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1.
Adv Mater ; : e1907757, 2020 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32068922

RESUMO

Passivation of interfacial defects serves as an effective means to realize highly efficient and stable perovskite solar cells (PSCs). However, most molecular modulators currently used to mitigate such defects form poorly conductive aggregates at the perovskite interface with the charge collection layer, impeding the extraction of photogenerated charge carriers. Here, a judiciously engineered passivator, 4-tert-butyl-benzylammonium iodide (tBBAI), is introduced, whose bulky tert-butyl groups prevent the unwanted aggregation by steric repulsion. It is found that simple surface treatment with tBBAI significantly accelerates the charge extraction from the perovskite into the spiro-OMeTAD hole-transporter, while retarding the nonradiative charge carrier recombination. This boosts the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of the PSC from ≈20% to 23.5% reducing the hysteresis to barely detectable levels. Importantly, the tBBAI treatment raises the fill factor from 0.75 to the very high value of 0.82, which concurs with a decrease in the ideality factor from 1.72 to 1.34, confirming the suppression of radiation-less carrier recombination. The tert-butyl group also provides a hydrophobic umbrella protecting the perovskite film from attack by ambient moisture. As a result, the PSCs show excellent operational stability retaining over 95% of their initial PCE after 500 h full-sun illumination under maximum-power-point tracking under continuous simulated solar irradiation.

2.
Small ; 15(49): e1904746, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31670469

RESUMO

Today's perovskite solar cells (PSCs) mostly use components, such as organic hole conductors or noble metal back contacts, that are very expensive or cause degradation of their photovoltaic performance. For future large-scale deployment of PSCs, these components need to be replaced with cost-effective and robust ones that maintain high efficiency while ascertaining long-term operational stability. Here, a simple and low-cost PSC architecture employing dopant-free TiO2 and CuSCN as the electron and hole conductor, respectively, is introduced while a graphitic carbon layer deposited at room temperature serves as the back electrical contact. The resulting PSCs show efficiencies exceeding 18% under standard AM 1.5 solar illumination and retain ≈95% of their initial efficiencies for >2000 h at the maximum power point under full-sun illumination at 60 °C. In addition, the CuSCN/carbon-based PSCs exhibit remarkable stability under ultraviolet irradiance for >1000 h while under similar conditions, the standard spiro-MeOTAD/Au based devices degrade severely.

3.
Research (Wash D C) ; 2019: 8474698, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31549091

RESUMO

High photovoltages and power conversion efficiencies of perovskite solar cells (PSCs) can be realized by controlling the undesired nonradiative charge carrier recombination. Here, we introduce a judicious amount of guanidinium iodide into mixed-cation and mixed-halide perovskite films to suppress the parasitic charge carrier recombination, which enabled the fabrication of >20% efficient and operationally stable PSCs yielding reproducible photovoltage as high as 1.20 V. By introducing guanidinium iodide into the perovskite precursor solution, the bandgap of the resulting absorber material changed minimally; however, the nonradiative recombination diminished considerably as revealed by time-resolved photoluminescence and electroluminescence studies. Furthermore, using capacitance-frequency measurements, we were able to correlate the hysteresis features exhibited by the PSCs with interfacial charge accumulation. This study opens up a path to realize new record efficiencies for PSCs based on guanidinium iodide doped perovskite films.

4.
Science ; 365(6453): 591-595, 2019 08 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31395783

RESUMO

Although ß-CsPbI3 has a bandgap favorable for application in tandem solar cells, depositing and stabilizing ß-CsPbI3 experimentally has remained a challenge. We obtained highly crystalline ß-CsPbI3 films with an extended spectral response and enhanced phase stability. Synchrotron-based x-ray scattering revealed the presence of highly oriented ß-CsPbI3 grains, and sensitive elemental analyses-including inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry-confirmed their all-inorganic composition. We further mitigated the effects of cracks and pinholes in the perovskite layer by surface treating with choline iodide, which increased the charge-carrier lifetime and improved the energy-level alignment between the ß-CsPbI3 absorber layer and carrier-selective contacts. The perovskite solar cells made from the treated material have highly reproducible and stable efficiencies reaching 18.4% under 45 ± 5°C ambient conditions.

5.
Sci Adv ; 5(6): eaaw2543, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31187060

RESUMO

Preventing the degradation of metal perovskite solar cells (PSCs) by humid air poses a substantial challenge for their future deployment. We introduce here a two-dimensional (2D) A2PbI4 perovskite layer using pentafluorophenylethylammonium (FEA) as a fluoroarene cation inserted between the 3D light-harvesting perovskite film and the hole-transporting material (HTM). The perfluorinated benzene moiety confers an ultrahydrophobic character to the spacer layer, protecting the perovskite light-harvesting material from ambient moisture while mitigating ionic diffusion in the device. Unsealed 3D/2D PSCs retain 90% of their efficiency during photovoltaic operation for 1000 hours in humid air under simulated sunlight. Remarkably, the 2D layer also enhances interfacial hole extraction, suppressing nonradiative carrier recombination and enabling a power conversion efficiency (PCE) >22%, the highest reported for 3D/2D architectures. Our new approach provides water- and heat-resistant operationally stable PSCs with a record-level PCE.

6.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 10(13): 3543-3549, 2019 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31194558

RESUMO

5-Ammonium valeric acid (AVA) is a frequently used additive in the preparation of lead halide perovskites. However, its microscopic role as passivating, cross-linking, or templating agent is far from clear. In this work, we provide density functional theory-based structural models for the Ruddlesden-Popper (RP) phases of AVA2(CH3NH3) n-1Pb nI3 n+1 for n = 1, 2, and 3 and validate with experimental data on polycrystalline samples for n = 1. The structural and electronic properties of the AVA-based RP phases are compared to the ones of other linker families. In contrast to aromatic and aliphatic spacers without additional functional groups, the RP phases of AVA are characterized by the formation of a regular and stable H-bonding network between the carbonyl head groups of adjacent AVA molecules in opposite layers. Because of these additional interactions, the penetration depth of the organic layer into the perovskite sheet is reduced with direct consequences for its crystalline phase. The possibility of forming strong interlinker hydrogen bonds may lead to an enhanced thermal stability.

7.
Nano Lett ; 19(1): 150-157, 2019 01 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30540195

RESUMO

Three-dimensional (3D) perovskite materials display remarkable potential in photovoltaics owing to their superior solar-to-electric power conversion efficiency, with current efforts focused on improving stability. Two-dimensional (2D) perovskite analogues feature greater stability toward environmental factors, such as moisture, owing to a hydrophobic organic cation that acts as a spacer between the inorganic layers, which offers a significant advantage over their comparatively less stable 3D analogues. Here, we demonstrate the first example of a formamidinium (FA) containing Dion-Jacobson 2D perovskite material characterized by the BFA n-1Pb nI3 n+1 formulation through employing a novel bifunctional organic spacer (B), namely 1,4-phenylenedimethanammonium (PDMA). We achieve remarkable efficiencies exceeding 7% for (PDMA)FA2Pb3I10 based 2D perovskite solar cells resisting degradation when exposed to humid ambient air, which opens up new avenues in the design of stable perovskite materials.

8.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 9(23): 6750-6754, 2018 Dec 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30400741

RESUMO

The exchange of ions in hybrid organic-inorganic perovskites with the general formula APbX3 (A = MA, FA; X = I, Cl, Br) is studied in five different systems using in situ real-time grazing incident X-ray diffraction (GIXD). In systems where the organic cation is exchanged, we find a continuous shift of the lattice parameter. The relative shift compared to the pure materials is used to quantify the exchange. Whether or not a conversion is possible, as well as the amount of exchanged cations, depends on the halide used. In the case of the interconversion of MAPbI3 and MAPbCl3, we observe a decay of the diffraction peaks of the original perovskite and the emergence of new peaks corresponding to the structure with the alternative halide. Moreover, we determined the relevant time scales of the growth and decay of the perovskite structures.

9.
Small ; 14(36): e1802033, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30091843

RESUMO

Efficiencies >20% are obtained from the perovskite solar cells (PSCs) employing Cs+ and Rb+ based perovskite compositions; therefore, it is important to understand the effect of these inorganic cations specifically Rb+ on the properties of perovskite structures. Here the influence of Cs+ and Rb+ is elucidated on the structural, morphological, and photophysical properties of perovskite structures and the photovoltaic performances of resulting PSCs. Structural, photoluminescence (PL), and external quantum efficiency studies establish the incorporation of Cs+ (x < 10%) but amply rule out the possibility of Rb-incorporation into the MAPbI3 (MA = CH3 NH3+ ) lattice. Moreover, morphological studies and time-resolved PL show that both Cs+ and Rb+ detrimentally affect the surface coverage of MAPbI3 layers and charge-carrier dynamics, respectively, by influencing nucleation density and by inducing nonradiative recombination. In addition, differential scanning calorimetry shows that the transition from orthorhombic to tetragonal phase occurring around 160 K requires more thermal energy for the Cs-containing MAPbI3 systems compared to the pristine MAPbI3 . Investigation including mixed halide (I/Br) and mixed cation A-cation based compositions further confirms the absence of Rb+ from the 3D-perovskite lattice. The fundamental insights gained through this work will be of great significance to further understand highly promising perovskite compositions.

10.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 57(43): 14125-14128, 2018 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30126024

RESUMO

The synthesis, characterization, and photovoltaic performance of a series of indacenodithiophene (IDT)-based D-π-A organic dyes with varying electron-accepting units is presented. By control of the electron affinity, perfectly matching energy levels were achieved with a copper(I/II)-based redox electrolyte, reaching a high open-circuit voltage (>1.1 V) while harvesting a large fraction of solar photons at the same time. Besides achieving high power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs), that is, 11.2 % under standard AM 1.5 G sunlight, and 28.4 % under a 1000 lux fluorescent light tube, this work provides a possible method for the design and fabrication of low-cost highly efficient DSCs.

11.
ACS Nano ; 12(7): 7301-7311, 2018 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29953817

RESUMO

We report significant improvements in the optoelectronic properties of lead halide perovskites with the addition of monovalent ions with ionic radii close to Pb2+. We investigate the chemical distribution and electronic structure of solution processed CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite structures containing Na+, Cu+, and Ag+, which are lower valence metal ions than Pb2+ but have similar ionic radii. Synchrotron X-ray diffraction reveals a pronounced shift in the main perovskite peaks for the monovalent cation-based films, suggesting incorporation of these cations into the perovskite lattice as well as a preferential crystal growth in Ag+ containing perovskite structures. Furthermore, the synchrotron X-ray photoelectron measurements show a significant change in the valence band position for Cu- and Ag-doped films, although the perovskite bandgap remains the same, indicating a shift in the Fermi level position toward the middle of the bandgap. Such a shift infers that incorporation of these monovalent cations dedope the n-type perovskite films when formed without added cations. This dedoping effect leads to cleaner bandgaps as reflected by the lower energetic disorder in the monovalent cation-doped perovskite thin films as compared to pristine films. We also find that in contrast to Ag+ and Cu+, Na+ locates mainly at the grain boundaries and surfaces. Our theoretical calculations confirm the observed shifts in X-ray diffraction peaks and Fermi level as well as absence of intrabandgap states upon energetically favorable doping of perovskite lattice by the monovalent cations. We also model a significant change in the local structure, chemical bonding of metal-halide, and the electronic structure in the doped perovskites. In summary, our work highlights the local chemistry and influence of monovalent cation dopants on crystallization and the electronic structure in the doped perovskite thin films.

12.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 9(51): 44423-44428, 2017 Dec 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29185697

RESUMO

Two new donor-acceptor (D-A)-substituted S,N-heteroacene-based molecules were developed and investigated as hole-transporting material (HTM) for perovskite solar cells (PSCs). Optical and electrochemical characterization brought out that the energy levels of both HTMs are suitable for their use in PSCs. Consequently, a power-conversion efficiency of 17.7% and 16.1% was achieved from PSCs involving the HTM-1 and HTM-2, respectively. The optoelectronic properties in terms of series resistance, conductivity, and charge carrier recombination were further examined to unfold the potential of these new HTMs. Time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy brought out that the hole injection from the valence band of perovskite into HTMs follows the trend, which is in accordance with the position of the highest occupied molecular orbital. Overall, our findings underline the potential of S,N-heteroacene co-oligomers as promising HTM candidates for PSCs.

13.
Science ; 358(6364): 768-771, 2017 11 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28971968

RESUMO

Perovskite solar cells (PSCs) with efficiencies greater than 20% have been realized only with expensive organic hole-transporting materials. We demonstrate PSCs that achieve stabilized efficiencies exceeding 20% with copper(I) thiocyanate (CuSCN) as the hole extraction layer. A fast solvent removal method enabled the creation of compact, highly conformal CuSCN layers that facilitate rapid carrier extraction and collection. The PSCs showed high thermal stability under long-term heating, although their operational stability was poor. This instability originated from potential-induced degradation of the CuSCN/Au contact. The addition of a conductive reduced graphene oxide spacer layer between CuSCN and gold allowed PSCs to retain >95% of their initial efficiency after aging at a maximum power point for 1000 hours under full solar intensity at 60°C. Under both continuous full-sun illumination and thermal stress, CuSCN-based devices surpassed the stability of spiro-OMeTAD-based PSCs.

14.
Sci Adv ; 3(9): e1700841, 2017 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28975149

RESUMO

Among various all-inorganic halide perovskites exhibiting better stability than organic-inorganic halide perovskites, α-CsPbI3 with the most suitable band gap for tandem solar cell application faces an issue of phase instability under ambient conditions. We discovered that a small amount of two-dimensional (2D) EDAPbI4 perovskite containing the ethylenediamine (EDA) cation stabilizes the α-CsPbI3 to avoid the undesirable formation of the nonperovskite δ phase. Moreover, not only the 2D perovskite of EDAPbI4 facilitate the formation of α-CsPbI3 perovskite films exhibiting high phase stability at room temperature for months and at 100°C for >150 hours but also the α-CsPbI3 perovskite solar cells (PSCs) display highly reproducible efficiency of 11.8%, a record for all-inorganic lead halide PSCs. Therefore, using the bication EDA presents a novel and promising strategy to design all-inorganic lead halide PSCs with high performance and reliability.

15.
Adv Mater ; 29(40)2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28892279

RESUMO

Perovskite solar cells (PSCs) based on cesium (Cs)- and rubidium (Rb)-containing perovskite films show highly reproducible performance; however, a fundamental understanding of these systems is still emerging. Herein, this study has systematically investigated the role of Cs and Rb cations in complete devices by examining the transport and recombination processes using current-voltage characteristics and impedance spectroscopy in the dark. As the credibility of these measurements depends on the performance of devices, this study has chosen two different PSCs, (MAFACs)Pb(IBr)3 (MA = CH3 NH3+ , FA = CH(NH2 )2+ ) and (MAFACsRb)Pb(IBr)3 , yielding impressive performances of 19.5% and 21.1%, respectively. From detailed studies, this study surmises that the confluence of the low trap-assisted charge-carrier recombination, low resistance offered to holes at the perovskite/2,2',7,7'-tetrakis(N,N-di-p-methoxyphenylamine)-9,9-spirobifluorene interface with a low series resistance (Rs ), and low capacitance leads to the realization of higher performance when an extra Rb cation is incorporated into the absorber films. This study provides a thorough understanding of the impact of inorganic cations on the properties and performance of highly efficient devices, and also highlights new strategies to fabricate efficient multiple-cation-based PSCs.

16.
J Vis Exp ; (121)2017 03 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28362369

RESUMO

Here, we demonstrate the incorporation of monovalent cation additives into CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite in order to adjust the optical, excitonic, and electrical properties. The possibility of doping was investigated by adding monovalent cation halides with similar ionic radii to Pb2+, including Cu+, Na+, and Ag+. A shift in the Fermi level and a remarkable decrease of sub-bandgap optical absorption, along with a lower energetic disorder in the perovskite, was achieved. An order-of-magnitude enhancement in the bulk hole mobility and a significant reduction of transport activation energy within an additive-based perovskite device was attained. The confluence of the aforementioned improved properties in the presence of these cations led to an enhancement in the photovoltaic parameters of the perovskite solar cell. An increase of 70 mV in open circuit voltage for AgI and a 2 mA/cm2 improvement in photocurrent density for NaI- and CuBr-based solar cells were achieved compared to the pristine device. Our work paves the way for further improvements in the optoelectronic quality of CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite and subsequent devices. It highlights a new avenue for investigations on the role of dopant impurities in crystallization and controls the electronic defect density in perovskite structures.


Assuntos
Compostos de Cálcio/química , Cátions Monovalentes/química , Fontes de Energia Elétrica , Iodetos/química , Chumbo/química , Metilaminas/química , Óxidos/química , Energia Solar , Titânio/química , Contagem de Células , Cristalização , Fatores de Tempo
17.
Nano Lett ; 16(11): 7155-7162, 2016 11 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27776210

RESUMO

We report on both the intrinsic and the extrinsic stability of a formamidinium lead bromide [CH(NH2)2PbBr3 = FAPbBr3] perovskite solar cell that yields a high photovoltage. The fabrication of FAPbBr3 devices, displaying an outstanding photovoltage of 1.53 V and a power conversion efficiency of over 8%, was realized by modifying the mesoporous TiO2-FAPbBr3 interface using lithium treatment. Reasons for improved photovoltaic performance were revealed by a combination of techniques, including photothermal deflection absorption spectroscopy (PDS), transient-photovoltage and charge-extraction analysis, and time-integrated and time-resolved photoluminescence. With lithium-treated TiO2 films, PDS reveals that the TiO2-FAPbBr3 interface exhibits low energetic disorder, and the emission dynamics showed that electron injection from the conduction band of FAPbBr3 into that of mesoporous TiO2 is faster than for the untreated scaffold. Moreover, compared to the device with pristine TiO2, the charge carrier recombination rate within a device based on lithium-treated TiO2 film is 1 order of magnitude lower. Importantly, the operational stability of perovskites solar cells examined at a maximum power point revealed that the FAPbBr3 material is intrinsically (under nitrogen) as well as extrinsically (in ambient conditions) stable, as the unsealed devices retained over 95% of the initial efficiency under continuous full sun illumination for 150 h in nitrogen and dry air and 80% in 60% relative humidity (T = ∼60 °C). The demonstration of high photovoltage, a record for FAPbBr3, together with robust stability renders our work of practical significance.

18.
Sci Adv ; 2(10): e1601156, 2016 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27819049

RESUMO

Emission characteristics of metal halide perovskites play a key role in the current widespread investigations into their potential uses in optoelectronics and photonics. However, a fundamental understanding of the molecular origin of the unusual blueshift of the bandgap and dual emission in perovskites is still lacking. In this direction, we investigated the extraordinary photoluminescence behavior of three representatives of this important class of photonic materials, that is, CH3NH3PbI3, CH3NH3PbBr3, and CH(NH2)2PbBr3, which emerged from our thorough studies of the effects of temperature on their bandgap and emission decay dynamics using time-integrated and time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy. The low-temperature (<100 K) photoluminescence of CH3NH3PbI3 and CH3NH3PbBr3 reveals two distinct emission peaks, whereas that of CH(NH2)2PbBr3 shows a single emission peak. Furthermore, irrespective of perovskite composition, the bandgap exhibits an unusual blueshift by raising the temperature from 15 to 300 K. Density functional theory and classical molecular dynamics simulations allow for assigning the additional photoluminescence peak to the presence of molecularly disordered orthorhombic domains and also rationalize that the unusual blueshift of the bandgap with increasing temperature is due to the stabilization of the valence band maximum. Our findings provide new insights into the salient emission properties of perovskite materials, which define their performance in solar cells and light-emitting devices.

19.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 7(16): 3264-9, 2016 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27472458

RESUMO

We report on the optimization of the interfacial properties of titania in mesoscopic CH3NH3PbI3 solar cells. Modification of the mesoporous TiO2 film by TiCl4 treatment substantially reduced the surface traps, as is evident from the sharpness of the absorption edge with a significant reduction in Urbach energy (from 320 to 140 meV) determined from photothermal deflection spectroscopy, and led to an order of magnitude enhancement in the bulk electron mobility and corresponding decrease in the transport activation energy (from 170 to 90 meV) within a device. After optimization of the photoanode-perovskite interface using various sizes of TiO2 nanoparticles, the best photovoltaic efficiency of 16.3% was achieved with the mesoporous TiO2 composed of 36 nm sized nanoparticles. The improvement in device performance can be attributed to the enhanced charge collection efficiency that is driven by improved charge transport in the mesoporous TiO2 layer. Also, the decreased recombination at the TiO2-perovskite interface and better perovskite coverage play important roles.

20.
Sci Adv ; 2(1): e1501170, 2016 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26767196

RESUMO

We report on a new metal halide perovskite photovoltaic cell that exhibits both very high solar-to-electric power-conversion efficiency and intense electroluminescence. We produce the perovskite films in a single step from a solution containing a mixture of FAI, PbI2, MABr, and PbBr2 (where FA stands for formamidinium cations and MA stands for methylammonium cations). Using mesoporous TiO2 and Spiro-OMeTAD as electron- and hole-specific contacts, respectively, we fabricate perovskite solar cells that achieve a maximum power-conversion efficiency of 20.8% for a PbI2/FAI molar ratio of 1.05 in the precursor solution. Rietveld analysis of x-ray diffraction data reveals that the excess PbI2 content incorporated into such a film is about 3 weight percent. Time-resolved photoluminescence decay measurements show that the small excess of PbI2 suppresses nonradiative charge carrier recombination. This in turn augments the external electroluminescence quantum efficiency to values of about 0.5%, a record for perovskite photovoltaics approaching that of the best silicon solar cells. Correspondingly, the open-circuit photovoltage reaches 1.18 V under AM 1.5 sunlight.


Assuntos
Compostos de Cálcio/química , Cátions/química , Óxidos/química , Energia Solar , Titânio/química , Amidinas/química , Fontes de Energia Elétrica , Elétrons , Luminescência , Soluções/química , Luz Solar , Difração de Raios X/métodos
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