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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35545848

RESUMO

Bartonella spp. and haemoplasmas are pathogens of veterinary and medical interest with ectoparasites mainly involved in their transmission. This study aimed at molecular detection of Bartonella spp. and haemoplasmas in cats (n = 93) and dogs (n = 96), and their related fleas (n = 189) from countries in East and Southeast Asia. Ctenocephalides felis was the dominant flea species infesting both cats (97.85%) and dogs (75%) followed by Ctenocephalides orientis in dogs (18.75%) and rarely in cats (5.2%). Bartonella spp. DNA was only detected in blood samples of flea-infested cats (21.51%) (p < .0001, OR = 27.70) with Bartonella henselae more frequently detected than Bartonella clarridgeiae in cat hosts (15.05%, 6.45%) and their associated fleas (17.24%, 13.79%). Out of three Bartonella-positive fleas from dogs, two Ct. orientis fleas carried Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii and Bartonella clarridgeiae, while the 3rd flea (Ct. felis) carried Candidatus Bartonella merieuxii. Felines represented a risk factor for Bartonella spp. infections, where fleas collected from cats (32.25%) presented an increased likelihood for Bartonella spp. occurrence (p < .0001, OR = 14.76) than those from dogs (3.13%). Moreover, when analysing infectious status, higher Bartonella spp. DNA loads were detected in fleas from bacteraemic cats compared to those from non-bacteraemic ones (p < .05). The haemoplasma occurrence was 16.13% (15/93) and 4.17% (4/96) in cat and dog blood samples from different countries (i.e. Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Taiwan and Thailand), with cats more at risk of infection (p < .01, OR = 5.96) than dogs. Unlike Bartonella spp., there was no evidence for flea involvement in the hemoplasmas' transmission cycle, thus supporting the hypothesis of non-vectorial transmission for these pathogens. In conclusion, client-owned cats and dogs living in East and Southeast Asia countries are exposed to vector-borne pathogens with fleas from cats playing a key role in Bartonella spp. transmission, thus posing a high risk of infection for humans sharing the same environment.

2.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 6699, 2022 04 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35462560

RESUMO

Several zoonotic vector-borne helminths (VBHs) infesting canids cause serious veterinary and medical diseases worldwide. Increasing the knowledge about their genetic structures is pivotal to identify them and therefore to settle effective surveillance and control measures. To overcome the limitation due to the heterogeneity of large DNA sequence-datasets used for their genetic characterization, available cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) (n = 546) and the 12S rRNA (n = 280) sequences were examined using combined bioinformatic approach (i.e., distance-clustering, maximum likelihood phylogeny and phylogenetic evolutionary placement). Out of the 826 DNA available sequences from GenBank, 94.7% were characterized at the haplotype level regardless sequence size, completeness and/or their position. A total of 89 different haplotypes were delineated either by cox1 (n = 35), 12S rRNA (n = 21) or by both genes (n = 33), for 14 VBHs (e.g., Acanthocheilonema reconditum, Brugia spp., Dirofilaria immitis, Dirofilaria repens, Onchocerca lupi and Thelazia spp.). Overall, the present approach could be useful for studying global genetic diversity and phylogeography of VBHs. However, as barcoding sequences were restricted to two mitochondrial loci (cox1 and 12S rRNA), the haplotype delineation proposed herein should be confirmed by the characterization of other nuclear loci also to overcome potential limitations caused by the heteroplasmy phenomenon within the mitogenome of VBHs.


Assuntos
Canidae , Dirofilaria immitis , Dirofilaria repens , Animais , Vetores de Doenças , Variação Genética , Onchocerca , Filogenia
3.
Acta Trop ; 232: 106452, 2022 Apr 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35421384

RESUMO

Proinflammatory cytokine secretion determines the infection course in leishmaniasis. The immunopathology of canine leishmaniasis (CanL) caused by Leishmania infantum is characterized by low Leishmania-specific IFN-γ and IL-17 production. Mutations in the human IL-17 gene promoter alter cytokine expression and may increase the susceptibility of humans to some infectious diseases. In this study, we correlated canine IL-17 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with anti-Leishmania IgG levels, parasite load and external clinical signs in dogs naturally exposed to L. infantum in Brazil. A higher frequency (Chi-square test: X2= 5.378, df= 1, P= 0.020) of major alleles was observed among dogs showing no external clinical signs attributable to Leishmania infection. A high proportion of A allele carriers (mutant) were observed among dogs with high antibody levels, although differences were not statistically significant (Chi-square test: X2= 4.410, df= 4, P= 0.353), as compared to dogs with low antibody levels. In general, the association of canine IL-17 SNPs with disease expression or disease exasperation did not reach enough statistical power to allow the use of these mutations as prognostic markers. This knowledge may pave the way for further investigations on the genetic aspects of CanL and its immunotherapy.

4.
Acta Trop ; 231: 106427, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35339434

RESUMO

Plague is a flea-borne zoonosis that affects a wide range of mammals and still causes outbreaks in human populations yearly across several countries. While crucial for proper treatment, early diagnosis is still a major challenge in low- and middle-income countries due to poor access to laboratory infrastructure in rural areas. To tackle this issue, we developed and evaluated a new Fraction 1 capsular antigen (F1)-based rapid diagnostic test (RDT) as an alternative method for plague serological diagnosis and surveillance in humans and other mammals. In this study, 187 serum samples from humans, dogs, rodents and rabbits were retrospectively assessed using the plague RDT method. To calculate its performance, results were compared to those obtained by traditional hemagglutination (HA) and ELISA, which are well-established methods in the plague routine serodiagnosis. Remarkably, the results from RDT were in full agreement with those from the ELISA and HA assays, resulting in 100% (CI 95% = 95.5-100%) of sensitivity and 100% (CI 95% = 96.6-100%) of specificity. Accordingly, the Cohen's Kappa test coefficient was 1.0 (almost perfect agreement). Moreover, the RDT showed no cross-reaction when tested with sera from individuals positive to other pathogens, such as Y. pseudotuberculosis, Yersinia enterocolitica, Anaplasma platys, Ehrlichia canis and Leishmania infantum. Although preliminary, this study brings consistent proof-of-concept results with high performance of the Plague RDT when compared to HA and ELISA. Although further human and animal population-based studies will be necessary to validate these findings, the data presented here show that the plague RDT is highly sensitive and specific, polyvalent to several mammal species and simple to use in field surveillance or point-of-care situations with instant results.

5.
J Gen Virol ; 103(1)2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35077341

RESUMO

Decades after its discovery in East Africa, Zika virus (ZIKV) emerged in Brazil in 2013 and infected millions of people during intense urban transmission. Whether vertebrates other than humans are involved in ZIKV transmission cycles remained unclear. Here, we investigate the role of different animals as ZIKV reservoirs by testing 1723 sera of pets, peri-domestic animals and African non-human primates (NHP) sampled during 2013-2018 in Brazil and 2006-2016 in Côte d'Ivoire. Exhaustive neutralization testing substantiated co-circulation of multiple flaviviruses and failed to confirm ZIKV infection in pets or peri-domestic animals in Côte d'Ivoire (n=259) and Brazil (n=1416). In contrast, ZIKV seroprevalence was 22.2% (2/9, 95% CI, 2.8-60.1) in West African chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) and 11.1% (1/9, 95% CI, 0.3-48.3) in king colobus (Colobus polycomos). Our results indicate that while NHP may represent ZIKV reservoirs in Africa, pets or peri-domestic animals likely do not play a role in ZIKV transmission cycles.


Assuntos
Animais Domésticos/virologia , Primatas/virologia , Infecção por Zika virus/epidemiologia , Infecção por Zika virus/virologia , Zika virus , África , Animais , Brasil , Costa do Marfim , Humanos , Testes de Neutralização , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Infecção por Zika virus/transmissão
6.
Exp Appl Acarol ; 86(1): 129-144, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34914021

RESUMO

Reptiles and amphibians are exceptional hosts for different ectoparasites, including mites and ticks. In this study, we investigated tick infestations on reptiles and amphibians trapped in Central Amazonia, and also assessed the presence of rickettsial infections in the collected ticks. From September 2016 to September 2019, 385 reptiles (350 lizards, 20 snakes, 12 tortoises, and three caimans) and 120 amphibians (119 anurans and one caecilian) were captured and examined for ectoparasites. Overall, 35 (10%) lizards, three (25%) tortoises and one (0.8%) toad were parasitized by ticks (124 larvae, 32 nymphs, and 22 adults). In lizards, tick infestation varied significantly according to landscape category and age group. Based on combined morphological and molecular analyses, these ticks were identified as Amblyomma humerale (14 larvae, 12 nymphs, 19 males, and one female), Amblyomma nodosum (three larvae, one nymph, and one female), and Amblyomma rotundatum (four larvae, three nymphs, and one female), and Amblyomma spp. (103 larvae and 16 nymphs). Our study presents the first records of A. nodosum in the Amazonas state and suggests that teiid lizards are important hosts for larvae and nymphs of A. humerale in Central Amazonia. Moreover, a nymph of A. humerale collected from a common tegu (Tupinambis teguixin) was found positive for Rickettsia amblyommatis, which agrees with previous reports, suggesting that the A. humerale-R. amblyommatis relationship may be more common than currently recognized.


Assuntos
Lagartos , Infecções por Rickettsia , Rickettsia , Infestações por Carrapato , Carrapatos , Animais , Brasil , Bufonidae , Feminino , Masculino , Ninfa , Répteis , Infestações por Carrapato/epidemiologia , Infestações por Carrapato/veterinária
7.
Ciênc. rural (Online) ; 52(2): e20201131, 2022. tab, mapas
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1286053

RESUMO

Ticks are significant parasites of dogs in the tropics, where tick-borne pathogens are highly prevalent, especially in areas where tick control measures are frequently neglected. This study investigated the seroprevalence and hematological abnormalities associated with Ehrlichia canis in dogs referred to a veterinary teaching hospital in Central-western Brazil. Out of 264 dogs tested for anti-Ehrlichia canis antibodies by an indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA), 59.1% (156/264) were positive. Seropositivity was significantly associated to anemia and thrombocytopenia, alone or in combination, and to leukopenia. Conversely, there were no differences in terms of seroprevalence according to sex, breed and age. This study demonstrated that dogs referred to a veterinary teaching hospital in Central-western Brazil are highly exposed to E. canis and that seropositive dogs are more likely to present hematological abnormalities, particularly anemia, thrombocytopenia and leukopenia. To our knowledge, this is the first study on detection of anti-E. canis antibodies by means of IFA among dogs in the state of Goiás. These findings highlighted the need for increasing awareness among dog owners regarding tick control measures in Central-western Brazil, ultimately to reduce the risk of exposure to E. canis and other tick-borne pathogens.


Carrapatos são importantes parasitos de cães nos trópicos, onde patógenos transmitidos por carrapatos são altamente prevalentes, especialmente em áreas onde as medidas de controle de carrapatos são frequentemente negligenciadas. O estudo investigou a soroprevalência e as anormalidades hematológicas associadas à Ehrlichia canis em cães encaminhados para um hospital veterinário-escola no Centro-oeste do Brasil. Dos 264 cães testados para anticorpos anti-Ehrlichia canis por meio da reação de imunofluorescência indireta (RIFI), 59.1% (156/264) foram positivos. A soropositividade foi associada significativamente à anemia e trombocitopenia, isoladamente ou em combinação, e à leucopenia. Por outro lado, não houve diferenças quanto à soroprevalência segundo sexo, raça e idade. Este estudo demonstrou que cães encaminhados a um hospital veterinário-escola na região Centro-oeste do Brasil são altamente expostos à E. canis, e que cães soropositivos têm maior probabilidade de apresentar alterações hematológicas, principalmente anemia, trombocitopenia e leucopenia. Para o nosso conhecimento, este é o primeiro estudo sobre a detecção de anticorpos anti-E. canis por meio da RIFI em cães do estado de Goiás. Essas descobertas destacam a necessidade de aumentar a conscientização entre os proprietários de cães em relação às medidas de controle do carrapato no Centro-oeste do Brasil, em última análise, para reduzir o risco de exposição ao E. canis e outros patógenos transmitidos por carrapatos.


Assuntos
Animais , Cães , Carrapatos , Ehrlichiose/sangue , Ehrlichiose/veterinária , Ehrlichiose/epidemiologia , Ehrlichia canis/isolamento & purificação , Brasil , Técnica Indireta de Fluorescência para Anticorpo/veterinária
8.
Acta Trop ; 227: 106271, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34906551

RESUMO

Cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis is the most widespread clinical form of leishmaniasis in the Americas. Migonemyia migonei is a widely distributed phlebotomine sand fly species in Brazil and has been implicated as a vector for L. (V.) braziliensis. In the present study, we investigated the effects of salivary gland homogenates (SGH) of Mg. migonei on the course of L. (V.) braziliensis infection in BALB/c mice. Mice were separated into four groups (six mice per group): CTRL (uninfected mice); SGH (mice inoculated with Mg. migonei SGH); SGH+LEISH (mice inoculated with Mg. migonei SGH plus L. (V.) braziliensis promastigotes); LEISH (mice inoculated with L. (V.) braziliensis promastigotes). Mice were followed up for 8 weeks and the cellular immune response was evaluated by flow cytometry at the end of the experiment. Analysis of cytokine production by splenic cells stimulated with 0.5 SGH, 0.25 SGH of Mg. migonei or L. (V.) braziliensis soluble antigen stimulation (LSA) demonstrated that upon stimulation with SGH 0.25, the production of IL-17A and TNF was not sustained in the SGH group, with decreasing levels of these cytokines after 5 days compared to 3 days of incubation. Analyzing the production of cytokines after LSA stimulation, we observed lower levels of IL-17A in the SGH group after 5 days compared to 3 days. The same was observed for IFN-γ in the SGH group. Yet, the levels of TNF were significantly higher in the LEISH group after 5 days compared to 3 days. Among SGH+LEISH and LEISH mice, three animals in each group developed skin lesions on the tail, the mean lesion size was significantly higher in the LEISH group. Our study suggests that Mg. migonei SGH may modulate BALB/c immune response, as reflected by the low production or early decrease of pro-inflammatory cytokines in splenic cell cultures following stimulation with L. (V.) braziliensis antigen. Our data also suggest that Mg. migonei saliva may reduce the lesion size in BALB/c mice, but further research with a larger sample size is needed to confirm this hypothesis.


Assuntos
Leishmania braziliensis , Leishmaniose Cutânea , Psychodidae , Animais , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Glândulas Salivares
9.
Vet Sci ; 8(12)2021 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34941837

RESUMO

Cats naturally exposed to Ehrlichia canis have been described in different regions of the world, but little is known about the genotypes associated with infection in these animals. To detect E. canis-specific antibodies and investigate the E. canis TRP genotypes in cats, serum samples from 76 domestic cats reactive to crude E. canis antigens by the indirect fluorescence antibody test (IFAT) were analyzed by ELISA, using E. canis-specific peptides (i.e., TRP19 and TRP36 /BR/US/CR). Of these, 25 (32.9%) cats reacted to at least one TRP peptide, confirming their specific exposure to E. canis. Eighteen (23.7%) cats reacted to TRP19, 15 (19.8%) to BRTRP36, and 11 (14.5%) to USTRP36, but none of them reacted to CRTRP36. Eight (10.5%) cats reacted to TRP19 but not to any TRP36 genotype, demonstrating the possible existence of a new E. canis genotype infecting felines. Nevertheless, this study provides the first report of anti-E. canis-specific antibodies in domestic cats.

10.
Exp Appl Acarol ; 85(2-4): 305-318, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34668142

RESUMO

Birds are important hosts for various tick species, playing a significant role in their biological life cycle and dispersion. In this study, we investigated tick infestations on birds trapped in an urban remnant of Atlantic Forest in Pernambuco state, Brazil. From February 2015 to March 2017, 541 birds belonging to 52 species were trapped with mist nets and examined for ectoparasites. Birds trapped in the late successional forest were significantly more infested than birds trapped in the early successional forest. In the same way, ectoparasite infestation varied significantly according to bird weight and collection plot. Overall, 198 birds (36.6%) belonging to 27 species were parasitized by ectoparasites (i.e., ticks, lice and/or mites). Ectoparasites were effectively collected from 111 birds, of which 99 belonging to 20 species were infested by ticks (n = 261), namely, Amblyomma longirostre (13 nymphs), Amblyomma nodosum (21 nymphs), Amblyomma varium (one nymph), and Amblyomma spp. (five nymphs and 221 larvae). Most of the ticks (> 90%) were collected from Passeriformes. This study provides the second record of A. varium in Pernambuco state and confirms that birds, especially Passeriformes, are important hosts for larvae and nymphs of Amblyomma spp. in the Atlantic Forest biome of Pernambuco.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves , Ixodidae , Passeriformes , Infestações por Carrapato , Animais , Doenças das Aves/epidemiologia , Brasil/epidemiologia , Florestas , Ninfa , Infestações por Carrapato/epidemiologia , Infestações por Carrapato/veterinária
13.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 30(3): e006621, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34406212

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to investigate the level of exposure to Leishmania infection in stray dogs in an area of intense visceral leishmaniasis transmission in the state of Pernambuco, Brazil. Blood samples from 178 dogs were analyzed using serological and molecular assays: rapid immunochromatographic test (ICT), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), immunofluorescence antibody test (IFAT), and conventional and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (cPCR and qPCR). Positivity values obtained with serological tests were 71.4% (127/178), 70.2% (125/178), and 50.6% (90/178) using ICT, ELISA, and IFAT, respectively, with 38.8% (69/178) of the dogs were simultaneously positive for all three tests. The positivity values obtained with cPCR and qPCR were 20.2% (36/178) and 38.8% (69/178), respectively, with 11.8% (21/178) testing positive in both molecular assays. Overall, 87.1% (155/178) were positive for anti-Leishmania spp. antibodies and/or Leishmania spp. DNA. Positivity to one or more tests was statistically associated with lymphadenomegaly, skin lesions, lymphocytosis, anemia and hyperproteinemia. The results of this study revealed a high level of exposure to Leishmania in stray dogs in an area of intense human visceral leishmaniasis transmission, suggesting that dogs play a role as reservoirs in the transmission cycle of this zoonosis.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão , Leishmania infantum , Leishmania , Leishmaniose Visceral , Leishmaniose , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Cães , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/veterinária , Humanos , Leishmania/genética , Leishmania infantum/genética , Leishmaniose/veterinária , Leishmaniose Visceral/diagnóstico , Leishmaniose Visceral/epidemiologia , Leishmaniose Visceral/veterinária
14.
Acta Trop ; 222: 106031, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34224718

RESUMO

Lutzomyia longipalpis sensu lato is a complex of phlebotomine sand fly species, which are widespread in the Neotropics. They have a great medico-veterinary importance due their role as vectors of Leishmania infantum, the causative agent of visceral leishmaniasis. Morphological variations of Lu. longipalpis s.l. males were reported in the late 1960s in Brazil. Male populations can present either one pair of spots on third abdominal tergites or two pairs on third and fourth ones, namely 1S and 2S phenotypes, respectively. Since then, there has been much interest on the taxonomic status of Lu. longipalpis s.l. Thereafter, several lines of evidence have been congruent in suggesting the existence of an uncertain number of cryptic species within Lu. longipalpis s.l. in Brazil. Herein, a 525 bp-fragment of the period gene was used for assessing the genetic structure and phylogenetic relationship of Lu. longipalpis s.l. populations in Brazil. We performed two set of analyses, first we originally sequenced three populations (Passira, Santarém and Teresina) of Lu. longipalpis s.l. and compared them. Thereafter, we performed a global analysis including in our dataset other three pairs of sympatric populations of Lu. longipalpis s.l. from three Brazilian localities available in GenBank. Fixed single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) sharing, maximum likelihood inference, genetic structure and haplotype analyses revealed the presence of two genetic groups, one composed of Teresina population, and the other encompassing Passira and Santarém populations. The global analysis reflected the first of its kind, and two prominent groups were observed: the clade I comprising Teresina 1S, Bodocó 1S, Caririaçu 1S and Sobral 1S; and the clade II encompassing Passira 2S, Santarém 1S, Bodocó 2S, Caririaçu 2S and Sobral 2S. Genetic differentiation data suggested a limited gene flow between populations of the clade I versus clade II. Our results disclosed the presence of two prominent genetic groups, which could reasonably represent populations of Lu. longipalpis s.l. whose males produce the same courtship song.


Assuntos
Genética Populacional , Psychodidae , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Brasil , Masculino , Filogenia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Psychodidae/genética
15.
Parasitol Res ; 120(7): 2681-2687, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34110503

RESUMO

Babesial parasites are some of the most ubiquitous blood pathogens and consequently have considerable worldwide veterinary impact. Dogs living in the tropics are highly exposed to babesial parasites, particularly to Babesia vogeli. Limited data on the seroprevalence and molecular prevalence of Babesia spp. in dogs are available in Latin America. We conducted a cross-sectional study combining serological and molecular tests to estimate the seroprevalence and molecular epidemiology of Babesia spp. infections in dogs in two hyperendemic foci in Brazil. A total of 630 privately owned dogs (417 from Goiana municipality, Pernambuco state, north-eastern Brazil, and 213 from São Joaquim de Bicas municipality, Minas Gerais state, south-eastern Brazil) were sampled and molecularly and serologically tested for Babesia spp. Overall, 519 dogs (82.4%) presented detectable IgG antibodies against Babesia spp., and seropositivity was significantly higher in dogs older than 1 year. Molecularly, 34 dogs (5.4%) were positive for a ~ 200 bp fragment of the 18S rRNA gene of Babesia spp. and 88 (14.0%) for a longer fragment (~ 450 bp) of the same gene of Babesia spp. and other protozoa. The 18S rRNA gene sequences generated herein corresponded to B. vogeli (n = 52) or Hepatozoon canis (n = 20). This study confirms a high level of exposure to B. vogeli in two areas of Brazil and highlights that most of the dogs living in these areas are infected during the course of their life, reflected by increased seroprevalence in older dogs. Increased awareness and prevention of tick-borne protozoa infections in dogs from Brazil and Latin America are urgently needed.


Assuntos
Babesiose/epidemiologia , Babesiose/parasitologia , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Fatores Etários , Animais , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Babesia/classificação , Babesia/genética , Babesia/imunologia , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , DNA de Protozoário/química , DNA de Protozoário/isolamento & purificação , Cães , Doenças Endêmicas/veterinária , Feminino , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Masculino , Epidemiologia Molecular , Filogenia , Prevalência , RNA Ribossômico 18S/genética , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/epidemiologia
16.
J Am Mosq Control Assoc ; 37(2): 98-100, 2021 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34184039

RESUMO

More than 1,000 species of phlebotomine sand flies have been described in the literature, many of which are vectors of Leishmania spp. In addition to the morphological similarities between some species groups, the occurrence of anomalies within one species may lead to erroneous description of new taxa. This study describes a case of bilateral anomaly in the number of spines in the gonostyle in a male of Evandromyia lenti. In this anomalous male, a 5th spine is present between the upper external spine and the lower external spine. The occurrence of such an anomaly can potentially result in misidentifications in this important group of insects.


Assuntos
Psychodidae , Animais , Brasil , Humanos , Masculino
17.
Acta Trop ; 219: 105931, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33901440

RESUMO

Ehrlichia spp. are important tick-borne pathogens of animals in Brazil, and Ehrlichia canis is the most prevalent species infecting dogs. Moreover, Ehrlichia minasensis has also recently been identified as a novel ehrlichial agent that infects cattle in Brazil. The objective of this study was to determine whether dogs could be infected by E. minasensis. To investigate this possibility, sera (n = 429) collected from dogs in the Pantanal region were retrospectively analyzed for the presence of antibodies against E. canis and E. minasensis. Canine sera were screened by two isolates of E. canis in indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) and the majority (n = 298; 69.4%) had antibodies with endpoint titers ranging from 80 to 327,680. In order to further confirm E. canis-specific antibodies, IFA positive sera were analyzed by ELISA using E. canis-specific peptides (i.e. TRP19 and TRP36 US/BR/CR), which detected E. canis antibodies in 80.2% (239/298) of the dog sera. Fifty-nine (13.7%) samples had detectable antibodies to E. canis by IFA but were negative by E. canis peptide ELISA. These sera were then tested by E. minasensis IFA (Cuiaba strain) as antigen and 67.8% (40/59) were positive (titers ranging from 80 to 20,480). Eleven sera had antibody titers against E. minasensis at least two-fold higher than observed for E. canis and suggests that these dogs were previously infected with E. minasensis. The results of the present study suggest that multiple ehrlichial agents infect dogs in Brazil, which highlights the need to consider different Ehrlichia spp. in Brazilian dogs, particularly in areas where dogs are frequently exposed to multiple tick species. This investigation is the first to provide serologic evidence of E. minasensis infection in dogs from Brazil.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Ehrlichia/fisiologia , Ehrlichiose/veterinária , Testes Sorológicos , Animais , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Bovinos , Doenças do Cão/imunologia , Cães , Ehrlichia/imunologia , Ehrlichiose/diagnóstico , Ehrlichiose/imunologia
18.
Exp Appl Acarol ; 84(1): 215-225, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33860867

RESUMO

Amblyomma sculptum is a common human-biting tick in Brazil, where it plays an important role as a vector of Rickettsia rickettsii, the agent of the Brazilian spotted fever. Herein, we studied the seasonal dynamics of A. sculptum in an urban area of the Cerrado biome in midwestern Brazil, where human rickettsiosis is endemic. Ticks were collected in two sites located within the campus of Federal University of Goiás. The collections were done by dragging, flagging and visual search. In total, 117,685 ticks were collected, including 100,627 Amblyomma spp. larvae, 10,055 nymphs and 6977 adults of A. sculptum, and one nymph and 25 adults of Amblyomma dubitatum. The highest peak of larvae occurred in June 2018 and in July 2019, whereas nymphs peaked in July 2018 and September 2019. Adults reached their highest numbers in March 2018 and November 2019. These data suggest that A. sculptum develops one generation per year in this urban area of the Cerrado biome in midwestern Brazil. Interestingly, the peak of nymphs occurred during the same period of all confirmed cases of rickettsiosis in Goiás, suggesting a possible relationship between the seasonal dynamics of this tick stage and rickettsiosis transmission in this state.


Assuntos
Ixodidae , Infecções por Rickettsia , Rickettsia , Amblyomma , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Ecossistema , Humanos , Ninfa , Estações do Ano
20.
Vet Microbiol ; 255: 109037, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33740731

RESUMO

Ehrlichia canis is among the most prevalent tick-borne pathogens infecting dogs worldwide, being primarily vectored by brown dog ticks, Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato (s.l.). The genetic variability of E. canis has been assessed by analysis of different genes (e.g., disulfide bond formation protein gene, glycoprotein 19, tandem repeat protein 36 - TRP36) in the Americas, Africa, Asia, and in a single dog sample from Europe (i.e., Spain). This study was aimed to assess the variations in the TRP36 gene of E. canis detected in naturally infected canids and R. sanguineus s.l. ticks from different countries in Asia and Europe. DNA samples from dogs (n = 644), foxes (n = 146), and R. sanguineus s.l. ticks (n = 658) from Austria, Italy, Iran, Pakistan, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, Vietnam, and Taiwan were included in this study. Ehrlichia canis 16S rRNA positive samples (n = 115 from the previous studies; n = 14 from Austria in this study) were selected for molecular examination by analyses of TRP36 gene. Out of 129 E. canis 16S rRNA positive samples from dogs (n = 88), foxes (n = 7), and R. sanguineus s.l. ticks (n = 34), the TRP36 gene was successfully amplified from 52. The phylogenetic analysis of the TRP36 pre-repeat, tandem repeat, and post repeat regions showed that most samples were genetically close to the United States genogroup, whereas two samples from Austria and one from Pakistan clustered within the Taiwan genogroup. TRP36 sequences from all samples presented a high conserved nucleotide sequence in the tandem repeat region (from 6 to 20 copies), encoding for nine amino acids (i.e., TEDSVSAPA). Our results confirm the US genogroup as the most frequent group in dogs and ticks tested herein, whereas the Taiwan genogroup was present in a lower frequency. Besides, this study described for the first time the US genogroup in red foxes, thus revealing that these canids share identical strains with domestic dogs and R. sanguineus s.l. ticks.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Doenças do Cão/microbiologia , Ehrlichia canis/genética , Raposas/microbiologia , Variação Genética , Rhipicephalus sanguineus/microbiologia , Animais , Ásia/epidemiologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Cães , Ehrlichia canis/classificação , Ehrlichiose/epidemiologia , Ehrlichiose/microbiologia , Ehrlichiose/veterinária , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica , Saúde Global , Filogenia , RNA Bacteriano/genética , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
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