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1.
J Infect Dis ; 221(6): 1017-1024, 2020 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32031634

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The basis of fluoroquinolone treatment failure for Mycoplasma genitalium is poorly understood. METHODS: To identify mutations associated with failure we sequenced key regions of the M. genitalium parC and gyrA genes for patients undergoing sequential therapy with doxycycline-moxifloxacin (201 patients, including 21 with failure) or doxycycline-sitafloxacin (126 patients, including 13 with failure). RESULTS: The parC G248T/S83I mutation was more common among patients with failed sequential doxycycline-moxifloxacin (present in 76.2% of failures vs 7.8% cures, P < .001) or doxycycline-sitafloxacin (50% vs 16.8%, respectively; P = .01) treatment. Doxycycline-sitafloxacin was more efficacious than doxycycline-moxifloxacin against infections carrying the parC mutation conferring S83I amino acid change. Treatment was more likely to fail in these infections if they had a concurrent gyrA mutation (M95I or D99N) (P = .07 for doxycycline-moxifloxacin group and P = .009 for doxycycline-sitafloxacin group), suggesting an additive effect. CONCLUSIONS: This study indicates that parC G248T/S83I mutations contribute to failure of moxifloxacin and sitafloxacin, and the findings will inform the development of quinolone resistance assays needed to ensure optimal selection of antimicrobials for M. genitalium.

2.
J Med Microbiol ; 69(2): 244-248, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31958047

RESUMO

Introduction. Mycoplasma genitalium is a sexually transmitted organism with high levels of resistance to the recommended first-line therapy, azithromycin. The ResistancePlus MG test concurrently detects M. genitalium, and the presence of macrolide-resistance mutations (MRM). European, UK and Australian guidelines recommend a diagnostic test that reports MRM to optimize treatment through resistance-guided therapy. Hence, for samples collected for use on other platforms, reflex testing using the ResistancePlus MG test would be beneficial.Aim. To validate the ResistancePlus MG assay using samples collected in Aptima buffer for testing on the Hologic Panther.Methodology. Positive (n=99) and negative (n=229) clinical samples collected in Aptima buffer were extracted on the MagNA Pure 96 (Roche Diagnostics), and tested with the ResistancePlus MG test on the LightCycler 480 II (Roche Diagnostics). Results were compared to matched samples collected using standard sample collection (urine or swab resuspended in PBS), with positive percent agreement (PPA), negative percent agreement (NPA) and Cohen's Kappa statistic.Results. The ResistancePlus MG test had high performance with a 200 µl input volume (PPA/NPA for M. genitalium detection, 92.9 % [95 % confidence interval (CI): 85.5-96.9]/100 % [95 % CI: 97.9-100], MRM detection, 96.9 % [95 % CI: 88.2-99.5]/85.7 % [95 % CI: 66.4-95.3]) and for 1 ml input volume (PPA/NPA for M. genitalium detection, 95.9%/96.6%, MRM detection, 98.4%/90.3%). Samples remained positive after storage at room temperature beyond the manufacturer-recommended storage of <60 days (mean storage time for 1 ml extraction: 129 days).Conclusion. Samples collected using Aptima collection kits are suitable for reflex testing using the ResistancePlus MG test, allowing detection of macrolide resistance.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina/métodos , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Infecções por Mycoplasma/microbiologia , Mycoplasma genitalium/efeitos dos fármacos , Mycoplasma genitalium/isolamento & purificação , Austrália , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina/instrumentação , Humanos , Macrolídeos/farmacologia , Infecções por Mycoplasma/diagnóstico , Mycoplasma genitalium/genética , Kit de Reagentes para Diagnóstico , Manejo de Espécimes
3.
J Infect Dis ; 221(3): 454-463, 2020 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31544206

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gardnerella vaginalis is detected in women with and without bacterial vaginosis (BV). Identification of 4 G. vaginalis clades raised the possibility that pathogenic and commensal clades exist. We investigated the association of behavioral practices and Nugent Score with G. vaginalis clade distribution in women who have sex with women (WSW). METHODS: Longitudinal self-collected vaginal specimens were analyzed using established G. vaginalis species-specific and clade-typing polymerase chain reaction assays. Logistic regression assessed factors associated with detection of G. vaginalis clades, and multinomial regression assessed factors associated with number of clades. RESULTS: Clades 1, 2, and 3 and multiclade communities (<2 clades) were associated with Nugent-BV. Clade 1 (odds ratio [OR], 3.36; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.65-6.84) and multiclade communities (relative risk ratio [RRR], 9.51; 95% CI, 4.36-20.73) were also associated with Lactobacillus-deficient vaginal microbiota. Clade 4 was neither associated with Nugent-BV nor Lactobacillus-deficient microbiota (OR, 1.49; 95% CI, 0.67-3.33). Specific clades were associated with differing behavioral practices. Clade 1 was associated with increasing number of recent sexual partners and smoking, whereas clade 2 was associated with penile-vaginal sex and sharing of sex toys with female partners. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that G. vaginalis clades have varying levels of pathogenicity in WSW, with acquisition occurring through sexual activity. These findings suggest that partner treatment may be an appropriate strategy to improve BV cure.

4.
J Clin Microbiol ; 58(1)2019 Dec 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31694973

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to determine whether Chlamydia trachomatis could be detected in saliva and if infection is specific to an anatomical site in the oropharynx. Men who have sex with men (MSM) who were diagnosed with oropharyngeal chlamydia at the Melbourne Sexual Health Centre in 2017-2018 were invited to participate upon returning for treatment. Swabs at the tonsillar fossae and posterior oropharynx and a saliva sample were collected. Throat samples were tested for C. trachomatis by the Aptima Combo 2 assay. The bacterial loads of C. trachomatis in all samples were assessed by quantitative PCR (qPCR) detecting the ompA gene. We calculated the positivity and bacterial load of C. trachomatis for all samples. Forty-two MSM were included. The median age was 28 years (interquartile range [IQR], 24 to 33 years). Thirty-two participants (76.2%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 60.5% to 87.9%) had C. trachomatis detected by qPCR at both the tonsillar fossae and the posterior oropharynx, followed by 9.5% (n = 4; 95% CI, 2.7% to 22.6%) positive at the posterior oropharynx only and 4.8% (n = 2; 95% CI, 0.58% to 16.2%) positive at the tonsillar fossae only. Twenty-nine MSM had C. trachomatis detected in saliva (69.0%; 95% CI, 52.9% to 82.3%). The median C. trachomatis load in saliva was 446 copies/ml (IQR, 204 to 1,390 copies/ml), that in the tonsillar fossae was 893 copies/swab (IQR, 390 to 13,224 copies/ml), and that in the posterior oropharynx was 1,204 copies/swab (IQR, 330 to 16,211). There was no significant difference in C. trachomatis load between the tonsillar fossae and the posterior oropharynx (P = 0.119). Among MSM with oropharyngeal chlamydia, nearly three-quarters had chlamydia DNA detected in saliva, although the viability and implications for transmission are unknown.

5.
Vaccine ; 37(43): 6271-6275, 2019 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31521414

RESUMO

The Victorian Government introduced a time-limited quadrivalent human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination catch-up program targeting gay and bisexual men who have sex with men (MSM) aged up to 26 years in 2017. As of 2017, men aged ≥20 years were not eligible for the school-based HPV vaccination program. This study examined the prevalence of anal HPV among 496 MSM aged 20-26 years before they received the first dose of the HPV vaccine at the Melbourne Sexual Health Centre, Australia. More than half (56.5%) had any high-risk HPV genotypes detected in the anus. Almost half (43.1%) had at least one quadrivalent HPV vaccine-preventable genotype (6, 11, 16 or 18) and one-fifth (21.0%) had HPV 16 detected in the anus. These findings suggest that a targeted catch-up HPV vaccination program for MSM is still beneficial to protect against high-risk HPV genotypes associated with anal cancer, as well as low-risk HPV genotypes.

6.
J Clin Microbiol ; 57(9)2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31243085

RESUMO

Mycoplasma genitalium is a common sexually transmitted infection with a propensity to acquire resistance to commonly used antimicrobial therapies. Bacterial load has been linked to patient symptoms and the success of treatment. In this study, we demonstrate methodology to estimate load from routine diagnostic assays using the ResistancePlus MG test (SpeeDx Pty Ltd., Australia). The method gave comparable quantitation to an M. genitalium-specific 16S rRNA quantitative PCR (qPCR; Spearman r = 0.94) for the samples analyzed (n = 499, including urine and swab types as detailed below) and was, therefore, employed to analyze typical load levels for samples in a diagnostic laboratory (total of 1,012 tests). When stratified by sample type, female urine (median, 826 genomes/ml) had the lowest load. This was significantly lower than median loads for all other sample types (male urine [6.91 × 103 genomes/ml], anal swabs [5.50 × 103], cervical swabs [8.15 × 103], endocervical swabs [3.97 × 103], and vaginal swabs [6.95 × 103]) (P < 0.0001). There were no significant differences in load estimates between the other sample types. Reproducibility of load estimates conducted on the same samples was high (r > 0.85). In conclusion, this methodology to provide load estimates for M. genitalium can be easily integrated into routine diagnostic laboratory workflow. Given the association between organism load, symptoms, and treatment success, load assessment has future diagnostic potential.

7.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 25(4): 719-727, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30882306

RESUMO

During 2016-2017, we tested asymptomatic men who have sex with men (MSM) in Melbourne, Australia, for Mycoplasma genitalium and macrolide resistance mutations in urine and anorectal swab specimens by using PCR. We compared M. genitalium detection rates for those asymptomatic men to those for MSM with proctitis and nongonococcal urethritis (NGU) over the same period. Of 1,001 asymptomatic MSM, 95 had M. genitalium; 84.2% were macrolide resistant, and 17% were co-infected with Neisseria gonorrhoeae or Chlamydia trachomatis. Rectal positivity for M. genitalium was 7.0% and urine positivity was 2.7%. M. genitalium was not more commonly detected in the rectums of MSM (n = 355, 5.6%) with symptoms of proctitis over the same period but was more commonly detected in MSM (n = 1,019, 8.1%) with NGU. M. genitalium is common and predominantly macrolide-resistant in asymptomatic MSM. M. genitalium is not associated with proctitis in this population.


Assuntos
Homossexualidade Masculina , Infecções por Mycoplasma/diagnóstico , Infecções por Mycoplasma/microbiologia , Mycoplasma genitalium , Doenças Bacterianas Sexualmente Transmissíveis/diagnóstico , Doenças Bacterianas Sexualmente Transmissíveis/microbiologia , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Austrália/epidemiologia , Coinfecção , Estudos Transversais , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Humanos , Masculino , Infecções por Mycoplasma/epidemiologia , Infecções por Mycoplasma/transmissão , Mycoplasma genitalium/efeitos dos fármacos , Razão de Chances , Prevalência , Vigilância em Saúde Pública , Doenças Bacterianas Sexualmente Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Doenças Bacterianas Sexualmente Transmissíveis/transmissão , Avaliação de Sintomas
8.
Clin Infect Dis ; 68(4): 554-560, 2019 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29873691

RESUMO

Background: Rising macrolide and quinolone resistance in Mycoplasma genitalium necessitate new treatment approaches. We evaluated outcomes of sequential antimicrobial therapy for M. genitalium guided by a macrolide-resistance assay. Methods: In mid-2016, Melbourne Sexual Health Centre switched from azithromycin to doxycycline (100 mg twice daily for 7 days) for nongonococcal urethritis, cervicitis, and proctitis. Cases were tested for M. genitalium and macrolide-resistance mutations (MRMs) by polymerase chain reaction. Directly after doxycycline, MRM-negative infections received 2.5 g azithromycin (1 g, then 500 mg daily for 3 days), and MRM-positive infections received sitafloxacin (100 mg twice daily for 7 days). Assessment of test of cure and reinfection risk occurred 14-90 days after the second antibiotic. Results: Of 244 evaluable M. genitalium infections (52 women, 68 heterosexual men, 124 men who have sex with men) diagnosed from 20 June 2016 to 15 May 2017, MRMs were detected in 167 (68.4% [95% confidence interval {CI}, 62.2%-74.2%]). Treatment with doxycycline decreased bacterial load by a mean 2.60 log10 (n = 56; P < .0001). Microbiologic cure occurred in 73 of 77 MRM-negative infections (94.8% [95% CI, 87.2%-98.6%]) and in 154 of 167 MRM-positive infections (92.2% [95% CI, 87.1%-95.8%]). Selection of macrolide resistance occurred in only 2 of 76 (2.6% [95% CI, .3%-9.2%]) macrolide-susceptible infections. Conclusions: In the context of high levels of antimicrobial resistance, switching from azithromycin to doxycycline for presumptive treatment of M. genitalium, followed by resistance-guided therapy, cured ≥92% of infections, with infrequent selection of macrolide resistance.

9.
J Med Microbiol ; 2018 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30303481

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Chlamydia trachomatis is responsible for trachoma-associated blindness as well as the most common sexually transmitted bacterial infection worldwide, although the genovars for the former are typically A-C, whilst for the latter they are D-K and for the uncommon infection lymphogranuloma venereum they are L1-3. Nucleotide variations within the ompA gene facilitate the identification of C. trachomatis genovars. This study describes a colorimetric multiplex PCR/RLB typing assay (mPCR-RLB) directed to the VD2 region of the ompA gene for general C. trachomatis positivity and the identification of 14 individual C. trachomatis genovars. METHODOLOGY: The assay was validated by analysing 40 blinded samples that included reference strains of C. trachomatis genovars and other non-chlamydial micro-organisms that had been analysed previously using quantitative PCR (qPCR). Ninety clinical samples that had previously been found to be C. trachomatis-positive by qPCR were also evaluated using the mPCR-RLB assay. RESULTS: The mPCR-RLB assay showed 100 % agreement with the qPCR in the detection of C. trachomatis reference strains and no cross-reaction of non-chlamydial micro-organisms was observed. In the analysis of the chlamydial clinical samples, 97.8 % were C. trachomatis-positive by mPCR/RLB assay and there was a 96.6 % concordance with the qPCR at the group identification level and a 92.2 % concordance at the genovar level. CONCLUSION: The mPCR-RLB assay is a rapid and sensitive methodology for the identification of C. trachomatis genovars associated with urogenital infections, trachoma or lymphogranuloma venereum diseases that can be implemented in clinical settings, helping to identify reinfections and treatment failures and establish the appropriate treatment course.

10.
PLoS One ; 13(1): e0190199, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29293559

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Recurrence following recommended treatment for bacterial vaginosis is unacceptably high. While the pathogenesis of recurrence is not well understood, recent evidence indicates re-infection from sexual partners is likely to play a role. The aim of this study was to assess the acceptability and tolerability of topical and oral antimicrobial therapy in male partners of women with bacterial vaginosis (BV), and to investigate the impact of dual-partner treatment on the vaginal and penile microbiota. METHODS: Women with symptomatic BV (Nugent Score of 4-10 and ≥3 Amsel criteria) and their regular male sexual partner were recruited from Melbourne Sexual Health Centre, Melbourne, Australia. Women received oral metronidazole 400mg twice daily (or intra-vaginal 2% clindamycin cream, if contraindicated) for 7-days. Male partners received oral metronidazole 400mg twice daily and 2% clindamycin cream topically to the penile skin twice daily for 7-days. Couples provided self-collected genital specimens and completed questionnaires at enrolment and then weekly for 4-weeks. Genital microbiota composition was determined by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Changes in genital microbiota composition were assessed by Bray-Curtis index. Bacterial diversity was measured by the Shannon Diversity Index. RESULTS: Twenty-two couples were recruited. Sixteen couples (76%) completed all study procedures. Adherence was high; most participants took >90% of prescribed medication. Medication, and particularly topical clindamycin in males, was well tolerated. Dual-partner treatment had an immediate and sustained effect on the composition of vaginal microbiota (median Bray-Curtis score day 0 versus day 8 = 0.03 [IQR 0-0.15], day 0 vs day 28 = 0.03 [0.02-0.11]). We observed a reduction in bacterial diversity of the vaginal microbiota and a decrease in the prevalence and abundance of BV-associated bacteria following treatment. Treatment had an immediate effect on the composition of the cutaneous penile microbiota (median Bray-Curtis score day 0 vs day 8 = 0.09 [0.04-0.17]), however this was not as pronounced at day 28 (median Bray-Curtis score day 0 vs day 28 = 0.38 [0.11-0.59]). A decrease in the prevalence and abundance of BV-associated bacteria in the cutaneous penile microbiota was observed immediately following treatment at day 8. CONCLUSION: Combined oral and topical treatment of male partners of women with BV is acceptable and well tolerated. The combined acceptability and microbiological data presented in this paper supports the need for larger studies with longer follow up to characterize the sustained effect of dual partner treatment on the genital microbiota of couples and assess the impact on BV recurrence.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Pênis/microbiologia , Parceiros Sexuais , Vagina/microbiologia , Vaginose Bacteriana/tratamento farmacológico , Administração Oral , Administração Tópica , Adulto , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Antibacterianos/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Microbiota , Projetos Piloto , Pele/microbiologia
11.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 24(2): 328-335, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29350154

RESUMO

High levels of macrolide resistance and increasing fluoroquinolone resistance are found in Mycoplasma genitalium in many countries. We evaluated pristinamycin for macrolide-resistant M. genitalium in a sexual health center in Australia. Microbiologic cure was determined by M. genitalium-specific 16S PCR 14-90 days after treatment began. Of 114 persons treated with pristinamycin, infection was cured in 85 (75%). This percentage did not change when pristinamycin was given at daily doses of 2 g or 4 g or at 3 g combined with 200 mg doxycycline. In infections with higher pretreatment bacterial load, treatment was twice as likely to fail for each 1 log10 increase in bacterial load. Gastrointestinal side effects occurred in 7% of patients. Pristinamycin at maximum oral dose, or combined with doxycycline, cured 75% of macrolide-resistant M. genitalium infections. Pristinamycin is well-tolerated and remains an option where fluoroquinolones have failed or cannot be used.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Macrolídeos/farmacologia , Infecções por Mycoplasma/tratamento farmacológico , Mycoplasma genitalium/efeitos dos fármacos , Pristinamicina/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Infecções por Mycoplasma/microbiologia , Mycoplasma genitalium/genética
12.
Sex Transm Infect ; 94(3): 222-225, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28866637

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Human papillomavirus (HPV) surveillance is important to monitor the effectiveness of national HPV vaccination programmes. Positivity of HPV in urine in men varies with different sampling methods. We aimed to determine the positivity for detection of HPV-6/11 in urine samples among men in relation to the position of genital warts and circumcision status. METHOD: We analysed stored chlamydia-positive urine specimens in young heterosexual men aged less than 25 years attending Melbourne Sexual Health Centre, Australia, between 2004 and 2015, for HPV genotypes. Positivity of HPV-6/11 and high-risk genotypes were stratified according to the position of genital warts and circumcision status. Positivity of HPV-6/11 was calculated using diagnosis of warts as the gold standard. Warts were classified as proximal penile warts from suprapubic area to midshaft of penis, and distal penile warts from distal shaft of penis to meatus. RESULTS: Of the 934 specimens, 253 (27.1%) men were positive for any HPV and 82 men (8.8%) had genital warts. The ORs of HPV-6/11 detection in urine were 4.63 (95% CI: 1.68 to 12.78) and 40.20 (95% CI: 19.78 to 81.70) times higher among men who had proximal penile warts and distal penile warts, respectively, compared with men who did not have genital warts. Circumcised men were less likely to have high-risk HPV (OR 0.31; 95% CI: 0.14 to 0.65) than uncircumcised men. Uncircumcised men were more likely to have distal penile warts than circumcised men (OR 8.22; 95% CI: 1.34 to 337.46). CONCLUSION: Positivity of HPV-6/11 in urine increases greatly in men with distal penile warts. Circumcised men are less likely to have distal penile warts, any HPV or high-risk HPV detected. Urine is likely to be an alternative sampling method for HPV-6/11 surveillance programme in men in countries with low circumcision rates.


Assuntos
Circuncisão Masculina/estatística & dados numéricos , Condiloma Acuminado/patologia , Condiloma Acuminado/virologia , Papillomavirus Humano 11/isolamento & purificação , Papillomavirus Humano 6/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Papillomavirus/patologia , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/urina , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/virologia , Austrália , Condiloma Acuminado/epidemiologia , Condiloma Acuminado/urina , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Humanos , Masculino , Infecções por Papillomavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Papillomavirus/urina , Infecções por Papillomavirus/virologia , Neoplasias Penianas/patologia , Neoplasias Penianas/prevenção & controle , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/patologia , Urinálise
13.
Sex Transm Dis ; 44(7): 417-422, 2017 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28608791

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Repeat chlamydia detection after treatment is common, and there is concern that treatment failure may be a cause. METHODS: Within a randomized trial, we established a prospective cohort of 600 participants with anogenital chlamydia diagnoses (200 each of women, heterosexual men, and men who have sex with men [MSM]). Participants were invited for repeat testing at 3 months and to complete a behavioral survey at 4 months. Positive samples were analyzed for organism DNA load and genovar. We estimated repeat chlamydia positivity, reinfection and treatment failure rates, and investigated the biological and behavioral factors associated with a repeat positive test. RESULTS: A total of 290 participants (100 women, 89 heterosexual men, 101 MSM) were retested at 1 to 4 months, with 43 repeat positives, including 26 classed as reinfection and 9 as treatment failures. Comparing MSM with heterosexual men and women combined, repeat positivity was higher (20.8% vs 11.6%, P = 0.04), and treatment failure was higher (6.9% vs 1.1%, P = 0.01), but there was no difference in reinfection rates (11.9% vs 7.4%, P = 0.21). Among MSM, the odds of repeat positivity increased by 90% with each additional log organism load in the original specimen (baseline) (adjusted odds ratio, 1.9; 95% confidence interval, 1.1-3.2). Among heterosexuals, the odds of repeat positivity decreased by 10% with each additional week delay in being retested for chlamydia (adjusted odds ratio, 0.9; 95% confidence interval, 0.8-0.9). CONCLUSIONS: Positive retests were more common among MSM than heterosexuals. Treatment failure was more common in MSM with rectal chlamydia, reinforcing concerns about azithromycin treatment failure.


Assuntos
Infecções por Chlamydia/diagnóstico , Infecções por Chlamydia/psicologia , Chlamydia trachomatis/efeitos dos fármacos , Heterossexualidade/psicologia , Homossexualidade Masculina/psicologia , Cooperação do Paciente , Adulto , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Austrália/epidemiologia , Azitromicina/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Chlamydia/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Seguimentos , Doenças dos Genitais Femininos/diagnóstico , Doenças dos Genitais Femininos/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças dos Genitais Femininos/psicologia , Doenças dos Genitais Masculinos/diagnóstico , Doenças dos Genitais Masculinos/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças dos Genitais Masculinos/psicologia , Humanos , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Estudos Prospectivos , Doenças Retais/diagnóstico , Doenças Retais/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Retais/psicologia , Recidiva , Falha de Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
14.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 23(5): 809-812, 2017 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28418319

RESUMO

Escalating resistance to azithromycin and moxifloxacin is being reported for Mycoplasma genitalium in the Asia-Pacific region. Analyzing 140 infections, we found pretreatment fluoroquinolone-resistance mutations in parC (13.6%) and gyrA (5%). ParC S83 changes were associated with moxifloxacin failure. Combined macrolide/fluoroquinolone-resistance mutations were in 8.6% of specimens, for which recommended therapies would be ineffective.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Fluoroquinolonas/farmacologia , Macrolídeos/farmacologia , Infecções por Mycoplasma/epidemiologia , Infecções por Mycoplasma/microbiologia , Mycoplasma genitalium/efeitos dos fármacos , Austrália/epidemiologia , Feminino , Genes Bacterianos , Humanos , Masculino , Mycoplasma genitalium/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
15.
Am J Obstet Gynecol ; 217(1): 71.e1-71.e5, 2017 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28268197

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to determine the frequency of microbial invasion of the amniotic cavity in the midtrimester of pregnancy in patients undergoing amniocentesis for clinical indications. STUDY DESIGN: This was a prospective investigation of the amniotic fluid of 344 asymptomatic women recruited in midpregnancy for the presence of microbial DNA. Amniotic samples obtained at the time of amniocentesis for genetic testing on women between 15 and 22 weeks of gestation were tested specifically for the presence of Ureaplasma urealyticum, Ureaplasma parvum, Mycoplasma hominis, and Mycoplasma genitalium as well as for other bacteria and fungi using broad-range polymerase chain reaction only. Pregnancy outcomes were reviewed independent of all molecular test results. RESULTS: Using broad-range polymerase chain reaction, the prevalence of microbial invasion of the amniotic cavity in women between 15 and 22 weeks of gestation was 0% (0 vs 344). Early preterm delivery occurred in only 4 women (1%); 1 delivered electively and 3 spontaneously. None were associated with Ureaplasma urealyticum, Ureaplasma parvum, Mycoplasma hominis, or Mycoplasma genitalium. In addition, broad range polymerase chain reaction did not reveal the presence of other bacterial or fungal microbes. CONCLUSION: Microbial invasion of the amniotic cavity in midtrimester gestations of low-risk pregnant women was not detected using molecular methods in 344 patients.


Assuntos
Líquido Amniótico/microbiologia , DNA Bacteriano/análise , Idade Gestacional , Adulto , Amniocentese/efeitos adversos , Austrália , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mycoplasma genitalium/genética , Mycoplasma genitalium/isolamento & purificação , Mycoplasma hominis/genética , Mycoplasma hominis/isolamento & purificação , Trabalho de Parto Prematuro/microbiologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro/microbiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Ureaplasma/genética , Ureaplasma/isolamento & purificação , Ureaplasma urealyticum/genética , Ureaplasma urealyticum/isolamento & purificação
16.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 17(1): 68-77, 2017 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27282422

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Australia introduced a national quadrivalent human papillomavirus (4vHPV) vaccination programme for girls and young women in April, 2007. The HPV genotypes targeted by the female vaccine could also affect the protection afforded to heterosexual men. We examined the prevalence of 4vHPV targeted vaccine genotypes and the nine-valent HPV (9vHPV)-targeted vaccines genotypes among sexually active, predominantly unvaccinated heterosexual men from 2004 to 2015. METHODS: We did a retrospective, observational study of urine and urethral swab specimens from heterosexual men aged 25 years or younger attending the Melbourne Sexual Health Centre between July 1, 2004, and June 30, 2015, who tested positive for Chlamydia trachomatis. We extracted HPV DNA and used the PapType HPV assay to detect 14 high-risk HPV genotypes (16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 56, 58, 59, 66, and 68) and two low-risk genotypes (6 and 11). We calculated the prevalence of any HPV genotype, genotypes 6 or 11, genotypes 16 or 18, genotypes in the 4vHPV group (6, 11, 16, or 18), five additional genotypes in the 9vHPV group (31, 33, 45, 52, or 58), and non-vaccine-targeted genotypes (31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 56, 58, 59, 66, or 68). FINDINGS: We obtained data between July 1, 2004, and June 30, 2015, and did the data analysis in December, 2015. Of 1764 specimens obtained, we included 1466 in our final analysis (the others were excluded because they had indeterminate results or were duplicates). The prevalence of any HPV genotype and genotypes 31, 33, 45, 52, and 58 did not change from 2004-05 to 2014-15, but we noted reductions in genotypes 6 and 11 (from 12% [95% CI 6-21%], to 3% [1-7%], ptrend=0·008), 16 and 18 (from 13% [95% CI 7-22%] to 3% [1-6%], ptrend<0·0001), and 4vHPV-targeted genotypes (from 22% [95% CI 14-33%] to 6% [3-10%], ptrend<0·0001). Prevalence of non-vaccine-targeted genotypes increased from 16% [95% CI 9-26%] to 22% [17-29%], ptrend<0·0001). In Australian-born men, 4vHPV-targeted genotype prevalence decreased from 11 of 55 [20%, 95% CI 10-33%] to two of 74 [3%, 0-11%], ptrend<0·0001); an even greater decline occurred in Australian-born men aged 21 years or younger (from four of 13 [31%, 95% CI 9-61%] to none of 25; ptrend<0·0001). Genotypes 16 and 18 decreased (adjusted prevalence ratio [PR] 0·32, 95% CI 0·14-0·74; p=0·008) but not genotypes 6 and 11 (adjusted PR 0·50, 0·16-1·56; p=0·234) in the postvaccination period among men who had arrived in Australia within 2 years from countries with a bivalent vaccine (2vHPV) programme (England, Scotland, Wales, Cook Islands, Northern Ireland, or the Netherlands), compared with the prevaccination period. No change was noted in 4vHPV genotypes in men born overseas in other countries. INTERPRETATION: The marked reduction in prevalence of 4vHPV genotypes among mainly unvaccinated Australian-born men suggests herd protection has occurred from the female vaccination programme. Additionally, the decline in genotypes 16 and 18, but not genotypes 6 and 11, among overseas-born men predominantly from countries with a 2vHPV vaccine programme suggests that these men received benefits from herd protection for genotypes 16 and 18 from their vaccinated female partners in their own countries. These reductions could translate to reductions in HPV-related malignant conditions in men, even in countries with female-only vaccination programmes. FUNDING: The Australian National Health and Medical Research Council Program.


Assuntos
Vacina Quadrivalente Recombinante contra HPV tipos 6, 11, 16, 18/administração & dosagem , Programas de Imunização , Papillomaviridae/classificação , Infecções por Papillomavirus/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Austrália/epidemiologia , Feminino , Genótipo , Vacina Quadrivalente Recombinante contra HPV tipos 6, 11, 16, 18/imunologia , Humanos , Masculino , Papillomaviridae/química , Papillomaviridae/imunologia , Papillomaviridae/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Papillomavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Papillomavirus/virologia , Prevalência , Saúde Reprodutiva , Estudos Retrospectivos , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
17.
Clin Infect Dis ; 64(3): 250-256, 2017 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28011607

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We evaluated the impact of extended azithromycin (1.5g over 5 days) on selection of macrolide resistance and microbiological cure in men with Mycoplasma genitalium urethritis during 2013-2015 and compared this to cases treated with azithromycin 1g in 2012-2013. METHODS: Microbiological cure was determined for men with M. genitalium urethritis treated with azithromycin 1.5g using quantitative polymerase chain reaction specific for M. genitalium DNA on samples 14-100 days post-treatment. Pre- and post-treatment macrolide resistance mutations were detected by sequencing the 23 S gene. RESULTS: There was no difference in proportions with microbiological cure between azithromycin 1.5g and 1g: 62/106 (58%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 49%, 68%) and 56/107 (52%; 95%CI 42-62%), P = .34, respectively. Also, there was no difference in the proportion of wild-type 23 S rRNA (presumed macrolide sensitive) infections cured after 1.5g and azithromycin 1g: 28/34 (82%; 95%CI 65-92%) and 49/60 (82%; 95%CI 70-90%), P=1.0, respectively. There was no difference between 1.5g and 1g in the proportions of wild-type infections with post-treatment resistance mutations: 4/34 (12%; 95%CI 3-27%) and 11/60 (18%; 95%CI 10-30%), respectively, P = .40. Pre-treatment resistance was present in 51/98 (52%; 95%CI 42-62%) cases in 2013-2015 compared to 47/107 (44%; 95%CI 34-54%) in 2012-2013, P = .25. CONCLUSIONS: Extended azithromycin 1.5g was no more effective than a single 1g dose at achieving cure of M. genitalium urethritis and importantly did not reduce the selection of macrolide resistance. Nonmacrolide and new approaches for the treatment of M. genitalium urethritis are required.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Azitromicina/administração & dosagem , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Infecções por Mycoplasma/tratamento farmacológico , Mycoplasma genitalium/efeitos dos fármacos , Uretrite/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Austrália/epidemiologia , Azitromicina/farmacologia , Carga Bacteriana/efeitos dos fármacos , Carga Bacteriana/genética , DNA Bacteriano/genética , DNA Bacteriano/isolamento & purificação , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Genótipo , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Mutação , Infecções por Mycoplasma/epidemiologia , Infecções por Mycoplasma/microbiologia , Mycoplasma genitalium/genética , Mycoplasma genitalium/isolamento & purificação , Resultado do Tratamento , Uretrite/epidemiologia , Uretrite/microbiologia , Adulto Jovem
19.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 15(11): 1314-23, 2015 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26201300

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The national quadrivalent human papillomavirus (4vHPV) vaccination programme was launched in Australia in April, 2007. In this study, we aimed to explore the prevalence of vaccine-targeted human papillomavirus (HPV) types contained in the 4vHPV and nine-valent HPV (9vHPV) vaccines detected in young women diagnosed with chlamydia. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, we identified specimens from women aged 25 years or younger who attended the Melbourne Sexual Health Centre (Melbourne, VIC, Australia) diagnosed with chlamydia. We calculated the prevalence of 4vHPV types (6, 11, 16, and 18) and the extra five 9vHPV types (31, 33, 45, 52, and 58 alone) excluding 4vHPV types, stratified by Australian financial year (and according to the prevaccination and postvaccination periods) and self-reported vaccination status, for all women, Australian-born women, Australian-born women aged 21 years and younger, and overseas-born women. We calculated adjusted prevalence ratios using binomial log linear regression. FINDINGS: Between July 1, 2004, and June 30, 2014, we included 1202 women. The prevalence of 4vHPV types in Australian-born women decreased during this period (HPV 6 and 11: 2004-05 nine [16%, 95% CI 8-28] of 56 vs 2013-14 one [2%, 0-9] of 57, p<0·0001; HPV 16 and 18: 17 [30%, 19-44] vs two [4%, 0-12], p<0·0001). In Australian-born women aged 21 years and younger, HPV 6 and 11 prevalence remained at 0% for all years after 2008-09, and we detected HPV 16 and 18 in 5% or less of samples for the same period. In unvaccinated Australian-born women, we noted a significant decrease in 4vHPV types from 66 (41%, 95% CI 34-49) of 160 in the prevaccination period (from July 1, 2004, to June 30, 2007) to five (19%, 6-38) of 27 in the postvaccination period (July 1, 2007, to June 30, 2014; p=0·031), but not in the 9vHPV types, excluding 4vHPV (36 [23%, 95% CI 16-30] vs seven [26%, 11-46]; p=0·805). INTERPRETATION: The three-dose vaccination coverage was sufficient for the 4vHPV types to almost disappear in Australian-born women aged 21 years or younger within 3 years of introduction of the national HPV vaccination programme. We noted strong herd protection, with a significant decrease in the prevalence of 4vHPV in unvaccinated women. The 4vHPV vaccination programme in Australia has been successful at protecting women against 4vHPV types. FUNDING: Australian National Health and Medical Research Council.


Assuntos
Infecções por Chlamydia/complicações , Chlamydia trachomatis/isolamento & purificação , Papillomaviridae/classificação , Papillomaviridae/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Papillomavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Papillomavirus/virologia , Vacinas contra Papillomavirus/administração & dosagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Austrália/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Imunidade Coletiva , Infecções por Papillomavirus/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra Papillomavirus/imunologia , Prevalência , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
20.
PLoS One ; 8(5): e63892, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23691108

RESUMO

Genetic variation of 49 human papillomavirus (HPV) 6 and 22 HPV11 isolates from recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (RRP) (n = 17), genital warts (n = 43), anal cancer (n = 6) and cervical neoplasia cells (n = 5), was determined by sequencing the long control region (LCR) and the E6 and E7 genes. Comparative analysis of genetic variability was examined to determine whether different disease states resulting from HPV6 or HPV11 infection cluster into distinct variant groups. Sequence variation analysis of HPV6 revealed that isolates cluster into variants within previously described HPV6 lineages, with the majority (65%) clustering to HPV6 sublineage B1 across the three genomic regions examined. Overall 72 HPV6 and 25 HPV11 single nucleotide variations, insertions and deletions were observed within samples examined. In addition, missense alterations were observed in the E6/E7 genes for 6 HPV6 and 5 HPV11 variants. No nucleotide variations were identified in any isolates at the four E2 binding sites for HPV6 or HPV11, nor were any isolates found to be identical to the HPV6 lineage A or HPV11 sublineage A1 reference genomes. Overall, a high degree of sequence conservation was observed between isolates across each of the regions investigated for both HPV6 and HPV11. Genetic variants identified a slight association with HPV6 and anogenital lesions (p = 0.04). This study provides important information on the genetic diversity of circulating HPV 6 and HPV11 variants within the Australian population and supports the observation that the majority of HPV6 isolates cluster to the HPV6 sublineage B1 with anogenital lesions demonstrating an association with this sublineage (p = 0.02). Comparative analysis of Australian isolates for both HPV6 and HPV11 to those from other geographical regions based on the LCR revealed a high degree of sequence similarity throughout the world, confirming previous observations that there are no geographically specific variants for these HPV types.


Assuntos
Variação Genética , Papillomavirus Humano 11/genética , Papillomavirus Humano 6/genética , Infecções por Papillomavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Papillomavirus/virologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Neoplasias do Ânus/virologia , Austrália/epidemiologia , Sequência de Bases , Neoplasia Intraepitelial Cervical/virologia , Condiloma Acuminado/virologia , Humanos , Região de Controle de Locus Gênico/genética , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Mucosa Bucal/virologia , Infecções Respiratórias/virologia , Análise de Sequência de DNA
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