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1.
Biol Psychiatry ; 2019 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31570195

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The prevalence of depression is higher in individuals with autoimmune diseases, but the mechanisms underlying the observed comorbidities are unknown. Shared genetic etiology is a plausible explanation for the overlap, and in this study we tested whether genetic variation in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC), which is associated with risk for autoimmune diseases, is also associated with risk for depression. METHODS: We fine-mapped the classical MHC (chr6: 29.6-33.1 Mb), imputing 216 human leukocyte antigen (HLA) alleles and 4 complement component 4 (C4) haplotypes in studies from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium Major Depressive Disorder Working Group and the UK Biobank. The total sample size was 45,149 depression cases and 86,698 controls. We tested for association between depression status and imputed MHC variants, applying both a region-wide significance threshold (3.9 × 10-6) and a candidate threshold (1.6 × 10-4). RESULTS: No HLA alleles or C4 haplotypes were associated with depression at the region-wide threshold. HLA-B*08:01 was associated with modest protection for depression at the candidate threshold for testing in HLA genes in the meta-analysis (odds ratio = 0.98, 95% confidence interval = 0.97-0.99). CONCLUSIONS: We found no evidence that an increased risk for depression was conferred by HLA alleles, which play a major role in the genetic susceptibility to autoimmune diseases, or C4 haplotypes, which are strongly associated with schizophrenia. These results suggest that any HLA or C4 variants associated with depression either are rare or have very modest effect sizes.

2.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 12885, 2019 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31501448

RESUMO

We aimed to extend our knowledge on the relationship between physical fitness (PF) and both white matter microstructure and cognition through in-depth investigation of various cognitive domains while accounting for potentially relevant nuisance covariates in a well-powered sample. To this end, associations between walking endurance, diffusion-tensor-imaging (DTI) based measures of fractional anisotropy (FA) within brain white matter and cognitive measures included in the NIH Toolbox Cognition Battery were investigated in a sample of n = 1206 healthy, young adults (mean age = 28.8; 45.5% male) as part of the human connectome project. Higher levels of endurance were associated with widespread higher FA (pFWE < 0.05) as well as with enhanced global cognitive function (p < 0.001). Significant positive relationships between endurance and cognitive performance were similarly found for almost all cognitive domains. Higher FA was significantly associated with enhanced global cognitive function (p < 0.001) and FA was shown to significantly mediate the association between walking endurance and cognitive performance. Inclusion of potentially relevant nuisance covariates including gender, age, education, BMI, HBA1c, and arterial blood pressure did not change the overall pattern of results. These findings support the notion of a beneficial and potentially protective effect of PF on brain structure and cognition.

4.
Mol Psychiatry ; 2019 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31471575

RESUMO

Alterations in white matter (WM) microstructure have been implicated in the pathophysiology of major depressive disorder (MDD). However, previous findings have been inconsistent, partially due to low statistical power and the heterogeneity of depression. In the largest multi-site study to date, we examined WM anisotropy and diffusivity in 1305 MDD patients and 1602 healthy controls (age range 12-88 years) from 20 samples worldwide, which included both adults and adolescents, within the MDD Working Group of the Enhancing Neuroimaging Genetics through Meta-Analysis (ENIGMA) consortium. Processing of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data and statistical analyses were harmonized across sites and effects were meta-analyzed across studies. We observed subtle, but widespread, lower fractional anisotropy (FA) in adult MDD patients compared with controls in 16 out of 25 WM tracts of interest (Cohen's d between 0.12 and 0.26). The largest differences were observed in the corpus callosum and corona radiata. Widespread higher radial diffusivity (RD) was also observed (all Cohen's d between 0.12 and 0.18). Findings appeared to be driven by patients with recurrent MDD and an adult age of onset of depression. White matter microstructural differences in a smaller sample of adolescent MDD patients and controls did not survive correction for multiple testing. In this coordinated and harmonized multisite DTI study, we showed subtle, but widespread differences in WM microstructure in adult MDD, which may suggest structural disconnectivity in MDD.

5.
Psychiatry Res Neuroimaging ; 292: 32-40, 2019 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31499256

RESUMO

Structural gray matter (GM) volume reductions in patients with schizophrenia have rarely been replicated across two different sites, the impact of culture and clinical characteristics remains unresolved. Hence, we assessed GM volume reductions in patients with schizophrenia using 3 T magnetic resonace imaging to replicate results across two independent and culturally different backgrounds (Germany, Japan), and to investigate the impact of brain volume reductions on clinical characteristics. In total, 163 German (80 patients) and 203 Japanese (83 patients) participants were included in the analysis. Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) was used to investigate structural differences between the groups and across the two sites, comparing local GM volumes. Clinical variables were used to analyze effects unrelated to the socio-cultural background. Across both data sets, widespread GM reductions in frontal and temporal cortical parts were found between patients and controls, indicating strong effects of diagnosis and only small effects of site. The investigation of clinical characteristics revealed the strongest effects for chlorpromazine equivalents on GM volume reductions primarily in the Japanese sample. Although the effects of site are small, several brain regions do not overlap between the two groups. Thus, GM may be affected differently at the two sites in patients with schizophrenia.

6.
Biol Psychiatry ; 2019 Jul 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31561859

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is associated with volumetric enlargements of corticolimbic brain regions. However, the pattern of whole-brain structural alterations following ECT remains unresolved. Here, we examined the longitudinal effects of ECT on global and local variations in gray matter, white matter, and ventricle volumes in patients with major depressive disorder as well as predictors of ECT-related clinical response. METHODS: Longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging and clinical data from the Global ECT-MRI Research Collaboration (GEMRIC) were used to investigate changes in white matter, gray matter, and ventricle volumes before and after ECT in 328 patients experiencing a major depressive episode. In addition, 95 nondepressed control subjects were scanned twice. We performed a mega-analysis of single subject data from 14 independent GEMRIC sites. RESULTS: Volumetric increases occurred in 79 of 84 gray matter regions of interest. In total, the cortical volume increased by mean ± SD of 1.04 ± 1.03% (Cohen's d = 1.01, p < .001) and the subcortical gray matter volume increased by 1.47 ± 1.05% (d = 1.40, p < .001) in patients. The subcortical gray matter increase was negatively associated with total ventricle volume (Spearman's rank correlation ρ = -.44, p < .001), while total white matter volume remained unchanged (d = -0.05, p = .41). The changes were modulated by number of ECTs and mode of electrode placements. However, the gray matter volumetric enlargements were not associated with clinical outcome. CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggest that ECT induces gray matter volumetric increases that are broadly distributed. However, gross volumetric increases of specific anatomically defined regions may not serve as feasible biomarkers of clinical response.

7.
Transl Psychiatry ; 9(1): 210, 2019 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31462630

RESUMO

Cognitive deficits are a core feature of psychiatric disorders like schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Evidence supports a genome-wide polygenic score (GPS) for educational attainment (GPSEDU) can be used to explain variability in cognitive performance. We aimed to identify different cognitive domains associated with GPSEDU in a transdiagnostic clinical cohort of chronic psychiatric patients with known cognitive deficits. Bipolar and schizophrenia patients from the PsyCourse cohort (N = 730; 43% female) were used. Likewise, we tested whether GPSs for schizophrenia (GPSSZ) and bipolar disorder (GPSBD) were associated with cognitive outcomes. GPSEDU explained 1.5% of variance in the backward verbal digit span, 1.9% in the number of correctly recalled words of the Verbal Learning and Memory Test, and 1.1% in crystallized intelligence. These effects were robust to the influences of treatment and diagnosis. No significant associations between GPSSZ or GPSBD with cognitive outcomes were found. Furthermore, these risk scores did not confound the effect of GPSEDU on cognitive outcomes. GPSEDU explains a small fraction of cognitive performance in adults with psychiatric disorders, specifically for domains related to linguistic learning and working memory. Investigating such a proxy-phenotype longitudinally, could give intriguing insight into the disease course, highlighting at what time genes play a more influential role on cognitive performance. Better understanding the origin of these deficits might help identify those patients at risk for lower levels of functioning and poor social outcomes. Polygenic estimates may in the future be part of predictive models for more personalized interventions.

8.
J Affect Disord ; 258: 96-101, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31400629

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Regulation of emotional arousal is a relevant factor for mental health. The investigation of neural underpinnings of regulation styles in healthy individuals may provide important insights regarding potential risk factors. To fill the gap of structural correlates of regulation styles and to expand previous results, we focused on the association between brain structure, neural responsiveness and vigilant/avoidant regulation style. METHODS: In n = 302 healthy individuals regulation style was assessed with the Mainz Coping Inventory (MCI). Participants underwent structural and functional MRI during an emotion-processing paradigm. Structural MRI (voxel-based morphometry) and functional MRI were analysed in two regions of interest (amygdala and anterior cingulate cortex [ACC]). RESULTS: Regulation styles did not show an association with brain structure after correction for gender, age, trait anxiety, depressive symptoms. During emotion processing, a vigilant regulation style was negatively associated with ACC activation. LIMITATIONS: The cross-sectional study in a non-pathological sample is not adequate to unveil causalities or draw conclusions regarding prevention interventions. CONCLUSION: Regulation styles are associated with specific neural activation patterns. The association of a high-vigilant regulation style and low ACC activation during emotion processing in healthy participants might be a potential risk factor.

9.
Mol Psychiatry ; 2019 Aug 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31467393

RESUMO

The metabolic serum marker HbA1c has been associated with both impaired cognitive performance and altered white matter integrity in patients suffering from diabetes mellitus. However, it remains unclear if higher levels of HbA1c might also affect brain structure and function in healthy subjects. With the present study we therefore aimed to investigate the relationship between HbA1c levels and cognitive performance as well as white matter microstructure in healthy, young adults. To address this question, associations between HbA1c and cognitive measures (NIH Cognition Toolbox) as well as DTI-derived imaging measures of white matter microstructure were investigated in a publicly available sample of healthy, young adults as part of the Humane Connectome Project (n = 1206, mean age = 28.8 years, 45.5% male). We found that HbA1c levels (range 4.1-6.3%) were significantly inversely correlated with measures of cognitive performance. Higher HbA1c levels were associated with significant and widespread reductions in fractional anisotropy (FA) controlling for age, sex, body mass index, ethnicity, and education. FA reductions were furthermore found to covary with measures of cognitive performance. The same pattern of results could be observed in analyses restricted to participants with HBA1c levels below 5.7%. The present study demonstrates that low-grade HbA1c variation below diagnostic threshold for diabetes is related to both cognitive performance and white matter integrity in healthy, young adults. These findings highlight the detrimental impact of metabolic risk factors on brain physiology and underscore the importance of intensified preventive measures independent of the currently applied diagnostic HbA1c cutoff scores.

10.
Nat Hum Behav ; 3(9): 988-998, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31384023

RESUMO

Macroscale white matter pathways are the infrastructure for large-scale communication in the human brain and a prerequisite for healthy brain function. Disruptions in the brain's connectivity architecture play an important role in many psychiatric and neurological brain disorders. Here we show that connections important for global communication and network integration are particularly vulnerable to brain alterations across multiple brain disorders. We report on a cross-disorder connectome study comprising in total 1,033 patients and 1,154 matched controls across 8 psychiatric and 4 neurological disorders. We extracted disorder connectome fingerprints for each of these 12 disorders and combined them into a 'cross-disorder disconnectivity involvement map' describing the level of cross-disorder involvement of each white matter pathway of the human brain network. Network analysis revealed connections central to global network communication and integration to display high disturbance across disorders, suggesting a general cross-disorder involvement and the importance of these pathways in normal function.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31434102

RESUMO

Fronto-limbic white matter (WM) abnormalities are assumed to lie at the heart of the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder (BD); however, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies have reported heterogeneous results and it is not clear how the clinical heterogeneity is related to the observed differences. This study aimed to identify WM abnormalities that differentiate patients with BD from healthy controls (HC) in the largest DTI dataset of patients with BD to date, collected via the ENIGMA network. We gathered individual tensor-derived regional metrics from 26 cohorts leading to a sample size of N = 3033 (1482 BD and 1551 HC). Mean fractional anisotropy (FA) from 43 regions of interest (ROI) and average whole-brain FA were entered into univariate mega- and meta-analyses to differentiate patients with BD from HC. Mega-analysis revealed significantly lower FA in patients with BD compared with HC in 29 regions, with the highest effect sizes observed within the corpus callosum (R2 = 0.041, Pcorr < 0.001) and cingulum (right: R2 = 0.041, left: R2 = 0.040, Pcorr < 0.001). Lithium medication, later onset and short disease duration were related to higher FA along multiple ROIs. Results of the meta-analysis showed similar effects. We demonstrated widespread WM abnormalities in BD and highlighted that altered WM connectivity within the corpus callosum and the cingulum are strongly associated with BD. These brain abnormalities could represent a biomarker for use in the diagnosis of BD. Interactive three-dimensional visualization of the results is available at www.enigma-viewer.org.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31382267

RESUMO

Reduced fractional anisotropy (FA) associated with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) overlaps anatomically with effects of childhood maltreatment experiences. The aim of this study was, therefore, to replicate the negative effect of childhood maltreatment on white matter fiber structure and to demonstrate, that alterations in MDD might be partially attributed to the higher occurrence of childhood maltreatment in MDD. Two independent cohorts (total N = 1 256) were investigated in a diffusion tensor imaging study: The Münster Neuroimaging Cohort (MNC, N = 186 MDD, N = 210 healthy controls, HC) as discovery sample and the Marburg-Münster Affective Disorders Cohort Study (MACS, N = 397 MDD, N = 462 HC) as replication sample. The effects of diagnosis (HC vs. MDD) and Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) scores on FA were analyzed. A main effect of diagnosis with higher FA in MDD patients compared with HC was found in the MNC (pFWE = 0.021), but not in the MACS (pFWE = 0.52) before correcting for CTQ. A significant negative correlation of FA with CTQ emerged in both cohorts (MNC: pFWE = 0.006, MACS: pFWE = 0.012) in several tracts previously described in the literature. No CTQ × diagnosis interaction could be detected. Any main effect of diagnosis was abolished after correcting for CTQ (MNC: pFWE = 0.562, MACS: pFWE = 0.115). No differences in FA between MDD and HC could be found after correcting for childhood maltreatment, suggesting that previously reported group differences might be attributed partially to higher levels of maltreatment experiences in MDD rather than diagnosis itself. Furthermore, a well-established finding of reduced FA following childhood maltreatment experiences was replicated.

13.
J Psychiatry Neurosci ; 44(5): 1-9, 2019 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31304733

RESUMO

Background: Preliminary research suggests that major depressive disorder (MDD) is associated with structural alterations in the brain; as well as with low-grade peripheral inflammation. However, even though a link between inflammatory processes and altered brain structural integrity has been purported by experimental research, well-powered studies to confirm this hypothesis in patients with MDD have been lacking. We aimed to investigate the potential association between structural brain alterations and low-grade inflammation as interrelated biological correlates of MDD. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 514 patients with MDD and 359 healthy controls underwent structural MRI. We used voxel-based morphometry to study local differences in grey matter volume. We also assessed serum levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) in each participant. Results: Compared with healthy controls (age [mean ± standard deviation] 52.57 ± 7.94 yr; 50% male), patients with MDD (49.14 ± 7.28 yr, 39% male) exhibited significantly increased hsCRP levels (Z = −5.562, p < 0.001) and significantly decreased grey matter volume in the prefrontal cortex and the insula. Prefrontal grey matter volume reductions were significantly associated with higher hsCRP levels in patients with MDD (x = 50, y = 50, z = 8; t1,501 = 5.15; k = 92; pFWE < 0.001). In the MDD sample, the significant negative association between hsCRP and grey matter appeared independent of age, sex, body mass index, current smoking status, antidepressant load, hospitalization and medical comorbidities. Limitations: This study had a cross-sectional design. Conclusion: The present study highlights the role of reduced grey matter volume and low-grade peripheral inflammation as interrelated biological correlates of MDD. The reported inverse association between peripheral low-grade inflammation and brain structural integrity in patients with MDD translates current knowledge from experimental studies to the bedside.

14.
Am J Psychiatry ; : appiajp201918101144, 2019 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31352813

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Asymmetry is a subtle but pervasive aspect of the human brain, and it may be altered in several psychiatric conditions. MRI studies have shown subtle differences of brain anatomy between people with major depressive disorder and healthy control subjects, but few studies have specifically examined brain anatomical asymmetry in relation to this disorder, and results from those studies have remained inconclusive. At the functional level, some electroencephalography studies have indicated left fronto-cortical hypoactivity and right parietal hypoactivity in depressive disorders, so aspects of lateralized anatomy may also be affected. The authors used pooled individual-level data from data sets collected around the world to investigate differences in laterality in measures of cortical thickness, cortical surface area, and subcortical volume between individuals with major depression and healthy control subjects. METHODS: The authors investigated differences in the laterality of thickness and surface area measures of 34 cerebral cortical regions in 2,256 individuals with major depression and 3,504 control subjects from 31 separate data sets, and they investigated volume asymmetries of eight subcortical structures in 2,540 individuals with major depression and 4,230 control subjects from 32 data sets. T1-weighted MRI data were processed with a single protocol using FreeSurfer and the Desikan-Killiany atlas. The large sample size provided 80% power to detect effects of the order of Cohen's d=0.1. RESULTS: The largest effect size (Cohen's d) of major depression diagnosis was 0.085 for the thickness asymmetry of the superior temporal cortex, which was not significant after adjustment for multiple testing. Asymmetry measures were not significantly associated with medication use, acute compared with remitted status, first episode compared with recurrent status, or age at onset. CONCLUSIONS: Altered brain macro-anatomical asymmetry may be of little relevance to major depression etiology in most cases.

16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31284291

RESUMO

Genetic predisposition and brain structural abnormalities have been shown to be involved in the biological underpinnings of anorexia nervosa (AN). Prefrontal brain regions are suggested to contribute through behavioral inhibition mechanisms to body weight. However, it is unknown if and to which extent biological correlates for AN might be present in individuals without clinical AN symptomatology. We therefore investigated the contribution of polygenic load for AN on body weight and prefrontal brain structure in a sample of n = 380 nonclinical individuals. A polygenic score (PGS) reflecting the individual genetic load for the trait of anorexia nervosa was calculated. Structural MRI data were acquired and preprocessed using the cortical parcellation stream of FreeSurfer. We observed a significant PGS × sex interaction effect on body mass index (BMI), which was driven by a negative correlation between PGS and BMI in female participants. Imaging analyses revealed significant interaction effects of sex × PGS on surface area of the lateral orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), the pars orbitalis (PO), the rostral middle frontal gyrus (RMF) and the pars triangularis (PT) of the left frontal cortex. The interaction effects were driven by positive correlations between PGS and prefrontal surface areas in female participants and negative correlations in male participants. We furthermore found sex-specific associations between BMI and left RMF surface area as well as between BMI and left PO and left RMF thickness. Our findings demonstrate a sex-specific association between polygenic load for AN, BMI, and prefrontal brain structure in nonclinical individuals. Hence, this study identifies structural abnormalities associated with polygenic load for AN and BMI in brain regions deeply involved in behavioral inhibition and impulse regulation as candidate brain regions for future research.

18.
Psychol Med ; : 1-12, 2019 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31084657

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Childhood maltreatment (CM) plays an important role in the development of major depressive disorder (MDD). The aim of this study was to examine whether CM severity and type are associated with MDD-related brain alterations, and how they interact with sex and age. METHODS: Within the ENIGMA-MDD network, severity and subtypes of CM using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire were assessed and structural magnetic resonance imaging data from patients with MDD and healthy controls were analyzed in a mega-analysis comprising a total of 3872 participants aged between 13 and 89 years. Cortical thickness and surface area were extracted at each site using FreeSurfer. RESULTS: CM severity was associated with reduced cortical thickness in the banks of the superior temporal sulcus and supramarginal gyrus as well as with reduced surface area of the middle temporal lobe. Participants reporting both childhood neglect and abuse had a lower cortical thickness in the inferior parietal lobe, middle temporal lobe, and precuneus compared to participants not exposed to CM. In males only, regardless of diagnosis, CM severity was associated with higher cortical thickness of the rostral anterior cingulate cortex. Finally, a significant interaction between CM and age in predicting thickness was seen across several prefrontal, temporal, and temporo-parietal regions. CONCLUSIONS: Severity and type of CM may impact cortical thickness and surface area. Importantly, CM may influence age-dependent brain maturation, particularly in regions related to the default mode network, perception, and theory of mind.

19.
J Psychiatry Neurosci ; 44(4): 1-7, 2019 May 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31094489

RESUMO

Background: Cross-sectional studies have repeatedly shown impaired white matter integrity in patients with major depressive disorder. Longitudinal analyses are missing from the current research and are crucial to elucidating the impact of disease trajectories on white matter impairment in major depressive disorder. Methods: Fifty-nine patients with major depressive disorder receiving inpatient treatment, as well as 49 healthy controls, took part in a prospective study. Participants were scanned twice (baseline and follow-up), approximately 2.25 years apart, using diffusion tensor imaging. We analyzed diffusion metrics using tract-based spatial statistics. Results: At baseline, patients had higher mean diffusivity in a large bilateral frontal cluster comprising the body and genu of the corpus callosum, the anterior and superior corona radiata, and the superior longitudinal fasciculus. A significant group × time interaction revealed a decrease of mean diffusivity in patients with major depressive disorder over time, abolishing group differences at follow-up. This effect was observed irrespective of disease course in the follow-up period. Limitations: Analyzing the course of illness is challenging because of recollection biases in patients with major depressive disorder. Conclusion: This study reports follow-up diffusion tensor imaging data in patients with major depressive disorder after an acute depressive episode. We demonstrated impaired prefrontal white matter microstructure (higher mean diffusivity) at baseline in patients with major depressive disorder, which normalized at follow-up after 2 years, irrespective of disease course. This might have been due to a general treatment effect and might have reflected recovery of white matter integrity.

20.
Schizophr Res ; 208: 67-75, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31076262

RESUMO

Schizotypy is a multidimensional risk phenotype distributed in the general population, constituting of subclinical, psychotic-like symptoms. It is associated with psychosis proneness, and several risk genes for psychosis are associated with schizotypy in non-clinical populations. Schizotypy might also modulate cognitive abilities as it is associated with attentional deficits in healthy subjects. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that established genetic risk variants ZNF804A rs1344706 and CACNA1C rs1006737 are associated with psychometric schizotypy and that schizotypy mediates their effect on attention or vice versa. In 615 healthy subjects from the FOR2107 cohort study, we analysed the genetic risk variants ZNF804A rs1344706 and CACNA1C rs1006737, psychometric schizotypy (schizotypal personality questionnaire-brief SPQB), and a neuropsychological measure of sustained and selective attention (d2 test). ZNF804A rs1344706 C (non-risk) alleles were significantly associated with higher SPQ-B Cognitive-Perceptual subscores in women and with attention deficits in both sexes. This schizotypy dimension also mediated the effect of ZNF804A on attention in women, but not in men. CACNA1C rs1006737-A showed a significant sex-modulated negative association with Interpersonal schizotypy only in men, and no effect on attention. Our multivariate model demonstrates differential genetic contributions of two psychosis risk genes to dimensions of schizotypy and, partly, to attention. This supports a model of shared genetic influence between schizotypy and cognitive functions impaired in schizophrenia.

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