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2.
Acta Trop ; 217: 105854, 2021 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33561429

RESUMO

The genus Amblyomma is the most representative tick genus in Brazil and some species act as vectors of pathogenic organisms to animals and humans. Information on the seasonal dynamics of Amblyomma spp. as well as on rickettsial organisms infecting these ticks in some regions in Brazil is still fragmentary. Herein, we investigated the seasonal dynamics and rickettsial infections in Amblyomma dubitatum ticks collected in the Atlantic forest biome in north-eastern Brazil. Using carbon dioxide traps, ticks were collected monthly for two consecutive years. In total, 15,789 ticks were collected: 69 females (0.4%), 116 males (0.7%), 1,067 nymphs (6.8%), and 14,537 larvae (92.1%). All nymphs, females and males were identified as A. dubitatum, whereas larvae were identified as Amblyomma spp. Larvae were more frequent in summer (77% of the larvae collected), whereas nymphs were collected with similar frequency in summer (32.8%), autumn (30.0%) and spring (28.4%). Adults were more frequent in spring (47.6%). A total of 648 ticks (485 nymphs, 60 females, and 103 males) were tested by PCR for the gltA gene of Rickettsia spp. and 87 (13.4%; 95% CI: 10.9-16.3%) were positive. A consensus sequence (size, 350 bp) of 66 gltA gene sequences indicate that the organism detected herein is similar to Rickettsia tamurae, Rickettsia monacencis and Rickettsia sp. strain Pampulha. One of these positive samples was also positive for the ompA gene of spotted fever group rickettsiae, but attempts to sequence the amplicon were not successful. We also tested this sample by a PCR targeting the rickettsial htrA gene, but no amplification product could be detected. This study indicates that A. dubitatum may be a common tick in areas where capybaras are present in north-eastern Brazil, occurring during the whole year. It also suggests the circulation of a spotted fever group rickettsia in this A. dubitatum population, whose identity has yet to be determined.

3.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 15(2): e0009090, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33596200

RESUMO

We assessed the presence of Rickettsia spp., Coxiella burnetii and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in reptiles, their ectoparasites and in questing ticks collected in a nature preserve park in southern Italy, as well as in a peri-urban area in another region. We also investigated the exposure to these pathogens in forestry workers, farmers and livestock breeders living or working in the nature preserve park given the report of anecdotal cases of spotted fever rickettsioses. Rickettsia spp. were molecularly detected in Podarcis muralis and Podarcis siculus lizards (i.e., 3.1%), in Ixodes ricinus (up to 87.5%) and in Neotrombicula autumnalis (up to 8.3%) collected from them as well as in I. ricinus collected from the environment (up to 28.4%). Rickettsia monacensis was the most prevalent species followed by Rickettsia helvetica. An undescribed member of the family Anaplasmataceae was detected in 2.4% and 0.8% of the reptiles and ectoparasites, respectively. Sera from human subjects (n = 50) were serologically screened and antibodies to Rickettsia spp. (n = 4; 8%), C. burnetti (n = 8; 16%) and A. phagocytophilum (n = 11; 22%) were detected. Two ticks collected from two forestry workers were positive for spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsiae. Ixodes ricinus is involved in the transmission of SFG rickettsiae (R. monacensis and R. helvetica) in southern Europe and lizards could play a role in the sylvatic cycle of R. monacensis, as amplifying hosts. Meanwhile, N. autumnalis could be involved in the enzootic cycle of some SFG rickettsiae among these animals. People living or working in the southern Italian nature preserve park investigated are exposed to SFG rickettsiae, C. burnetii and A. phagocytophilum.

4.
Vet Parasitol ; 290: 109369, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33548595

RESUMO

These guidelines are intended to provide an in-depth review of current knowledge and assist the planning and implementation of studies for evaluating the efficacy of parasiticides in reducing transmission of vector-borne pathogens (VBPs) to dogs and cats. At present, the prevention of VBP transmission in companion animals is generally achieved through the administration of products that can repel or rapidly kill arthropods, thus preventing or interrupting feeding before transmission occurs. The present guidelines complement existing guidelines, which focus on efficacy assessment of parasiticides for the treatment, prevention and control of flea and tick infestations, but also give guidance for studies focused on other vectors (i.e. mosquitoes and phlebotomine sand flies). The efficacy of parasiticides in reducing VBP transmission can be evaluated through laboratory or field studies. As such, the present guidelines provide recommendations for these studies, representing a tool for researchers, pharmaceutical companies and authorities involved in the research, development and registration of products with claims for reducing VBP transmission in dogs and cats, respecting the overall principles of the 3Rs (replacement, reduction and refinement). Gaps in our current understanding of VBP transmission times are herein highlighted and the need for further basic research on related topics is briefly discussed.

5.
Parasitol Res ; 2021 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33506332

RESUMO

Canine vector-borne diseases (CVBDs) are highly prevalent in tropical and subtropical countries, mainly due to favorable climate conditions and reduced adoption of preventive measures. This study aimed to provide a comprehensive overview on the prevalence of CVBDs in Iran and Pakistan where limited data are available. Blood samples were collected from 403 dogs from six provinces in Iran and Pakistan to assess the presence of pathogen DNA (i.e., Anaplasma spp., Coxiella burnetii, Ehrlichia spp., Rickettsia spp., Babesia spp., Hepatozoon spp., filarioids, and Leishmania spp.). Sera were also screened by an immunofluorescence antibody test for the detection of antibodies against Leishmania infantum. In total, 46.9% of dogs scored positive to Hepatozoon canis being the most frequently detected (41.4%), followed by Anaplasma platys (6.4%), Ehrlichia canis (3.4%), Rickettsia spp. (2.2%), Babesia vogeli (1.0%), and L. infantum (0.3%). A seroprevalence of 9.6% to anti-L. infantum IgG was also recorded. Data reported herein demonstrate that dogs from Iran and Pakistan are at a high risk of CVBDs, particularly of canine hepatozoonosis. Effective control strategies are advocated for minimizing the risk of infection in animals and humans, also in consideration of the zoonotic potential of some pathogens detected.

6.
Trends Parasitol ; 37(3): 181-184, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33454218

RESUMO

The illegal wildlife trade (IWT) is a criminal practice bringing several ecological and public health consequences, such as the spreading of zoonotic pathogens and/or the introduction of exotic species of animals into new geographical areas. Here, we discuss potential risks of IWT on the spreading and emergence of zoonotic pathogens.

7.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 54: e20200398, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS, Coleciona SUS, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: biblio-1136923
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33263698

RESUMO

This study has estimated the risk of Leishmania transmission via blood transfusion in one of the largest blood banks in Northeastern Brazil, where visceral leishmaniasis is endemic. Five hundred blood samples from donors were tested for circulating Leishmania spp. DNA by real-time PCR. Positive samples were tested by a species-specific conventional PCR targeting Leishmania infantum . Overall, 6.2% (95% CI: 4.1-8.3%) of the samples carried Leishmania DNA and in one sample the species was confirmed as L. infantum . No statistically significant differences were found in relation to gender, sex, education level, incomeas well as the place of residence between positive and negative blood donors. Our results confirm the presence of asymptomatic Leishmania carriers among blood donors in a large blood bank in Northeastern Brazil. Considering the studied population, we estimate that for every 1,000 blood donors screened, 41 to 83 will be positive for Leishmania DNA. This finding reinforces the urgent need for elaborating specific Blood bank guidelines to allow the early detection of asymptomatic Leishmania carriers among blood donors before their blood products are transfused to uninfected individuals.

9.
Vet Parasitol Reg Stud Reports ; 22: 100468, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33308725

RESUMO

Vector-borne pathogens (VBPs) of dogs have been extensively studied worldwide, though scientific information for some countries, as is the case for Guatemala, is almost nonexistent. From 2012 to 2015, 975 dogs residing in different departments of Guatemala were sampled and screened using a rapid ELISA for detecting antigen of Dirofilaria immitis and antibodies against Anaplasma spp., Ehrlichia spp. and Borrelia burgdorferi. Out of 975 samples analyzed, 46.4% (n = 452) scored positive for at least one pathogen, with D. immitis being the most prevalent (29.7%), followed by Ehrlichia spp. (11.5%) and Anaplasma spp. (5.1%). None of the dogs were positive to B. burgdorferi. Co-infections were observed in 18.1% (n = 176) of dogs, with the simultaneous detection of D. immitis and Ehrlichia spp. being most common. The frequency of VBPs was higher in the department of Santa Rosa (southeast coast of Guatemala), which has a tropical savanna climate. In this region, 59.7% of the dogs surveyed were infected with D. immitis. Our results suggest that the prevalence of VBPs in dogs in Guatemala may be affected by the climate, with dogs living in the southeast coast being at higher risk, as compared to other regions studied. Increased awareness regarding the risk of VBPs in dogs in Guatemala is advocated and the adoption of preventive strategies should be encouraged.

10.
Parasit Vectors ; 13(1): 546, 2020 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33168100

RESUMO

The Companion Vector-Borne Diseases (CVBD) World Forum is a working group of leading international experts who meet annually to evaluate current scientific findings and future trends concerning the distribution, pathogenesis, clinical presentation, diagnosis and prevention of vector-borne infections of dogs and cats. At the 14th Symposium of the CVBD World Forum in Trieste, Italy (March 25-28, 2019), we identified the need to (i) bring attention to the potential spread of parasites and vectors with relocated dogs, and (ii) provide advice to the veterinary profession regarding the importance of surveillance and treatment for parasites and vector-borne infections when rehoming dogs. This letter shares a consensus statement from the CVBD World Forum as well as a summary of the problem faced, including the role of veterinary professionals in parasite surveillance, causal issues, and the importance of interdisciplinary cooperation in addressing the problem. To limit opportunities for dissemination of parasites and vectors, whenever possible, underlying problems creating the need for dog rehoming should be addressed. However, when it is necessary to rehome dogs, this should ideally take place in the country and national region of origin. When geographically distant relocation occurs, veterinary professionals have a vital role to play in public education, vigilance for detection of exotic vectors and infections, and alerting the medical community to the risk(s) for pathogen spread. With appropriate veterinary intervention, dog welfare needs can be met without inadvertently allowing global spread of parasites and their vectors.

12.
Exp Appl Acarol ; 82(2): 255-264, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32920651

RESUMO

Argasid ticks are a diverse group of acarines that parasitize numerous vertebrate hosts. Along with birds, bats serve as hosts for several argasid ticks, which are commonly found in bat caves. Argasid ticks have regained attention from tick taxonomists in recent decades, with a number of new species described in various zoogeographical regions. Nonetheless, studies on their ecology are still scarce. We conducted a 1-year longitudinal study to assess the presence of argasid ticks in a bat cave in the drylands of north-eastern Brazil and evaluate their possible response to abiotic factors. From July 2014 to June 2015, 490 ticks were collected (272 nymphs, 169 males and 49 females) in a cave chamber hosting a large colony of Pteronotus spp. bats, being relatively more frequent from July to December 2014. Adults were identified as Antricola guglielmonei, whereas nymphs were assigned to the genus Antricola. Almost all ticks (98%) were collected on the cave walls. Only 2% were on the ceiling and, surprisingly, no specimens were found on the floor and/or guano. Adults were usually clustered in the crevices and little mobile, whereas nymphs were dispersed and more active, moving over the walls or ceiling of the cave. Although present in most of the studied period, there was a significantly negative correlation between tick abundance and relatively humidity, and A. guglielmonei was more frequent during the dry season. Moreover, there was no evident correlation between the abundance of ticks and bats. Further long-term studies will be able to verify whether this pattern is repeated over time, and even whether other variables can influence the population dynamics of A. guglielmonei.


Assuntos
Argasidae , Cavernas , Quirópteros/parasitologia , Animais , Brasil , Feminino , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino
13.
Parasit Vectors ; 13(1): 420, 2020 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32799914

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ticks and fleas are considered amongst the most important arthropod vectors of medical and veterinary concern due to their ability to transmit pathogens to a range of animal species including dogs, cats and humans. By sharing a common environment with humans, companion animal-associated parasitic arthropods may potentially transmit zoonotic vector-borne pathogens (VBPs). This study aimed to molecularly detect pathogens from ticks and fleas from companion dogs and cats in East and Southeast Asia. METHODS: A total of 392 ticks and 248 fleas were collected from 401 infested animals (i.e. 271 dogs and 130 cats) from China, Taiwan, Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand, the Philippines and Vietnam, and molecularly screened for the presence of pathogens. Ticks were tested for Rickettsia spp., Anaplasma spp., Ehrlichia spp., Babesia spp. and Hepatozoon spp. while fleas were screened for the presence of Rickettsia spp. and Bartonella spp. RESULT: Of the 392 ticks tested, 37 (9.4%) scored positive for at least one pathogen with Hepatozoon canis being the most prevalent (5.4%), followed by Ehrlichia canis (1.8%), Babesia vogeli (1%), Anaplasma platys (0.8%) and Rickettsia spp. (1%) [including Rickettsia sp. (0.5%), Rickettsia asembonensis (0.3%) and Rickettsia felis (0.3%)]. Out of 248 fleas tested, 106 (42.7%) were harboring at least one pathogen with R. felis being the most common (19.4%), followed by Bartonella spp. (16.5%), Rickettsia asembonensis (10.9%) and "Candidatus Rickettsia senegalensis" (0.4%). Furthermore, 35 Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks were subjected to phylogenetic analysis, of which 34 ticks belonged to the tropical and only one belonged to the temperate lineage (Rh. sanguineus (sensu stricto)). CONCLUSION: Our data reveals the circulation of different VBPs in ticks and fleas of dogs and cats from Asia, including zoonotic agents, which may represent a potential risk to animal and human health.

14.
Parasit Vectors ; 13(1): 399, 2020 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32762709

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Different methods have been used to preserve phlebotomine sand flies for research purposes, including for taxonomic studies and detection of Leishmania spp. Here, we evaluated the effect of various preservation methods at different storage times on phlebotomine sand fly DNA concentration and purity. METHODS: Field-collected phlebotomine sand flies were individually stored in 70% ethanol (G1) and 95% ethanol (G2) at room temperature, 70% ethanol (G3) and 95% ethanol (G4) at 8 °C or frozen dry (i.e. no preservation solution) at - 20 °C (G5). DNA concentration and purity were assessed at various storage times (T1, ≤ 12 h; T2, 3 months; T3, 6 months; T4, 9 months; and T5, 12 months). Fragments of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) and cacophony (CAC) genes of phlebotomine sand flies were also amplified. RESULTS: Mean DNA concentration (P = 0.178) and 260/280 purity ratios (P = 0.584) did not vary significantly among various preservation methods and storage times. Within each group, DNA concentration varied in G1 (Kruskal-Wallis H-test, P = 0.009) for T3 vs T4 (Dunn's post-hoc, P < 0.05), and in G2 (Kruskal-Wallis H-test, P = 0.004) for T1 vs T2 and T1 vs T4 (Dunn's post-hoc, P < 0.05). For 260/280 purity ratios, the only statistically significant difference was found for G5 (Kruskal-Wallis H-test, P = 0.020) between T1 vs T4 (Dunn's post-hoc test, P < 0.05). The cox1 and CAC genes were successfully amplified, regardless of the preservation method and storage time; except in one sample from G2 at T1, for which the CAC gene failed to amplify. CONCLUSIONS: The preservation methods and storage times herein evaluated did not affect the concentration and purity of DNA samples obtained from field-collected phlebotomine sand flies, for up to 12 months. Furthermore, these preservation methods did not interfere with PCR amplification of CAC and cox1 genes, being suitable for molecular analyses under the conditions studied herein.

15.
J Med Entomol ; 57(6): 2025-2029, 2020 11 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32614052

RESUMO

Visceral leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania infantum (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae) is a major neglected tropical disease and Brazil is the responsible for most cases reported in the Americas. In this region, L. infantum is primarily transmitted by Lutzomyia longipalpis and Migonemyia migonei (França) (Diptera: Psychodidae) is considered a permissive vector. We evaluated the susceptibility of Lu. longipalpis and Mg. migonei to Beauveria bassiana and to Eucalyptus globulus (Myrtales: Myrtaceae) essential oil. A spore suspension of B. bassiana was prepared and sand flies divided into five groups: test 1 (107 spores/ml of B. bassiana with E. globulus essential oil at 4 mg/ml), test 2 (107 spores/ml of B. bassiana), test 3 (E. globulus essential oil at 4 mg/ml), positive control (cypermethrin 0.1%), and negative control (sterile distilled water). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was performed on specimens from each group. A 50% reduction was recorded in the survival time of Lu. longipalpis in test 1 and 2, where hyphal adhesion and cuticle damage were observed by SEM. No significant differences in the survival time of Mg. migonei were found, probable due to the high mortality rate observed in the negative control group, which may be a result of the greater sensitivity of this species to laboratory conditions. The results obtained herein suggest that B. bassiana may be a potential biological control agent against Lu. longipalpis, the main vector of L. infantum in the Americas.

16.
Parasit Vectors ; 13(1): 287, 2020 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32503664

RESUMO

The fast development of molecular taxonomy is impacting our knowledge of the world parasite diversity at an unprecedented level. A number of operational taxonomic units have been uncovered and new species described. However, it is not always that new parasite species are being described in compliance with the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature. This is the case of "Candidatus Dirofilaria hongkongensis", a nematode found in dogs, jackals and humans in Hong Kong and parts of India. This name has been proposed without a formal description and without the designation of a holotype, and therefore is an unavailable name. Finally, we argue that using the provisional status Candidatus in zoological nomenclature is inappropriate, considering this term is not considered in the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature.

17.
Vet Parasitol ; 283: 109167, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32580071

RESUMO

The Tropical Council for Companion Animal Parasites Ltd. (TroCCAP) is a not-for-profit organisation whose mission is to independently inform, guide and make best-practice recommendations for the diagnosis, treatment and control of companion animal parasites in the tropics and sub-tropics, with the aim of protecting animal and human health. In line with this primary mission, TroCCAP recently developed guidelines for the diagnosis, treatment and control of feline and canine parasites in the tropics. The development of these guidelines required unique and complex considerations to be addressed, often inapplicable to developed nations. Much of the tropics encompass middle-to-low income countries in which poor standards of environmental hygiene and large populations of stray dogs and cats coexist. In these regions, a range of parasites pose a high risk to companion animals, which ultimately may place their owners at risk of acquiring parasitic zoonoses. These considerations led to the development of unique recommendations with regard, for example, to deworming and endoparasite testing intervals for the control of both global and 'region-specific' parasites in the tropics. Moreover, the 'off-' or 'extra'-label use of drugs for the treatment and control of parasitic infections is common practice in many tropical countries and many generic products lack manufacturers' information on efficacy, safety, and quality control. Recommendations and advice concerning the use of such drugs and protocols are also addressed in these guidelines. The formation of these guidelines is an important first step towards improving the education of veterinarians specifically regarding best-practice for the diagnosis, treatment and control of canine and feline parasites in the tropics.

18.
Pathogens ; 9(6)2020 Jun 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32580453

RESUMO

In the last two decades, reports of canine heartworm (HW) infection have increased even in non-endemic areas, with a large variability in prevalence data due to the diagnostic strategy employed. This study evaluated the relative performance of two microtiter plate ELISA methods for the detection of HW antigen in determining the occurrence of Dirofilaria immitis in a dog population previously tested by the modified Knott's test and SNAP 4Dx Plus test. The prevalence of this infection in the sheltered dog population (n = 363) from a high-risk area for HW infection was 44.4% according to the modified Knott's test and 58.1% according to a point-of-care antigen ELISA. All serum samples were then evaluated by a microtiter plate ELISA test performed with and without immune complex dissociation (ICD). The prevalence increased from 56.5% to 79.6% following ICD, indicating a high proportion of samples with immune complexing. Comparing these results to that of the modified Knott's test, the samples negative for microfilariae (mfs) and those positive only for D. repens mfs demonstrated the greatest increase in the proportion of positive results for D. immitis by ELISA following ICD. While the ICD method is not recommended for routine screening, it may be a valuable secondary strategy for identifying HW infections in dogs.

19.
Acta Trop ; 208: 105520, 2020 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32413361

RESUMO

Most visceral leishmaniasis (VL) cases reported in Brazil are from the northeast region, where the disease is strongly linked to poverty. In spite of the still existing inequalities, many social improvements were achieved in the past decades in this region, but the possible impact of these improvements on VL remains poorly investigated. We conducted a cross-sectional study coupled with a spatial analysis of VL cases notified in northeastern Brazil from 2007 to 2017. In total, 21,703 cases were reported during this period, with an annual incidence of 3.6 cases per 100,000 inhabitants. Children under 10 years old and males were more affected, and most cases were from urban areas. Living in municipalities situated in the Cerrado, Amazon or, to a lesser extent, in the Caatinga biomes was a risk factor for VL. This study indicates that the epidemiological profile of VL patients remained unchanged in northeastern Brazil, suggesting that social improvements achieved in this region were not enough to mitigate the risk of this disease among the most affected populations.

20.
Adv Parasitol ; 109: 715-741, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32381224

RESUMO

I herein review published studies reporting the prevalence of Toxocara infection in dogs and cats in Brazil. Based on data gathered from faecal examinations of approximately 38,940 dogs and 5600 cats from different Brazilian studies, the mean prevalence of Toxocara infection is 11.4% (range: 0.7-48.9%) in dogs and 16.7% (0.3-43.1%) in cats. These mean values based on faecal examinations should be interpreted with cautious, considering the obvious differences in terms of sample size, diagnostic tests and animal populations. Accordingly, necropsy investigations reveal higher mean prevalence values (21.9% for Toxocara canis and 27.6% Toxocara cati in dogs and cats, respectively). The contamination with Toxocara eggs in different environments and the significance of these parasites from a public health perspective in Brazil are briefly discussed.

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