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1.
JACC Clin Electrophysiol ; 4(2): 201-208, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29749938

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study sought to evaluate the impact of abandoned cardiovascular implantable electronic device (CIED) leads on the presentation and management of device-related infections. BACKGROUND: Device infection is a serious consequence of CIEDs and necessitates removal of all hardware for attempted cure. The merits of extracting or retaining presumed sterile but nonfunctioning leads is a subject of ongoing debate. METHODS: The MEDIC (Multicenter Electrophysiologic Device Infection Cohort) prospectively enrolled patients with CIED infections at 10 institutions in the United States and abroad between January 1, 2009, and December 31, 2012. Within a propensity-matched cohort, relevant clinical information was compared between patients who had 1 or more abandoned leads at the time of infection and those who had none. RESULTS: Matching produced a cohort of 264 patients, including 176 with no abandoned leads and 88 with abandoned leads. The groups were balanced with respect to Charlson comorbidity index, oldest lead age, device type, sex, and race. At the time of admission, those with abandoned leads were less likely to demonstrate systemic signs of infection, including leukocytosis (p = 0.023) and positive blood cultures (p = 0.005). Conversely, patients with abandoned leads were more likely to demonstrate local signs of infections, including skin erosion (p = 0.031) and positive pocket cultures (p = 0.015). In addition, patients with abandoned leads were more likely to require laser extraction (p = 0.010). CONCLUSIONS: The results of a large prospective registry of CIED infections demonstrated that patients with abandoned leads may present with different signs, symptoms, and microbiological findings and require laser extraction more than those without abandoned leads.


Assuntos
Desfibriladores Implantáveis/efeitos adversos , Remoção de Dispositivo , Marca-Passo Artificial/efeitos adversos , Falha de Prótese/efeitos adversos , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/epidemiologia , Idoso , Remoção de Dispositivo/efeitos adversos , Remoção de Dispositivo/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pontuação de Propensão , Estudos Prospectivos , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/etiologia , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/microbiologia , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/mortalidade
2.
Open Heart ; 5(1): e000681, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29632673

RESUMO

Objective: To explore differences in clinical manifestations and outcomes in those patients who develop infection after undergoing initial implantation versus reoperation. Methods: We compared cases of cardiac implantable electronic device (CIED) infection based on initial implantation versus reoperation from 11 centres. Results: There were 432 patients with CIED infection, 178 occurring after initial device placement and 254 after repeat reoperation. No differences were seen in age, sex or device type. Those with infection after initial implant had a higher Charlson Comorbidity Score (median 3 (IQR 2-6) vs 2 (IQR 1-4), p<0.001), shorter time since last procedure (median 8.9 months (IQR 0.9-33.3) vs 19.5 months (IQR 1.1-62.9), p<0.0001) and fewer leads (2.0±0.6vs 2.5±0.9, p<0.001). Pocket infections were more likely to occur after a reoperation (70.1%vs48.9%, p<0.001) and coagulase negative staphylococci (CoNS) was the most frequently isolated organism in this group (p=0.029). In contrast, initial implant infections were more likely to present with higher white cell count (10.5±5.1 g/dL vs 9.5±5.4 g/dL, p=0.025), metastatic foci of infection (16.9%vs8.7%, p=0.016) and sepsis (30.9%vs19.3%, p=0.006). There were no differences in in-hospital (7.9%vs5.2%, p=0.31) or 6-month mortality (21.9%vs14.0%, p=0.056). Conclusions: CIED infections after initial device implant occur earlier, more aggressively, and often due to Staphylococcus aureus. In contrast, CIED infections after reoperation occur later, are due to CoNS, and have more indolent manifestations with primary localisation to the pocket.

3.
Pacing Clin Electrophysiol ; 41(5): 524-531, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29518265

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Published guidelines mandate complete device removal in cases of cardiovascular implantable electronic device (CIED) infection. Clinical predictors of successful salvage of infected CIEDs have not been defined. METHODS: Data from the Multicenter Electrophysiologic Device Infection Collaboration, a prospective, observational, multinational cohort study of CIED infection, were used to investigate whether clinical predictors of successful salvage of infected devices could be identified. RESULTS: Of 433 adult patients with CIED infections, 306 (71%) underwent immediate device explantation. Medical management with device retention and antimicrobial therapy was initially attempted in 127 patients (29%). "Early failure" of attempted salvage occurred in 74 patients (58%) who subsequently underwent device explantation during the index hospitalization. The remaining 53 patients (42%) in the attempted salvage group retained their CIED. Twenty-six (49%) had resolution of CIED infection (successful salvage group) whereas 27 patients (51%) experienced "late" salvage failure. Upon comparing the salvage failure group, early and late (N = 101), to the group experiencing successful salvage of an infected CIED (N = 26), no clinical or laboratory predictors of successful salvage were identified. However, by univariate analysis, coagulase-negative staphylococci as infecting pathogens (P = 0.0439) and the presence of a lead vegetation (P = 0.024) were associated with overall failed salvage. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with definite CIED infections, clinical and laboratory variables cannot predict successful device salvage. Until new data are forthcoming, device explantation should remain a mandatory and early management intervention in patients with CIED infection in keeping with existing expert guidelines unless medical contraindications exist or patients refuse device removal.


Assuntos
Desfibriladores Implantáveis , Marca-Passo Artificial , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/terapia , Terapia de Salvação , Idoso , Remoção de Dispositivo , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Sistema de Registros , Fatores de Risco , Falha de Tratamento
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28292753

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Infection is a serious complication of cardiovascular-implantable electronic device implantation and necessitates removal of all hardware for optimal treatment. Strategies for reimplanting hardware after infection vary widely and have not previously been analyzed using a large, multicenter study. METHODS AND RESULTS: The MEDIC (Multicenter Electrophysiologic Device Infection Cohort) prospectively enrolled subjects with cardiovascular-implantable electronic device infections at multiple institutions in the United States and abroad between 2009 and 2012. Reimplantation strategies were evaluated overall, and every patient who relapsed within 6 months was individually examined for clinical information that could help explain the negative outcome. Overall, 434 patients with cardiovascular-implantable electronic device infections were prospectively enrolled at participating centers. During the initial course of therapy, complete device removal was done in 381 patients (87.8%), and 220 of them (57.7%) were ultimately reimplanted with new devices. Overall, the median time between removal and reimplantation was 10 days, with an interquartile range of 6 to 19 days. Eleven of the 434 patients had another infection within 6 months, but only 4 of them were managed with cardiovascular-implantable electronic device removal and reimplantation during the initial infection. Thus, the repeat infection rate was low (1.8%) in those who were reimplanted. Patients who retained original hardware had a 11.3% repeat infection rate. CONCLUSIONS: Our study findings confirm that a broad range of reimplant strategies are used in clinical practice. They suggest that it is safe to reimplant cardiac devices after extraction of previously infected hardware and that the risk of a second infection is low, regardless of reimplant timing.


Assuntos
Arritmias Cardíacas/terapia , Desfibriladores Implantáveis/efeitos adversos , Remoção de Dispositivo/métodos , Marca-Passo Artificial/efeitos adversos , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/terapia , Idoso , Arritmias Cardíacas/diagnóstico , Infecções Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Infecções Cardiovasculares/terapia , Estudos de Coortes , Bases de Dados Factuais , Fenômenos Eletrofisiológicos , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/diagnóstico , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/epidemiologia , Recidiva , Retratamento/métodos , Medição de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos
5.
Cardiol Rev ; 24(5): 218-23, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26274538

RESUMO

Non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs) are frequently used to prevent stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation. These patients are often also on aspirin or other antiplatelet agents. It is possible that treatment with both NOACs and aspirin or other antiplatelet drug may be effective in decreasing stroke, but data are sparse regarding the efficacy and safety of using both agents for stroke prevention. To address these issues, data were pooled from the 4 recent randomized, controlled trials of NOACs: apixaban, rivaroxaban, dabigatran, and edoxaban, which included 42,411 patients; 14,148 (33.4%) were also on aspirin or other antiplatelet drug. The number of thromboembolic events among participants on NOAC and aspirin/antiplatelet was compared with the number of events in patients on NOAC alone. Bleeding rates were also compared between those on NOAC + aspirin/antiplatelet and on NOAC alone. These results were compared with thromboembolic and bleeding events in the warfarin + aspirin/antiplatelet versus warfarin alone. No greater risk for thromboembolism was seen in patients on NOACs compared with patients on both NOACs and aspirin/antiplatelet drug. In this nonrandomized comparison, there was initially a signal toward higher thromboembolic rates among NOAC users also on aspirin/antiplatelet drugs (relative risk, 1.16; 95% confidence intervals, 1.05, 1.29) when compared with NOAC alone. This likely reflected the higher CHADS2 scores of those on aspirin/antiplatelet drugs. When the analysis was limited to studies that included aspirin rather than other antiplatelet drugs, no difference was seen for thromboembolic rates comparing dual therapy to NOAC alone (relative risk, 1.02; 95% confidence intervals, 0.90, 1.15). Higher rates of bleeding were seen with aspirin/antiplatelet drug in conjunction with NOAC. In this meta-analysis and nonrandomized comparison of aspirin/antiplatelet users and nonusers also on anticoagulation, there was no additional benefit seen of anticoagulation and antiplatelet therapy for stroke prevention when compared with anticoagulation alone. There was, however, an increased risk of bleeding. Careful assessment of the indications for antiplatelet drugs in patients with atrial fibrillation who are also receiving oral anticoagulants is warranted, and future randomized comparisons are needed.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Fibrilação Atrial/complicações , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/uso terapêutico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Tromboembolia/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Tromboembolia/etiologia
6.
JACC Cardiovasc Imaging ; 8(4): 414-423, 2015 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25797123

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to describe the role of contrast-enhanced cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) in the workup of patients with aborted sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) and in the prediction of long-term outcomes. BACKGROUND: Myocardial fibrosis is a key substrate for SCA, and late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) on a CMR study is a robust technique for imaging of myocardial fibrosis. METHODS: We performed a retrospective review of all survivors of SCA who were referred for CMR studies and performed follow-up for the subsequent occurrence of an adverse event (death and appropriate defibrillator therapy). RESULTS: After a workup that included a clinical history, electrocardiogram, echocardiography, and coronary angiogram, 137 patients underwent CMR for workup of aborted SCA (66% male; mean age 56 ± 11 years; left ventricular ejection fraction 43 ± 12%). The presenting arrhythmias were ventricular fibrillation (n = 105 [77%]) and ventricular tachycardia (n = 32 [23%]). Overall, LGE was found in 98 patients (71%), with an average extent of 9.9 ± 5% of the left ventricular myocardium. CMR imaging provided a diagnosis or an arrhythmic substrate in 104 patients (76%), including the presence of an infarct-pattern LGE in 60 patients (44%), noninfarct LGE in 21 (15%), active myocarditis in 14 (10%), hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in 3 (2%), sarcoidosis in 3, and arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy in 3. In a median follow-up of 29 months (range 18 to 43 months), there were 63 events. In a multivariable analysis, the strongest predictors of recurrent events were the presence of LGE (adjusted hazard ratio: 6.7; 95% CI: 2.38 to 18.85; p < 0.001) and the extent of LGE (hazard ratio: 1.15; 95% CI: 1.11 to 1.19; p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Among patients with SCA, CMR with contrast identified LGE in 71% and provided a potential arrhythmic substrate in 76%. In follow-up, both the presence and extent of LGE identified a group at markedly increased risk of future adverse events.


Assuntos
Morte Súbita Cardíaca/patologia , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Meios de Contraste , Angiografia Coronária , Ecocardiografia , Eletrocardiografia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Gadolínio , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sobreviventes
7.
JACC Cardiovasc Imaging ; 7(6): 541-9, 2014 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24813965

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to determine whether the clinical presentation of lead-associated endocarditis (LAE) is related to the size of lead vegetations and how size is related to bacteriology and clinical outcomes. BACKGROUND: Cardiac implantable electronic device (CIED) infection may present as either local pocket infection or bloodstream infection with or without LAE. LAE is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. METHODS: The clinical presentation and course of LAE were evaluated by the MEDIC (Multicenter Electrophysiologic Device Cohort) registry, an international registry enrolling patients with CIED infection. Consecutive LAE patients enrolled in the MEDIC registry between January 1, 2009 and December 31, 2012 were analyzed. The clinical features and outcomes of 2 groups of patients were compared based on the size of the lead vegetation detected by echocardiography (> or <1 cm in diameter). RESULTS: There were 129 patients with LAE enrolled into the MEDIC registry. Of these, 61 patients had a vegetation <1 cm in diameter (Group I) whereas 68 patients had a vegetation ≥1 cm in diameter (Group II). Patients in Group I more often presented with signs of local pocket infection, whereas Group II patients presented with clinical evidence of systemic infection. Staphylococcus aureus was the organism most often responsible for LAE, whereas infection with coagulase-negative staphylococci was associated with larger vegetations. Outcomes were improved among those who underwent complete device removal. However, major complications were associated with an open surgical approach for device removal. CONCLUSIONS: The clinical presentation of LAE is influenced by the size of the lead vegetation. Prompt recognition and management of LAE depends on obtaining blood cultures and echocardiography, including transesophageal echocardiography, in CIED patients who present with either signs of local pocket or systemic infection.


Assuntos
Desfibriladores Implantáveis/microbiologia , Eletrodos Implantados/microbiologia , Endocardite Bacteriana/microbiologia , Marca-Passo Artificial/microbiologia , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/microbiologia , Idoso , Desfibriladores Implantáveis/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Marca-Passo Artificial/efeitos adversos , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/terapia , Sistema de Registros
8.
Pacing Clin Electrophysiol ; 37(8): 955-62, 2014 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24665867

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular implantable electronic device (CIED) pocket infections are often related to recent CIED placement or manipulation, but these infections are not well characterized. The clinical presentation of CIED pocket infection, based on temporal onset related to last CIED procedure, deserves further study. METHODS: The MEDIC (Multicenter Electrophysiologic Device Infection Cohort) prospectively enrolled subjects with CIED infection. Subjects were stratified into those whose infection occurred <12 months (early) or ≥ 12 months (late) since their last CIED-related procedure. RESULTS: There were 132 subjects in the early group and 106 in the late group. There were more females (P = 0.009) and anticoagulation use (P = 0.039) in the early group. Subjects with early infections were more likely to have had a generator change or lead addition as their last procedure (P = 0.03) and had more prior CIED procedures (P = 0.023). Early infections were more likely to present with pocket erythema (P < 0.001), swelling (P < 0.001), and pain (P = 0.007). Late infections were more likely to have pocket erosion (P = 0.005) and valvular vegetations (P = 0.009). In bacteremic subjects, early infections were more likely healthcare-associated (P < 0.001). In-hospital and 6-month mortality were equivalent. CONCLUSION: A total of 45% of patients with CIED pocket infection presented >12 months following their last CIED-related procedure. Patients with early infection were more likely to be female, on anticoagulation, and present with localized inflammation, whereas those with late infection were more likely to have CIED erosion or valvular endocarditis.


Assuntos
Desfibriladores Implantáveis/efeitos adversos , Marca-Passo Artificial/efeitos adversos , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/diagnóstico , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/etiologia , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Tempo
9.
Ann Cardiothorac Surg ; 3(1): 91-7, 2014 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24516805

RESUMO

Over the past two decades, invasive techniques to treat atrial fibrillation (AF) including catheter-based and surgical procedures have evolved along with our understanding of the pathophysiology of this arrhythmia. Surgical treatment of AF may be performed on patients undergoing cardiac surgery for other reasons (concomitant surgical ablation) or as a stand-alone procedure. Advances in technology and technique have made surgical intervention for AF more widespread. Despite improvements in outcome of both catheter-based and surgical treatment for AF, recurrence of atrial arrhythmias following initial invasive therapy may occur.Atrial arrhythmias may occur early or late in the post-operative course after surgical ablation. Early arrhythmias are generally treated with prompt electrical cardioversion with or without antiarrhythmic therapy and do not necessarily represent treatment failure. The mechanism of persistent or late occurring atrial arrhythmias is complex, and these arrhythmias may be resistant to antiarrhythmic drug therapy. The characterization and management of recurrent atrial arrhythmias following surgical ablation of AF are discussed below.

10.
Europace ; 16(1): 133-41, 2014 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24014803

RESUMO

AIMS: Prior work has demonstrated that magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) strain can separate necrotic/stunned myocardium from healthy myocardium in the left ventricle (LV). We surmised that high-resolution MRI strain, using navigator-echo-triggered DENSE, could differentiate radiofrequency ablated tissue around the pulmonary vein (PV) from tissue that had not been damaged by radiofrequency energy, similarly to navigated 3D myocardial delayed enhancement (3D-MDE). METHODS AND RESULTS: A respiratory-navigated 2D-DENSE sequence was developed, providing strain encoding in two spatial directions with 1.2 × 1.0 × 4 mm(3) resolution. It was tested in the LV of infarcted sheep. In four swine, incomplete circumferential lesions were created around the right superior pulmonary vein (RSPV) using ablation catheters, recorded with electro-anatomic mapping, and imaged 1 h later using atrial-diastolic DENSE and 3D-MDE at the left atrium/RSPV junction. DENSE detected ablation gaps (regions with >12% strain) in similar positions to 3D-MDE (2D cross-correlation 0.89 ± 0.05). Low-strain (<8%) areas were, on average, 33% larger than equivalent MDE regions, so they include both injured and necrotic regions. Optimal DENSE orientation was perpendicular to the PV trunk, with high shear strain in adjacent viable tissue appearing as a sensitive marker of ablation lesions. CONCLUSIONS: Magnetic resonance imaging strain may be a non-contrast alternative to 3D-MDE in intra-procedural monitoring of atrial ablation lesions.


Assuntos
Ablação por Cateter/métodos , Técnicas de Imagem por Elasticidade/métodos , Átrios do Coração/cirurgia , Infarto do Miocárdio/cirurgia , Cirurgia Assistida por Computador/métodos , Animais , Átrios do Coração/patologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/patologia , Ovinos , Suínos
13.
JACC Cardiovasc Imaging ; 6(9): 944-54, 2013 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23932642

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study sought to determine whether the extent of late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) can provide additive prognostic information in patients with a nonischemic dilated cardiomyopathy (NIDC) with an indication for implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) therapy for the primary prevention of sudden cardiac death (SCD). BACKGROUND: Data suggest that the presence of LGE is a strong discriminator of events in patients with NIDC. Limited data exist on the role of LGE quantification. METHODS: The extent of LGE and clinical follow-up were assessed in 162 patients with NIDC prior to ICD insertion for primary prevention of SCD. LGE extent was quantified using both the standard deviation-based (2-SD) method and the full-width half-maximum (FWHM) method. RESULTS: We studied 162 patients with NIDC (65% male; mean age: 55 years; left ventricular ejection fraction [LVEF]: 26 ± 8%) and followed up for major adverse cardiac events (MACE), including cardiovascular death and appropriate ICD therapy, for a mean of 29 ± 18 months. Annual MACE rates were substantially higher in patients with LGE (24%) than in those without LGE (2%). By univariate association, the presence and the extent of LGE demonstrated the strongest associations with MACE (LGE presence, hazard ratio [HR]: 14.5 [95% confidence interval (CI): 6.1 to 32.6; p < 0.001]; LGE extent, HR: 1.15 per 1% increase in volume of LGE [95% CI: 1.12 to 1.18; p < 0.0001]). Multivariate analyses showed that LGE extent was the strongest predictor in the best overall model for MACE, and a 7-fold hazard was observed per 10% LGE extent after adjustments for patient age, sex, and LVEF (adjusted HR: 7.61; p < 0.0001). LGE quantitation by 2-SD and FWHM both demonstrated robust prognostic association, with the highest MACE rate observed in patients with LGE involving >6.1% of LV myocardium. CONCLUSIONS: LGE extent may provide further risk stratification in patients with NIDC with a current indication for ICD implantation for the primary prevention of SCD. Strategic guidance on ICD therapy by cardiac magnetic resonance in patients with NIDC warrants further study.


Assuntos
Cardiomiopatia Dilatada/diagnóstico , Cicatriz/diagnóstico , Imagem Cinética por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Miocárdio/patologia , Função Ventricular Esquerda , Cardiomiopatia Dilatada/complicações , Cardiomiopatia Dilatada/fisiopatologia , Cicatriz/complicações , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos
14.
J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol ; 24(9): 958-64, 2013 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23746064

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Radiofrequency (RF) ablation in the posterior left atrium has risk of thermal injury to the adjacent esophagus. Increased intraluminal esophageal temperature has been correlated with risk of esophageal injury. The objective of this study was to compare esophageal temperature monitoring (ETM) using a multi-sensor temperature probe with 12 sensors to a single-sensor probe during catheter ablation for atrial fibrillation (AF). METHODS AND RESULTS: We compared the detection of intraluminal esophageal temperature rises in 543 patients undergoing RF ablation for AF with ETM. Esophageal endoscopy (EGD) was performed on all patients with maximum esophageal temperature ≥ 39°C. Esophageal lesions were classified by severity as mild or severe ulcerations. Four hundred fifty-five patients underwent RF ablation with single-sensor ETM and 88 patients with multi-sensor ETM. Thirty-nine percent of patients with single-sensor versus 75% with multi-sensor ETM reached a maximum detected esophageal temperature ≥ 39°C (P < 0.0001). Esophageal injury was detected by EGD in 29% of patients with maximum temperature ≥ 39°C by single-sensor versus 46% of patients with multi-sensor ETM (P = 0.021). Thirty-nine percent of patients with lesions in the single-sensor probe group had severe ulcerations compared to 33% of patients in the multi-sensor probe group (P = 0.641). CONCLUSIONS: Intraluminal esophageal temperature ≥ 39°C is detected more frequently by the multi-sensor temperature probe versus the single-sensor probe, with more frequent esophageal injury and with comparable severity of injury. Despite detecting esophageal temperature rises in more patients, the multi-sensor probe may not have any measurable benefit compared to a single-sensor probe.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial/diagnóstico , Fibrilação Atrial/cirurgia , Temperatura Corporal/fisiologia , Ablação por Cateter/efeitos adversos , Esôfago/lesões , Monitorização Neurofisiológica Intraoperatória/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Fibrilação Atrial/fisiopatologia , Ablação por Cateter/instrumentação , Esôfago/fisiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Monitorização Neurofisiológica Intraoperatória/instrumentação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos
15.
Europace ; 15(3): 414-9, 2013 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23385050

RESUMO

AIMS: The aim of the study was to assess the impact of isthmus location of atypical atrial flutters/atrial tachycardias (ATs) on outcomes of catheter ablation. Atrial tachycardias are clinically challenging arrhythmias that can occur in the presence of atrial scar--often due to either cardiac surgery or prior ablation for atrial fibrillation. We previously demonstrated a catheter ablation approach employing rapid multielectrode activation mapping with targeted entrainment manoeuvrs. However, the role that AT isthmus location plays in acute and long-term success of ablation remains uncertain. METHODS AND RESULTS: Retrospective multicenter analysis of 91 consecutive AT patients undergoing ablation using a systematic four-step approach: (i) high-density activation mapping; (ii) analysis of atrial activation to identify wavefronts of electrical propagation; (iii) targeted entrainment of putative channels; and (iv) irrigated radiofrequency ablation of constrained regions of the circuit. Clinical outcomes, procedural details, and clinical profiles were determined. A total of 171 ATs (1.9 ± 1.0 per patient, 26% septal ATs) were targeted for ablation. The acute success rates were 97 and 77% for patients with either non-septal ATs or septal ATs, respectively (P = 0.0023). Similarly, the long-term success rates were 82 and 67% for patients with either no septal ATs or at least one septal AT, respectively (P = 0.1057). The long-term success rates were 75, 88, and 57% for patients with ATs associated with prior catheter ablation, cardiac surgery or MAZE, and idiopathic atrial scar, respectively. CONCLUSION: Catheter ablation of AT can be successfully performed employing a strategy of combined high-density activation and entrainment mapping. Septal ATs are associated with higher rates of acute and long-term recurrences.


Assuntos
Flutter Atrial/cirurgia , Ablação por Cateter , Cicatriz/complicações , Taquicardia Supraventricular/cirurgia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Flutter Atrial/diagnóstico , Flutter Atrial/etiologia , Ablação por Cateter/efeitos adversos , Técnicas Eletrofisiológicas Cardíacas , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Recidiva , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Taquicardia Supraventricular/diagnóstico , Taquicardia Supraventricular/etiologia , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
17.
J Interv Card Electrophysiol ; 36(3): 233-42, 2013 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23179916

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Conventional electroanatomical mapping systems employ roving catheters with one or a small number of electrodes. Maps acquired using these systems usually contain a small number of points and take a long time to acquire. Use of a multielectrode catheter could facilitate rapid acquisition of higher-resolution maps through simultaneous collection of data from multiple points in space; however, a large multielectrode array could potentially limit catheter maneuverability. The purpose of this study was to test the feasibility of using a novel, multielectrode catheter to map the right atrium and the left ventricle. METHODS: Electroanatomical mapping of the right atrium and the left ventricle during both sinus and paced rhythm were performed in five swine using a conventional mapping catheter and a novel, multielectrode catheter. RESULTS: Average map acquisition times for the multielectrode catheter (with continuous data collection) ranged from 5.2 to 9.5 min. These maps contained an average of 2,753 to 3,566 points. Manual data collection with the multielectrode catheter was less rapid (average map completion in 11.4 to 18.1 min with an average of 870 to 1,038 points per map), but the conventional catheter was slower still (average map completion in 28.6 to 32.2 min with an average 120 to 148 points per map). CONCLUSIONS: Use of this multielectrode catheter is feasible for mapping the left ventricle as well as the right atrium. The multielectrode catheter facilitates acquisition of electroanatomical data more rapidly than a conventional mapping catheter. This results in shorter map acquisition times and higher-density electroanatomical maps in these chambers.


Assuntos
Mapeamento Potencial de Superfície Corporal/instrumentação , Cateteres Cardíacos , Eletrodos Implantados , Sistema de Condução Cardíaco/fisiologia , Aumento da Imagem/instrumentação , Animais , Desenho de Equipamento , Análise de Falha de Equipamento , Estudos de Viabilidade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Suínos
18.
JACC Cardiovasc Imaging ; 5(3): 285-92, 2012 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22421174

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study tested the hypothesis that 4-[(18)F]fluorophenyltriphenylphosphonium ((18)F-TPP) is useful for in vivo positron emission tomography (PET) measurement of mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm). Its utility as a blood flow tracer also was evaluated. BACKGROUND: Tetraphenylphosphonium is useful for in vitro measurement of ΔΨm. In vivo measurement of ΔΨm has potential value in the assessment of heart failure pathophysiology and therapy as well as assessment of myocardial viability and so may be a very useful clinical tool. METHODS: Anesthetized swine (N = 6) with a balloon catheter in the left anterior descending coronary artery were studied. Microsphere measurements of myocardial blood flow (MBF) were made after balloon inflation (baseline) and ∼10 min after intravenous administration of adenosine and phenylephrine after which ∼10 mCi (18)F-TPP was injected intravenously and dynamic PET data acquisition obtained for 30 min. After the swine were killed, the hearts were sectioned for microsphere measurement of MBF and (18)F-TPP measured by well counter in these same samples. PET images provided whole blood and myocardial (18)F-TPP concentration for determination of ΔΨm by the Nernst equation, corrected for nonspecific (18)F-TPP binding. Microsphere MBF, absolute (ml/min/g) and relative, was compared with PET data (standard uptake value and K1). RESULTS: Nonspecific binding of (18)F-TPP overestimated ΔΨm measured by -37 ± 4 mV (mean ± SD). Normal zone ΔΨm of ex vivo samples (-91 ± 11 mV; N = 52; sample weight, 1.07 ± 0.18 g) correlated strongly (R(2)= 0.93) with normal zone by PET (-81 ± 13 mV). Both ex vivo and PET normal zone ΔΨm, although somewhat lower, compared well with that reported for tritium labeled triphenylphosphonium in normal working Langendorff rat heart (-100 mV). Although the relative MBF by (18)F-TPP correlated strongly with relative microsphere MBF (R(2)= 0.83), there was no correlation between absolute MBF by (18)F-TPP and microsphere MBF. CONCLUSIONS: (18)F-TPP is a promising tracer for noninvasive PET measurement of ΔΨm in living subjects. It is useful as well for assessment of relative but not absolute MBF.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico por imagem , Potencial da Membrana Mitocondrial , Mitocôndrias Cardíacas/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem de Perfusão do Miocárdio/métodos , Oniocompostos , Compostos Organofosforados , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos , Animais , Velocidade do Fluxo Sanguíneo , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/fisiopatologia , Circulação Coronária , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Hemodinâmica , Humanos , Mitocôndrias Cardíacas/metabolismo , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Oniocompostos/metabolismo , Compostos Organofosforados/metabolismo , Oximetria , Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos/metabolismo , Sus scrofa
19.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 59(7): 681-7, 2012 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22322085

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to determine whether the timing of the most recent cardiac implantable electronic device (CIED) procedure, either a permanent pacemaker or implantable cardioverter-defibrillator, influences the clinical presentation and outcome of lead-associated endocarditis (LAE). BACKGROUND: The CIED infection rate has increased at a time of increased device use. LAE is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. METHODS: The clinical presentation and course of LAE were evaluated by the MEDIC (Multicenter Electrophysiologic Device Cohort) registry, an international registry enrolling patients with CIED infection. Consecutive LAE patients enrolled in the Multicenter Electrophysiologic Device Cohort registry between January 2009 and May 2011 were analyzed. The clinical features and outcomes of 2 groups were compared based on the time from the most recent CIED procedure (early, <6 months; late, >6 months). RESULTS: The Multicenter Electrophysiologic Device Cohort registry entered 145 patients with LAE (early = 43, late = 102). Early LAE patients presented with signs and symptoms of local pocket infection, whereas a remote source of bacteremia was present in 38% of patients with late LAE but only 8% of early LAE (p < 0.01). Staphylococcal species were the most frequent pathogens in both early and late LAE. Treatment consisted of removal of all hardware and intravenous administration of antibiotics. In-hospital mortality was low (early = 7%, late = 6%). CONCLUSIONS: The clinical presentation of LAE is influenced by the time from the most recent CIED procedure. Although clinical manifestations of pocket infection are present in the majority of patients with early LAE, late LAE should be considered in any CIED patient who presents with fever, bloodstream infection, or signs of sepsis, even if the device pocket appears uninfected. Prompt recognition and management may improve outcomes.


Assuntos
Desfibriladores Implantáveis/efeitos adversos , Endocardite/etiologia , Endocardite/terapia , Marca-Passo Artificial/efeitos adversos , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/etiologia , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/terapia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Estudos de Coortes , Desfibriladores Implantáveis/microbiologia , Remoção de Dispositivo/métodos , Endocardite/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Infusões Intravenosas , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Marca-Passo Artificial/microbiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/diagnóstico , Sistema de Registros , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
Heart Rhythm ; 9(5): 717-20, 2012 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22172318

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Predictable progression to battery depletion is necessary for device management in patients with pacemakers or implantable cardioverter-defibrillators, particularly in patients who either are pacemaker dependent or have required implantable cardioverter-defibrillator therapies. OBJECTIVE: To determine the incidence and characteristics of unexpected battery depletion in patients implanted with a cardiac resynchronization therapy - defibrillator (CRT-D) device. METHODS: All patients with a St Jude Atlas+ HF or Atlas II HF CRT-D device implanted between 2004 and 2007 at the Massachusetts General Hospital and the Nashville VA Medical Center (Vanderbilt University) were studied. All patients with early generator depletion (transition of generator voltage above specified elective replacement indicator [ERI] to end of life [EOL] in less than 90 days) were evaluated further. RESULTS: Eight cases (mean age 69.6 ± 9 years) with abrupt battery depletion were identified among 191 patients (4.2%) implanted with a St Jude Atlas CRT-D device. The longevity of 8 premature depletion devices was 46.4 ± 10 months (median 45 months). The battery voltage in these 8 devices decreased from a mean of 2.48 ± 0.03 V (above ERI) to 2.3 ± 0.08 V (below ERI) over 33.3 ± 23 days (range 1-59 days; median 38.5 days). One device reached EOL status within 1 day of having battery voltage above ERI and another device within 12 days. CONCLUSION: The incidence of abrupt battery depletion was 4.2% in patients implanted with a St Jude Atlas CRT-D device. No common mechanism has been identified for this failure. Close monitoring of battery voltage and timely generator replacement are required in patients with these devices.


Assuntos
Desfibriladores Implantáveis/estatística & dados numéricos , Fontes de Energia Elétrica/estatística & dados numéricos , Falha de Equipamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Seguimentos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
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