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1.
Pan Afr Med J ; 39: 147, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34527163

RESUMO

Introduction: the World health organisation (WHO) African Region reported the first confirmed COVID-19 case caused by the SARS-CoV-2 on 25th February 2020, and the first case for the East Southern Africa (ESA) sub-region was on 5th March 2020. Almost all countries in the ESA sub region implemented the WHO-recommended preventive measures variably after the notification of community transmission of the COVID-19 disease. This resulted in the disruption of the outpatient, immunization surveillance, and the related supply chain activities. Methods: a comparative analysis study design of secondary acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) surveillance data received from the East and Southern Africa sub-region countries to evaluate the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic in the AFP field surveillance for the same time period of March to December 2019 and 2020. Results: we observed that 52.4% of second stool samples were received in the laboratory within 72 hours from March to December 2019, and only 48.1% in the same period of 2020. A 4.3% decline with a p-value of <0.0001 (95% CI, ranges from 2.326% to 6.269%). Similarly, we noted a 4.7% decline in the number of reported AFP cases in the ESA sub-region for March to December 2020 compared to the same period in 2019, a p-value of less than 0.001 (95% CI ranges from 2.785 to 6.614). For the percentage of stool adequacy, we observed a 3.37% decline for April in 2020 compared to April 2019 with a p-value of less than 0.001 (95% CI ranges from 2.059 to 4.690). Conclusion: we observed a decline in the core AFP surveillance (non polio) NP-AFP rate, and percentage of stool adequacy in countries severely affected by the COVID-19 disease. These countries implemented stringent transmission prevention measures such as lock-down and international transportation restrictions.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Viroses do Sistema Nervoso Central/diagnóstico , Fezes/virologia , Mielite/diagnóstico , Doenças Neuromusculares/diagnóstico , Vigilância da População/métodos , Adolescente , África Oriental/epidemiologia , África Austral/epidemiologia , Viroses do Sistema Nervoso Central/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Mielite/epidemiologia , Doenças Neuromusculares/epidemiologia
2.
Pan Afr Med J ; 38: 194, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33995800

RESUMO

Introduction: the World Health Organisation (WHO) recommends that countries conduct comprehensive national immunisation program reviews regularly to help them identify systems wide-barriers or gaps and monitor performance against the set targets. Methods: we reviewed reports from the latest national immunisation program reviews conducted in the 20 countries in the sub-region in the course of 2012-2018. We generated descriptive analysis of the findings across the sub-region. Results: the 20 program reviews included field observations to the subnational levels as well as interviews with program staff and stakeholders. At the time of the reviews, only 11 countries had functional National Immunisation Technical Advisory Groups. Operational funding was inadequate in half of the countries. The reviews documented the cancellation of outreach services, supportive supervision visits and maintenance of cold chain equipment due to the lack of fuel or operational funding. Immunisation programs in 10 countries had major human resource gaps. Vaccine stock management tools were not effectively used in 10 countries, and stock out of vaccines and supplies was documented in 9 countries during the review. The full components of the RED strategy were implemented in only 3 of the 20 countries. Twelve countries reported challenges with the availability and accuracy of target populations. Four countries had documented the presence of vaccine hesitant groups at the time of the reviews. Conclusion: the reviews demonstrated challenges in various aspects of the programs in different countries. The implementation of the review recommendations should be built into the annual program plans, as well as into coasted multi-year plans, in order to address the gaps and helps the program to attain the set targets. With the rapid evolution of the scope and complexity of the immunisation programs in recent years, countries should invest their efforts in building the capacity of their human resources as well as updating their logistics and data systems.


Assuntos
Programas de Imunização/organização & administração , Vacinas/provisão & distribuição , Recursos Humanos/estatística & dados numéricos , África Oriental , África Austral , Fortalecimento Institucional , Humanos , Programas de Imunização/estatística & dados numéricos , Refrigeração , Recusa de Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos
3.
Pan Afr Med J ; 38: 164, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33995771

RESUMO

Introduction: the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) global pandemic has caused serious disruption to almost all aspect of human endeavor forcing countries to implement unprecedented public health measures aimed at mitigating its effects, such as total lockdown (inter and intra), travel bans, quarantine, social distancing in an effort to contain the spread of the virus. Supportive supervision is a functional component of the immunization systems that allows identification of existing gaps, provides an opportunity for onsite training, and document real-time findings for improvement of the program. The control measures of COVID-19 pandemic have also resulted in limitation of operations of the immunization system including supportive supervision. This has limited many aspects of supportive supervision for surveillance and routine immunization monitoring system in the East and Southern African countries. The aim of this study is to identify the effects of COVID-19 on Integrated Supportive Supervision visits for expanded programme on immunization (EPI) and how it influences the immunization and vaccine preventable disease (VPD) surveillance indicators, and its short-term effect towards notification of increase or decrease morbidity and mortality. Methods: we reviewed the integrated supportive supervision (ISS) data and the routine administrative coverage from 19 countries in the East and Southern Africa (ESA) for the period January to August 2019 to analyze the trends in the number of visits, vaccine-preventable diseases (VPD), and routine immunization (RI) indicators using t-test, and compare with the period January to August 2020 during the months of the COVID-19 pandemic. Results: thirteen countries out of the 19 considered, had shown a decline in the number of integrated supportive supervision (ISS) visits, with 10 (77%) having more than 59% decrease during the January-August 2020 as compared to the same period 2019. Eleven (57%) of the countries have shown a decrease (p-value < 0.05). Ethiopia and Kenya had the highest drop (p-value < 0.000). Six (32%) had an increase in the number of visits, with Madagascar, Zambia, and Zimbabwe having >100% increase in the number of visits. Sixty-seven percent (67%) of the countries that have decreased in the number of ISS visits have equally witnessed a drop in DPT3 administrative coverage. Countries with a low proportion of outreach sessions conducted in the period of January - August 2020, have all had sessions interruption, with more than 40% of the reasons associated with the lockdown. Conclusion: countries have experienced a decrease in the number of supportive supervision visits conducted, during the period of the COVID-19 pandemic and, this has influenced the routine immunization and vaccine-preventable diseases surveillance (VPD) process indicators monitored through the conduct of the visits. Continuous decrease in these performance indicators pose a great threat to the performance sustained and the functionality of the surveillance and immunization system, and consequently on increased surveillance sensitivity to promptly detect outbreaks and aiming to reducing morbidity and mortality in the sub-region.


Assuntos
COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Programas de Imunização , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos , Doenças Preveníveis por Vacina/prevenção & controle , África Oriental , África Austral , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Vigilância da População , Saúde Pública , Cobertura Vacinal , Vacinas/administração & dosagem
4.
Pan Afr Med J ; 36: 340, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33193993

RESUMO

Introduction: globally, by 2020 the paralytic poliomyelitis disease burden decreased to over 99% of the reported cases in 1988 when resolution 41.8 was endorsed by the World Health Assembly (WHA) for global polio eradication. It is clearly understood that, if there is Wild Poliovirus (WPV) and circulating Vaccines Derived Poliovirus (cVDPV) in the world, no country is safe from polio outbreaks. All countries remain at high risk of re-importation depending on the level of the containment of the types vaccine withdrawn, the laboratory poliovirus isolates, and the population immunity induced by the vaccination program. In this regard, countries to have polio outbreak preparedness and response plans, and conducting the polio outbreak simulation exercises for these plans remain important. Methods: we conducted a cross-section qualitative study to review to 8 countries conducted polio outbreak simulation exercises in the East and Southern Africa from 2016 to 2018. The findings were categorized into 5 outbreak response thematic areas analyzed qualitatively and summarized them on their strengths and weaknesses. Results: we found out that, most countries have the overall technical capacities and expertise to deal with outbreaks to a certain extent. Nevertheless, we noted that the national polio outbreak preparedness and response plans were not comprehensive enough to provide proper guidance in responding to outbreaks. The guidelines were inadequately aligned with the WHO POSOPs, and IHR 2005. Additionally, most participants who participated in the simulation exercises were less familiar with their preparedness and response plans, the WHO POSOPs, and therefore reported to be sensitized. Conclusion: we also realized that, in all countries where the polio simulation exercise conducted, their national polio outbreak preparedness and response plan was revised to be improved in line with the WHO POSOPs and IHR 2005. we, therefore, recommend the polio outbreak simulation exercises to be done in every country with an interval of 3-5 years.


Assuntos
Defesa Civil/métodos , Poliomielite/epidemiologia , Poliomielite/terapia , Treinamento por Simulação/métodos , África ao Sul do Saara/epidemiologia , Defesa Civil/organização & administração , Simulação por Computador , Estudos Transversais , Erradicação de Doenças , Surtos de Doenças , Estudos de Avaliação como Assunto , Saúde Global/normas , Implementação de Plano de Saúde/organização & administração , Implementação de Plano de Saúde/normas , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Programas de Imunização/métodos , Programas de Imunização/organização & administração , Programas de Imunização/normas , Programas Nacionais de Saúde/organização & administração , Programas Nacionais de Saúde/normas , Vacinas contra Poliovirus/provisão & distribuição , Vacinas contra Poliovirus/uso terapêutico , Vigilância da População , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Treinamento por Simulação/organização & administração , Treinamento por Simulação/normas , Estoque Estratégico/métodos , Estoque Estratégico/organização & administração
5.
Pan Afr Med J ; 36: 71, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32754298

RESUMO

Introduction: polio eradication initiatives started in 1988, this is almost the past 32 years following the WHA resolution 41.8 of eradicating polio by the year 2000. As of 2019, only 3 countries remained to be polio endemic globally, Afghanistan, Pakistan and Nigeria. The east and southern sub-region countries had shown progressive achievement towards polio eradication and to start with the African regional certification. The availability of sensitive AFP surveillance performance is among important strategies in the achievement of polio eradication. We, therefore, decided to conduct this assessment of AFP performance from 2012 to 2019 in the ESA sub-region have evidence documentation and support the certification process of the WHO AFRO region. Methods: we reviewed all reported acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) cases from 19 countries in the ESA sub region with the date of onset of paralysis from 1 January 2012 to 31 December 2019. The data were run to descriptive analysis based on the personal characteristics and AFP surveillance performance indicators parameters. Results: a total of 46,014 AFP cases were reported from 19 countries in the ESA countries who were paralyzed from 1 January 2012 to 31 December 2019. The most affected age group was children aged 0 to 3 years old where 19,740 children with acute paralysis were reported representing 42.9% of the total reported AFP for the period. The overall assessment of the non-polio AFP rate, there is an increase from a rate of 2.7 in 2012 to 3.5 in 2019 per 100,000 population aged less than 15 years, reflects a significant change with a p-value of 0.040 (95% C.I. ranges from 0.035 to 1.564). Furthermore, the percentage of stool adequacy raised from 86.4% in 2012 to 88.5% in 2019, with an observed 2.1% difference and no significant change over the 8 years. Conclusion: we observed an overall increase in the sensitivity of the AFP surveillance performance for the ESA sub-region countries from 2012 to 2019 using the national performance indicators. The COVID-19 pandemic paused an operational challenge for AFP surveillance performances from 2020. A further subnational surveillance performance analysis is suggested.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Paralisia/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Poliomielite/epidemiologia , Vigilância da População/métodos , Doença Aguda , Adolescente , África Oriental/epidemiologia , África Austral/epidemiologia , Distribuição por Idade , COVID-19 , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pandemias , Estudos Retrospectivos
6.
Pan Afr Med J ; 37: 385, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33796198

RESUMO

Introduction: World Health Organisation (WHO) recommends that countries conduct comprehensive national immunisation programme reviews regularly to help them identify systems wide-barriers or gaps and monitor performance against the set targets. Methods: we reviewed reports from the latest national immunisation program reviews conducted in the 20 countries in the subregion in the course of 2012-2018. We generated descriptive analysis of the findings across the subregion. Results: the 20 program reviews included field observations to the subnational levels as well as interviews with program staff and stakeholders. At the time of the reviews, only 11 countries had functional National Immunisation Technical Advisory Groups. Operational funding was inadequate in half of the countries. The reviews documented the cancellation of outreach services, supportive supervision visits and maintenance of cold chain equipment due to the lack of fuel or operational funding. Immunisation programs in 10 countries had major human resource gaps. Vaccine stock management tools were not effectively used in 10 countries, and stockout of vaccines and supplies was documented in 9 countries during the review. The full components of the Reaching Every District (RED) Strategy were implemented in only 3 of the 20 countries. Twelve countries reported challenges with the availability and accuracy of target populations. Four countries had documented the presence of vaccine hesitant groups at the time of the reviews. Conclusion: the reviews demonstrated challenges in various aspects of the programs in different countries. The implementation of the review recommendations should be built into the annual program plans, as well as into costed multi-year plans, in order to address the gaps and helps the program to attain the set targets. With the rapid evolution of the scope and complexity of the immunisation programs in recent years, countries should invest their efforts in building the capacity of their human resources as well as updating their logistics and data systems.


Assuntos
Programas de Imunização/organização & administração , Imunização , Vacinas/administração & dosagem , África Oriental , África Austral , Fortalecimento Institucional , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Desenvolvimento de Programas , Refrigeração/instrumentação , Recusa de Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos , Vacinas/provisão & distribuição , Recursos Humanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Organização Mundial da Saúde
7.
J Immunol Sci ; Suppl(15): 103-107, 2018 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30882092

RESUMO

Tetanus is a vaccine-preventable disease of significant public health importance especially in developing countries. The WHO strategy for the elimination of maternal and neonatal tetanus recommends the promotion of clean delivery practices, systematic immunization of pregnant women and those in the reproductive age (15-49 years) and surveillance for neonatal tetanus. Implementation of the recommended strategy with the support of WHO, UNICEF and other partners has led to significant decline in number of cases and deaths due to NT over the last decades. The coverage with the second or more dose of tetanus toxoid-containing vaccines (TT2+) a proxy for Protection at Birth (PAB) for the WHO African region has risen from 62% in 2000 to 77% by 2015 Reported cases of NT declined from 5175 in 2000 to 1289 in 2015. The goal of eliminating maternal and neonatal tetanus by 2015 was missed, but some progress has been made. By the end of 2016, 37 out of 47 (79%) of the WHO AFR member states achieved elimination. The 10 member states remaining need additional support by all partners to achieve and maintain the goal of MNTE. Innovative ways of implementing the recommendations need to be urgently considered.

8.
Vaccine ; 36(47): 7210-7214, 2018 11 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28778615

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Swaziland introduced rotavirus vaccine in the National Immunization Program, in May 2015, with the objective of reducing the burden of rotavirus diarrheal disease. We monitored the early impact of the vaccine in reducing rotavirus diarrhea. METHODS: We conducted sentinel rotavirus surveillance from January 2013 to December 2016 in children under five years of age admitted due to diarrhea attending Mbabane Government Referral Hospital in the Hhohho Region and Raleigh Fitkin Memorial Hospital in the Manzini Region. All cases had stool samples collected and tested for rotavirus antigen by enzyme immunoassay. RESULTS: Between 2013 and 2016, 596 samples were collected and tested. Rotavirus positivity reduced from average of 50.8% (172/338) (in 2013-2014 (pre vaccine period)) to 29% (24/82) in 2016, post-vaccine introduction. The median age of children with rotavirus infection increased from average of 10months in 2013-2014 to 13.7months in 2016. The peak season for all-cause diarrhea and rotavirus-specific hospitalizations among children under five years of age was June-August in all years with a blunting of the peak season in 2016. Rotavirus positivity among children 0-11months reduced from an average of 49% in 2013-2014 (116/236) to 33% (15/45) in 2016, a 33% reduction following rotavirus vaccine introduction. CONCLUSION: There has been a rapid reduction of all-cause diarrhea and rotavirus hospitalizations in Swaziland, particularly in young children and during the rotavirus season, after the introduction rotavirus vaccine. Continued surveillance is needed to monitor the long-term impact of rotavirus vaccine introduction.


Assuntos
Diarreia/epidemiologia , Gastroenterite/prevenção & controle , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Programas de Imunização , Infecções por Rotavirus/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra Rotavirus/uso terapêutico , Pré-Escolar , Diarreia/prevenção & controle , Essuatíni/epidemiologia , Fezes/virologia , Gastroenterite/epidemiologia , Humanos , Técnicas Imunoenzimáticas , Lactente , Prevalência , Estações do Ano , Vigilância de Evento Sentinela , Vacinação
9.
Vaccine ; 36(47): 7124-7130, 2018 11 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29102168

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Established in 2006 with four countries conducting hospital-based rotavirus surveillance, the African rotavirus surveillance network has expanded over subsequent years. By 2015, 14 countries in the World Health Organization (WHO) East and Southern Africa sub-region (Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Lesotho, Madagascar, Mauritius, Namibia, Rwanda, Seychelles, Swaziland, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia and Zimbabwe) were participating in the rotavirus surveillance network coordinated by WHO. We monitored the proportion of rotavirus diarrhoea among children under five years of age who were hospitalized for diarrhoea in the sentinel hospitals from 2010 to 2015 among countries that introduced rotavirus vaccine during or before 2013 (Rwanda, Tanzania, Zambia and Ethiopia) and compared with the other countries in the network. METHODS: Children under the age of five years hospitalized due to acute diarrhoea were enrolled into the sentinel surveillance system and had stool samples collected and tested for rotavirus antigens by enzyme immunoassay. We described trends in rotavirus positivity among tested stool samples before and after rotavirus vaccine introduction. RESULTS: In countries that introduced rotavirus vaccine by 2013 (Rwanda, Tanzania, Zambia and Ethiopia), average rotavirus vaccine coverage from 2010 to 2015 improved from 0% in 2010 and 2011, 13% in 2012, 46% in 2013, 83% in 2014 to 90% in 2015. Annual average rotavirus positivity from 2010 to 2015 was 35%, 33%, 38%, 28%, 27%, and 19%, respectively. In countries that introduced rotavirus vaccine after 2013 or had not introduced by 2015, average rotavirus vaccine coverage was 0% in 2010-2013, 13% in 2014 and 51% in 2015. In these countries, rotavirus positivity was 44% in 2010, 32% in 2011, 33% in 2012, 41% in 2013, 40% in 2014 and 25% in 2015. CONCLUSION: Countries that introduced rotavirus vaccine by 2013 had a lower proportion of rotavirus positive hospitalizations in 2013-2015 as compared to those that had not introduced rotavirus vaccine by 2013. The decrease in rotavirus positivity was inversely related to increase in rotavirus vaccine coverage showing impact of rotavirus vaccines.


Assuntos
Diarreia/prevenção & controle , Programas de Imunização , Infecções por Rotavirus/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra Rotavirus/uso terapêutico , Cobertura Vacinal/estatística & dados numéricos , Doença Aguda/epidemiologia , África Oriental/epidemiologia , África Austral/epidemiologia , Pré-Escolar , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Diarreia/virologia , Fezes/virologia , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Lactente , Rotavirus , Infecções por Rotavirus/epidemiologia , Vigilância de Evento Sentinela , Cobertura Vacinal/tendências , Organização Mundial da Saúde
10.
J Relig Health ; 56(5): 1692-1700, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28624983

RESUMO

A worldwide increasing trend toward vaccine hesitancy has been reported. Measles outbreaks in southern Africa in 2009-2010 were linked to objections originating from Apostolic gatherings. Founded in Zimbabwe in the 1950s, the Apostolic church has built up a large number of followers with an estimated 3.5 million in Zimbabwe in 2014. To inform planning of interventions for the 2015 measles-rubella vaccination campaign, we assessed vaccination status and knowledge, attitudes and practices among purposive samples of Apostolic caregivers in three districts each in Harare City, Manicaland and Matabeleland South in Zimbabwe. We conducted structured interviews among 97 caregivers of children aged 9-59 months and collected vaccination status for 126 children. Main Apostolic affiliations were Johanne Marange (53%), Madida (13%) and Gospel of God (11%) with considerable variation across assessment areas. The assessment also showed considerable variation among Apostolic communities in children ever vaccinated (14-100%) and retention of immunization cards (0-83%) of ever vaccinated. Overall retention of immunization cards (12%) and documented vaccination status by card (fully vaccinated = 6%) were low compared to previously reported measures in the general population. Mothers living in monogamous relationships reported over 90% of all DTP-HepB-Hib-3, measles and up to date immunizations during the first life year documented by immunization card. Results revealed opportunities to educate about immunization during utilization of health services other than vaccinations, desire to receive information about vaccinations from health personnel, and willingness to accept vaccinations when offered outside of regular services. Based on the results of the assessment, specific targeted interventions were implemented during the vaccination campaign, including an increased number of advocacy activities by district authorities. Also, health workers offered ways and timing to vaccinate children that catered to the specific situation of Apostolic caregivers, including flexible service provision after hours and outside of health facilities, meeting locations chosen by caregivers, using mobile phones to set up meeting locations, and documentation of vaccination in health facilities if home-based records posed a risk for caregivers. Coverage survey results indicate that considerable progress has been made since 2010 to increase vaccination acceptability among Apostolic communities in Zimbabwe. Further efforts will be needed to vaccinate all Apostolic children during routine and campaign activities in the country, and the results from our assessment can contribute toward this goal.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/psicologia , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Religião e Medicina , Vacinação/psicologia , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Avaliação como Assunto , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Zimbábue
11.
Pan Afr Med J ; 24: 47, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27642388

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Vaccine hesitancy and refusal continue to be a global challenge to reaching immunization targets, especially among those in traditional or fundamentalist religions. The apostolic faith in Zimbabwe has been historically associated with objection to most medical interventions, including immunization. METHODS: We conducted a descriptive analysis of socio-demographic characteristics and vaccine coverage among apostolic and non-apostolic adults aged 15-49 years and children aged 12-23 months using the Demographic and Health Survey conducted in Zimbabwe during 2010-2011. We used logistic regression models to estimate associations between the apostolic religion and receipt of all four basic childhood vaccinations in the Expanded Program on Immunization, receipt of no vaccinations, and availability of child vaccination card. RESULTS: Among children aged 12-23 months, 64% had received all doses of the four basic vaccinations, and 12% had received none of the recommended vaccines. A vaccination card was available for 68% of children. There was no significant association between Apostolic faith and completion of all basic vaccinations (aOR = 0.90, 95% CI: 0.69-1.17), but apostolic children were almost twice as likely to have received no basic vaccinations (aOR = 1.83, 95% CI: 1.22-2.77) than non-Apostolic children, and they were 32% less likely to have a vaccination card that was available and seen by the interviewer (aOR = 0.68, 95% CI: 0.52-0.89). CONCLUSION: Disparities in childhood vaccination coverage and availability of vaccination cards persist for apostolic in Zimbabwe. Continued collaboration with apostolic leaders and additional research to better understand vaccine hesitancy and refine interventions and messaging strategies are needed.


Assuntos
Religião e Medicina , Recusa do Paciente ao Tratamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos , Vacinas/administração & dosagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Programas de Imunização , Lactente , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem , Zimbábue
12.
Bull World Health Organ ; 93(5): 314-9, 2015 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26229202

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the methods used in the evaluation of measles vaccination coverage, identify quality concerns and provide recommendations for improvement. METHODS: We reviewed surveys that were conducted to evaluate supplementary measles immunization activities in eastern and southern Africa during 2012 and 2013. We investigated the organization(s) undertaking each survey, survey design, sample size, the numbers of study clusters and children per study cluster, recording of immunizations and methods of analysis. We documented sampling methods at the level of clusters, households and individual children. We also assessed the length of training for field teams at national and regional levels, the composition of teams and the supervision provided. FINDINGS: The surveys were conducted in Comoros, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, Rwanda, Swaziland, Uganda, Zambia and Zimbabwe. Of the 13 reports we reviewed, there were weaknesses in 10 of them for ethical clearance, 9 for sample size calculation, 6 for sampling methods, 12 for training structures, 13 for supervision structures and 11 for data analysis. CONCLUSION: We recommend improvements in the documentation of routine and supplementary immunization, via home-based vaccination cards or other records. For surveys conducted after supplementary immunization, a standard protocol is required. Finally, we recommend that standards be developed for report templates and for the technical review of protocols and reports. This would ensure that the results of vaccination coverage surveys are accurate, comparable, reliable and valuable for programme improvement.


Assuntos
Viés , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos/normas , Sarampo/prevenção & controle , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos , África Oriental , África Austral , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Promoção da Saúde , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos/métodos , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Vacina contra Sarampo/administração & dosagem
13.
Vaccine ; 32(52): 7047-9, 2014 Dec 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25444826

RESUMO

Immunization programs monitor 3rd dose of DPT-containing vaccine coverage as a principal indicator; however, this does not inform about coverage with other vaccines. A mini-survey was conducted to assess the status of monitoring coverage of fully immunized children (FIC) in Eastern and Southern African countries. We designed and distributed a structured self-administered questionnaire to all 19 national program managers attending a meeting in March 2014 in Harare, Zimbabwe. We learned that most countries already monitor FIC coverage and managers appreciate the importance of monitoring this as a national indicator, as it aligns with the full benefits of immunization. This mini-survey concluded that at national level, FIC coverage could be used as a principal indicator; however, at global level DPT3 has some additional advantages across all countries in standardizing the capacity of the immunization program to deliver multiple doses of the same vaccine to all children by 12 months of age.


Assuntos
Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde/métodos , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde/normas , Programas de Imunização/métodos , Programas de Imunização/normas , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos , África Oriental , África Austral , Humanos , Lactente , Inquéritos e Questionários
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