil Peptidase 4/metabolismo , Transplante de Rim/métodos , Células Matadoras Naturais/metabolismo , Músculo Liso/metabolismo , Miofibroblastos/metabolismo , Subfamília B de Receptores Semelhantes a Lectina de Células NK/metabolismo , Doença Aguda , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Masculino , Ratos , Regulação para Cima
18.
Histopathology ; 78(4): 567-577, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32936950

RESUMO

AIMS: Studies in various cancer types have demonstrated discordance between results from different programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) assays. Here, we compare the reproducibility and analytical concordance of four clinically developed assays for assessing PD-L1-positivity in tumour-infiltrating immune cells in the tumour area (PD-L1-IC-positivity) in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). METHODS AND RESULTS: Primary TNBC resection specimens (n = 30) were selected based on their PD-L1-IC-positivity per VENTANA SP142 (<1%: 15 cases; 1-5%: seven cases; >5%: eight cases). Serial histological sections were stained for PD-L1 using VENTANA SP142, VENTANA SP263, DAKO 22C3 and DAKO 28-8. PD-L1-IC-positivity and tumour cell expression (≥1 versus <1%) were scored by trained readers from seven sites using online virtual microscopy. The adjusted mean of PD-L1-IC-positivity for SP263 (7.8%) was significantly higher than those for the other three assays (3.7-4.9%). Differences in adjusted means were statistically significant between SP263 and the other three assays (P < 0.0001) but not between the three remaining assays when excluding SP263 (P = 0.0961-0.6522). Intra-class correlation coefficients revealed moderate-to-strong inter-reader agreement for each assay (0.460-0.805) and poor-to-strong inter-assay agreement for each reader (0.298-0.678) on PD-L1-IC-positivity. CONCLUSIONS: In this first multicentre study of different PD-L1 assays in TNBC, we show that PD-L1-IC-positivity for SP142, 22C3 and 28-8 was reproducible and analytically concordant, indicating that these three assays may be analytically interchangeable. The relevance of the higher PD-L1-IC-positivity for SP263 should be further investigated.

19.
Acta Physiol (Oxf) ; 231(1): e13512, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32455507

RESUMO

AIM: Sodium retention is the hallmark of nephrotic syndrome (NS) and mediated by the proteolytic activation of the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) by aberrantly filtered serine proteases. Plasmin is highly abundant in nephrotic urine and has been proposed to be the principal serine protease responsible for ENaC activation in NS. However, a proof of the essential role of plasmin in experimental NS is lacking. METHODS: We used a genetic mouse model of NS based on an inducible podocin knockout (Bl6-Nphs2tm3.1Antc *Tg(Nphs1-rtTA*3G)8Jhm *Tg(tetO-cre)1Jaw or nphs2Δipod ). These mice were crossed with plasminogen deficient mice (Bl6-Plgtm1Jld or plg-/- ) to generate double knockout mice (nphs2Δipod *plg-/- ). NS was induced after oral doxycycline treatment for 14 days and mice were followed for subsequent 14 days. RESULTS: Uninduced nphs2Δipod *plg-/- mice had normal kidney function and sodium handling. After induction, proteinuria increased similarly in both nphs2Δipod *plg+/+ and nphs2Δipod *plg-/- mice. Western blot revealed the urinary excretion of plasminogen and plasmin in nphs2Δipod *plg+/+ mice which were absent in nphs2Δipod *plg-/- mice. After the onset of proteinuria, amiloride-sensitive natriuresis was increased compared to the uninduced state in both genotypes. Subsequently, urinary sodium excretion dropped in both genotypes leading to an increase in body weight and development of ascites. Treatment with the serine protease inhibitor aprotinin prevented sodium retention in both genotypes. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that mice lacking urinary plasminogen are not protected from ENaC-mediated sodium retention in experimental NS. This points to an essential role of other urinary serine proteases in the absence of plasminogen.

20.
Br J Pharmacol ; 178(4): 878-895, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33171531

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4) inhibitors are a class of oral glucose-lowering drugs used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes. In a pilot study using human kidney biopsies, we observed high DPP-4 expression in early crescent formation. This glomerular lesion occurs in different kidney diseases and is a hallmark in the pathogenesis of renal dysfunction. Therefore, we investigated the potential involvement of DPP-4 in the pathogenesis of nephritis induced by anti-glomerular basement membrane (GBM) antibody in rats. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Linagliptin and vehicle were used to treat anti-GBM nephritis in a 2- and 8-week regimen, that is either preventive or therapeutic (treatment started 7 days or 4 weeks after disease induction). Kidney function, morphologic changes, inflammation and fibrosis were monitored. KEY RESULTS: In the long-term experiment, linagliptin preventive treatment in anti-GBM nephritic rats significantly reduced the number of crescents, glomerulosclerosis, tubular injury and renal fibrosis, compared with those in untreated nephritic rats. Both linagliptin regimes significantly lowered the number of Pax8+ cells on the glomerular tuft in anti-GBM nephritis, indicating accelerated resolution of the cellular crescents. The linagliptin treatment did not change the podocyte stress in both therapeutic groups. Therapeutic intervention with linagliptin resulted in weaker amelioration of renal disease on Week 8 than did preventive intervention. CONCLUSION AND IMPLICATIONS: DPP-4 inhibition with linagliptin ameliorates renal injury in a rat model of anti-GBM, indicating that linagliptin not only is a secure therapy in diabetes but also can improve resolution of glomerular injury and healing in non-diabetic renal disease.

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