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1.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 31(1): 106182, 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34735900

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The recommendations of international guidelines for the management of asymptomatic carotid stenosis (ACS) often vary considerably and extend from a conservative approach with risk factor modification and best medical treatment (BMT) alone, to a more aggressive approach with a carotid intervention plus BMT. The aim of the current multispecialty position statement is to reconcile the conflicting views on the topic. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A literature review was performed with a focus on data from recent studies. RESULTS: Several clinical and imaging high-risk features have been identified that are associated with an increased long-term ipsilateral ischemic stroke risk in patients with ACS. Such high-risk clinical/imaging features include intraplaque hemorrhage, impaired cerebrovascular reserve, carotid plaque echolucency/ulceration/ neovascularization, a lipid-rich necrotic core, a thin or ruptured fibrous cap, silent brain infarction, a contralateral transient ischemic attack/stroke episode, male patients < 75 years and microembolic signals on transcranial Doppler. There is growing evidence that 80-99% ACS indicate a higher stroke risk than 50-79% stenoses. CONCLUSIONS: Although aggressive risk factor control and BMT should be implemented in all ACS patients, several high-risk features that may increase the risk of a future cerebrovascular event are now documented. Consequently, some guidelines recommend a prophylactic carotid intervention in high-risk patients to prevent future cerebrovascular events. Until the results of the much-anticipated randomized controlled trials emerge, the jury is still out regarding the optimal management of ACS patients.

2.
J Endovasc Ther ; : 15266028211061267, 2021 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34836467

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The optimal treatment for isolated abdominal aortic dissection (IAAD) is currently unknown. We compared the effects of straight and bifurcated aortic stent grafts on postoperative aortic remodeling in patients with IAAD. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From February 2012 to December 2019, 57 patients with IAAD were treated using endovascular methods, including either a bifurcated or a straight aortic stent graft. The clinical features, risk factors, computed tomography angiograms, midterm follow-up results, and aortic remodeling of these patients were reviewed and analyzed. RESULTS: In total, 44 (77%) patients were treated with a bifurcated graft and 13 (23%) patients were treated with a straight graft. Patients treated with straight grafts had fewer common iliac arteries involved (38% vs 73%, p=0.023), the dissection length was shorter (76.3 ± 40.0 vs 116.2 ± 56.7 mm, p=0.011), and the preoperative aortic diameter (26.0 ± 5.6 vs 35.2 ± 12.1 mm) and the false lumen diameter (13.1 ± 5.2 vs 21.2 ± 11.3 mm) were smaller. During the procedure, there were 3 (5.3%) type I endoleaks, 1 (1.8%) surgical conversion and 1 (1.8%) partial renal artery coverage without perioperative mortality. Patients with straight grafts had shorter operative time (96.5 ± 24.4 vs 144.2 ± 49.0 minutes, p<0.0001). The median follow-up duration was 37.6 ± 21.0 (range = 3-89) months with 1 (1.8%) aortic-related death. Type A aortic dissection occurred in 1 (1.8%) patient. New descending aortic dissection occurred in 3 (5.3%) patients, and 1 patient advanced to type A aortic dissection 3 months later. Two (3.5%) patients had limb occlusion. There was no significant difference in aortic remodeling, survival, and freedom from all adverse events between the 2 treatment strategies. CONCLUSIONS: Endovascular treatment provides a safe, minimally invasive treatment for IAAD in midterm follow-up. Compression of the true lumen at the aortic bifurcation is the main concern after treatment with a bifurcated graft. Straight grafts are an excellent alternative for some patients, with the benefit of reduced procedural time, effective aortic remodeling, and excellent clinical prognosis. More experience is needed to offer clear recommendations for making treatment decisions as well as determine long-term effectiveness and durability.

4.
JVS Vasc Sci ; 2: 1, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34617053
5.
Commun Biol ; 4(1): 1153, 2021 10 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34611267

RESUMO

Small diameter (< 6 mm) prosthetic vascular grafts continue to show very low long-term patency, but bioengineered vascular grafts show promising results in preclinical experiments. To assess a new scaffold source, we tested the use of decellularized fish swim bladder as a vascular patch and tube in rats. Fresh goldfish (Carassius auratus) swim bladder was decellularized, coated with rapamycin and then formed into patches or tubes for implantation in vivo. The rapamycin-coated patches showed decreased neointimal thickness in both the aorta and inferior vena cava patch angioplasty models. Rapamycin-coated decellularized swim bladder tubes implanted into the aorta showed decreased neointimal thickness compared to uncoated tubes, as well as fewer macrophages. These data show that the fish swim bladder can be used as a scaffold source for tissue-engineering vascular patches or vessels.

6.
JAMA Surg ; : e214898, 2021 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34613342

RESUMO

Importance: The surgical workforce shortage is a threat to promoting health equity in medically underserved areas. Although the Health Resources and Services Administration and the American College of Surgeons have called to increase the surgical pipeline for trainees to mitigate this shortage, the demographic factors associated with students' intention to practice in underserved areas is unknown. Objective: To evaluate the association between students' demographics and medical school experiences with intention to pursue surgery and practice in underserved areas. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cross-sectional study surveyed graduating US allopathic medical students who matriculated between 2007-2008 and 2011-2012. Analysis began June 2020 and ended December 2020. Main Outcomes and Measures: Intention to pursue surgery and practice in underserved areas were retrieved from the Association of American Medical Colleges graduation questionnaire. Logistic regression models were constructed to evaluate (1) the association between demographic factors and medical students' intention to pursue surgical specialties vs medical specialties and (2) the association between demographic factors and medical school electives with intention to practice in underserved areas. Results: Among 57 307 students who completed the graduation questionnaire, 48 096 (83.9%) had complete demographic data and were included in the study cohort. The mean (SD) age at matriculation was 23.4 (2.5) years. Compared with students who reported intent to pursue nonsurgical careers, a lower proportion of students who reported intent to pursue a surgical specialty identified as female (3264 [32.4%] vs 19 731 [51.9%]; χ2 P < .001). Multiracial Black and White students (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.72; 95% CI, 1.11-2.65) were more likely to report an intent for surgery compared with White students. Among students who reported an intention to pursue surgery, Black/African American students (aOR, 3.24; 95% CI, 2.49-4.22), Hispanic students (aOR, 2.00; 95% CI, 1.61-2.47), multiracial Black and White students (aOR, 2.27; 95% CI, 1.03-5.01), and Indian/Pakistani students (aOR, 1.31; 95% CI, 1.02-1.69) were more likely than White students to report an intent to practice in underserved areas. Students who reported participating in community health (aOR, 1.61; 95% CI, 1.42-1.83) or global health (aOR, 1.83; 95% CI, 1.61-2.07) experiences were more likely to report an intention to practice in underserved areas. Conclusions and Relevance: This study suggests that diversifying the surgical training pipeline and incorporating health disparity and community health in undergraduate or graduate medical education may promote students' motivation to practice in underserved areas.

7.
Ann Vasc Surg ; 2021 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34656724

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with peripheral artery disease (PAD) present with claudication or chronic limb threatening ischemia (CLTI). CLTI patients have a more advanced stage of atherosclerosis and increased comorbidities compared to claudicants, and are at an elevated risk of major amputation and mortality after lower extremity revascularization (LER). However, the frequency of reinterventions for claudication and CLTI have not been compared. Our hypothesis is that patients with CLTI undergo more frequent reinterventions to prevent major amputation. METHODS: A single-center retrospective chart review of consecutive patients undergoing lower extremity revascularization (LER) for PAD in 2013-2015 was performed. Patients were stratified based on indication for revascularization into claudication or CLTI. Patient characteristics, outcomes, and reinterventions were compared between the 2 groups. RESULTS: There were 826 patients undergoing LER and 44% (N = 361) had CLTI. Patients treated for CLTI were more likely to be smokers (P < 0.001), to have diabetes (P< 0.001), chronic renal insufficiency (P< 0.001), end stage renal disease (P< 0.001), and cardiac disease (P< 0.001). CLTI patients were less likely to be on optimal medical management as reflected by decreased rate of aspirin (P< 0.001), ADP receptor/P2Y12 inhibitors (P< 0.001), and statins (P< 0.001) compared to patients with claudication. Patients with CLTI had significantly higher major amputation (3.7% vs. 0.2%, P< 0.001) and mortality (1.4% vs. 0.2%, P = 0.092) at 30 days. At long-term follow up, patients with CLTI had higher rates of major amputation (15.5% vs. 1.3%, P < 0.001) and mortality (37.1% vs. 18.1%, P < 0.001) compared to patients with claudication. There was a significant difference in mean follow-up time between the 2 cohorts (claudication: 3.7 ± 1.5 years versus CLTI: 2.6 ± 1.8 years, P < 0.001). There was no significant difference in the ipsilateral reintervention rate between the 2 groups (claudication: 39.6% vs. CLTI: 42.7%, P = 0.37) or the mean number of ipsilateral reinterventions (claudication: 2.0 ± 1.6 vs. CLTI: 2.0 ± 1.7). However, after adjusting for follow-up time, the mean number of reinterventions per year was significantly higher for CLTI patients compared to patients with claudication (1.4 ± 2.2 vs. .6 ± 0.7 intervention per year, P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Patients undergoing LER for CLTI undergo more frequent reinterventions over time compared to patients treated for claudication. Research on reinterventions after LER should include reporting of the frequency of reintervention adjusted for the follow up period in addition to the reintervention rate defined as the percentage of patients undergoing reintervention.

8.
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol ; 41(12): 2909-2922, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34670406

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Patients with end-stage renal disease depend on hemodialysis for survival. Although arteriovenous fistulae (AVF) are the preferred vascular access for hemodialysis, the primary success rate of AVF is only 30% to 50% within 6 months, showing an urgent need for improvement. PD-L1 (programmed death ligand 1) is a ligand that regulates T-cell activity. Since T cells have an important role during AVF maturation, we hypothesized that PD-L1 regulates T cells to control venous remodeling that occurs during AVF maturation. Approach and results: In the mouse aortocaval fistula model, anti-PD-L1 antibody (200 mg, 3×/wk intraperitoneal) was given to inhibit PD-L1 activity during AVF maturation. Inhibition of PD-L1 increased T-helper type 1 cells and T-helper type 2 cells but reduced regulatory T cells to increase M1-type macrophages and reduce M2-type macrophages; these changes were associated with reduced vascular wall thickening and reduced AVF patency. Inhibition of PD-L1 also inhibited smooth muscle cell proliferation and increased endothelial dysfunction. The effects of anti-PD-L1 antibody on adaptive venous remodeling were diminished in nude mice; however, they were restored after T-cell transfer into nude mice, indicating the effects of anti-PD-L1 antibody on venous remodeling were dependent on T cells. CONCLUSIONS: Regulation of PD-L1 activity may be a potential therapeutic target for clinical translation to improve AVF maturation.

9.
J Endovasc Ther ; : 15266028211045699, 2021 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34521237

RESUMO

AIMS: Discuss the clinical value, technique characteristics, and early follow-up results of a newly designed gutter-free chimney stent-graft system for aortic arch pathology. METHODS AND RESULTS: About 13 patients with aortic arch dissection were enrolled in a clinical trial testing a novel gutter-free stent-graft between February 2019 and December 2020. All 13 patients were male, age 52.6±10.4 years. The implantation time was 14.0±6.9 minutes; total procedure time was 89.5±19.8 minutes. The volume of contrast was 79.6±7.2 ml. And 15 aortic stent-grafts were implanted, and all 13 patients had chimney branch stent-grafts implanted into the left subclavian artery (LSA). There were 3 (23.1%) cases of immediate type Ιa endoleak after thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR), and 7.7% type Ιa endoleaks occurred in delayed fashion. Survival at 2 years was 100%, and the 2-year patency of chimney stent-grafts was 100%. CONCLUSIONS: This study reports early success with good freedom from endoleak using a novel stent-graft designed for chimney TEVAR to treat aortic arch dissection. Postoperative survival and patency of the branch stent-grafts were excellent. Additional data from this multicenter clinical trial will be forthcoming.

10.
Ann Vasc Surg ; 2021 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34455041

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Endovascular treatment of complex common iliac artery (CIA) and internal iliac artery (IIA) aneurysms using iliac branch endoprostheses (IBE) has proven safe and effective. Instructions for use (IFU) require deployment of current IBE technology with the corresponding manufacturer's modular bifurcated aortic endograft. Concomitant aortoiliac occlusive disease, inadequate renal artery-iliac bifurcation length, and unfavorable aortic anatomy preclude on-label IBE deployment. This study aimed to evaluate the technical feasibility and safety of Alternative Endograft Aortoiliac Reconstruction (AEGAR) for branched endovascular treatment of complex iliac artery aneurysms. METHODS: In 7 consecutive patients with CIA or IIA aneurysms, computed tomography angiography (CTA) and center-line reconstruction revealed aortoiliac anatomy incompatible with the current IBE IFU due to inadequate proximal CIA landing zone (n = 7), inadequate renal artery to iliac bifurcation length (n = 2), compromised aortic anatomy (n = 3), or short infrarenal neck <15 mm (n = 1), either alone or in combination. To overcome these restrictions and facilitate IBE deployment, aortoiliac reconstruction was performed using the Endologix AFX, Endologix Ovation limbs or the Medtronic Endurant II platforms (AEGAR technique). All internal iliac artery reconstructions and external iliac artery extensions were performed using the Gore VBX or Viabahn stent grafts. Technical success was defined as successful delivery of all endograft components without migration or endoleak. RESULTS: The mean patient age was 69 years (range 52-82 years; 6 male). Four patients had bilateral CIA aneurysms and 3 patients had unilateral CIA aneurysms (mean diameter 4.3cm; range 2.2-7 cm). There were 13 IIA VBX stent grafts used for a total of 9 IIAs treated with IBE (bilateral IBE = 2 patients). The mean fluoroscopy time was 38.8 min (range 21.3-64.3 min) and the mean contrast volume was 168.5 mL (range 122-226 mL). Technical success was achieved in all patients and there were no perioperative complications. Mean hospital-stay was 2.2 days (range 1-3 days). Follow-up ranged from 82-957 days (mean = 487 days). At last follow-up, all patients were alive without cardiovascular morbidity; and CTA revealed stable or decreased aneurysm size, patent endografts, and no evidence of endoleak or migration. CONCLUSIONS: The AEGAR technique can be used to safely and effectively overcome certain aortoiliac anatomic constraints that preclude use of current IBE technology. We encourage broader use of these alternative endografts in pertinent anatomic configurations.

11.
JVS Vasc Sci ; 2: 110-128, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34423320

RESUMO

Objective---: Arteriovenous fistulae (AVF) placed for hemodialysis have high flow rates that can stimulate left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy. LV hypertrophy generally portends poor cardiac outcomes, yet clinical studies point to superior cardiac-specific outcomes for patients with AVF when compared to other dialysis modalities. We hypothesize that AVF induce physiologic cardiac hypertrophy with cardioprotective features. Methods---: 9-11 week C57Bl/6 male and female mice were treated with sham laparotomy or an aortocaval fistula via a 25Ga needle. Cardiac chamber size and function were assessed with serial echocardiography, and cardiac CTA. Hearts were harvested at 5 weeks post-operatively, and collagen content assessed with Masson's trichrome. Bulk mRNA sequencing was performed from LV of sham and AVF mice at 10 days. Differentially expressed genes were analyzed using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (Qiagen) to identify affected pathways and predict downstream biological effects. Results---: Mice with AVF had similar body weight and wet lung mass, but increased cardiac mass compared to sham-operated mice. AVF increased cardiac output while preserving LV systolic and diastolic function, as well as indices of right heart function; all 4 cardiac chambers were enlarged, with slight decrement in relative LV wall thickness. Histology showed preserved collagen density within each of the 4 chambers without areas of fibrosis. RNA sequencing captured 19,384 genes, of which 857 were significantly differentially expressed, including transcripts from extracellular matrix-related genes, ion channels, metabolism, and cardiac fetal genes. Top upstream regulatory molecules predicted include activation of angiogenic (Vegf, Akt1), pro-cardiomyocyte survival (Hgf, Foxm1, Erbb2, Lin9, Areg), and inflammation-related (CSF2, Tgfb1, TNF, Ifng, Ccr2, IL6) genes, as well as the inactivation of cardiomyocyte antiproliferative factors (Cdkn1a, FoxO3, α-catenin). Predicted downstream effects include reduction to heart damage, and increased arrhythmia, angiogenesis, and cardiogenesis. There were no significant sex-dependent differences in the AVF-stimulated cardiac adaptation. Conclusions---: AVF stimulate adaptive cardiac hypertrophy in wild-type mice without heart failure or pathological fibrosis. Transcriptional correlates suggest AVF-induced cardiac remodeling has some cardioprotective, although also arrhythmogenic features.

12.
Front Cardiovasc Med ; 8: 715114, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34368264

RESUMO

Vascular disorders frequently have differing clinical presentations among women and men. Sex differences exist in vascular access for hemodialysis; women have reduced rates of arteriovenous fistula (AVF) maturation as well as fistula utilization compared with men. Inflammation is increasingly implicated in both clinical studies and animal models as a potent mechanism driving AVF maturation, especially in vessel dilation and wall thickening, that allows venous remodeling to the fistula environment to support hemodialysis. Sex differences have long been recognized in arterial remodeling and diseases, with men having increased cardiovascular events compared with pre-menopausal women. Many of these arterial diseases are driven by inflammation that is similar to the inflammation during AVF maturation. Improved understanding of sex differences in inflammation during vascular remodeling may suggest sex-specific vascular therapies to improve AVF success.

13.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 10(15): e019437, 2021 08 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34308664

RESUMO

Background Proteinuria and glomerular segmental fibrosis are inevitable complications of diabetic nephropathy though their mechanisms are poorly understood. Understanding the clinical characteristics and pathogenesis of proteinuria and glomerular segmental fibrosis in diabetic nephropathy is, therefore, urgently needed for patient management of this severe disease. Methods and Results Diabetes mellitus was induced in podocyte-specific glucocorticoid receptor knockout (GRPKO) mice and control littermates by administration of streptozotocin. Primary podocytes were isolated and subjected to analysis of Wnt signaling and fatty acid metabolism. Conditioned media from primary podocytes was transferred to glomerular endothelial cells. Histologic analysis of kidneys from diabetic GRPKO mice showed worsened fibrosis, increased collagen deposition, and glomerulomegaly indicating severe glomerular fibrosis. Higher expression of transforming growth factor-ßR1 and ß-catenin and suppressed expression of carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1A in nephrin-positive cells were found in the kidneys of diabetic GRPKO mice. Podocytes isolated from diabetic GRPKO mice demonstrated significantly higher profibrotic gene expression and suppressed fatty acid oxidation compared with controls. Administration of a Wnt inhibitor significantly improved the fibrotic features in GRPKO mice. The glomerular endothelium of diabetic GRPKO mice demonstrated the features of endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition. Moreover, endothelial cells treated with conditioned media from podocytes lacking GR showed increased expression of α-smooth muscle actin, transforming growth factor-ßR1 and ß-catenin levels. Conclusions These data demonstrate that loss of podocyte GR leads to upregulation of Wnt signaling and disruption in fatty acid metabolism. Podocyte-endothelial cell crosstalk, mediated through GR, is important for glomerular homeostasis, and its disruption likely contributes to diabetic nephropathy.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/metabolismo , Nefropatias Diabéticas/metabolismo , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Glomérulos Renais/irrigação sanguínea , Podócitos/metabolismo , Receptores de Glucocorticoides/metabolismo , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/induzido quimicamente , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/genética , Nefropatias Diabéticas/etiologia , Nefropatias Diabéticas/genética , Nefropatias Diabéticas/patologia , Células Endoteliais/patologia , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Fibrose , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Homeostase , Masculino , Camundongos Knockout , Podócitos/patologia , Receptores de Glucocorticoides/genética , Estreptozocina , Via de Sinalização Wnt
14.
Int Angiol ; 40(5): 409-415, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34236153

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Arterial stiffness may be the underlying cause of divergent sac behavior after endovascular aortic repair (EVAR). We evaluated arterial stiffness using pulse wave velocity (PWV) in patients undergoing EVAR for abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) to determine whether arterial stiffness predicts sac behavior after EVAR. METHODS: One hundred nineteen patients with infrarenal AAA undergoing EVAR between November 2013 and July 2019 were included in this study. Preoperative brachial-ankle PWV was measured using an automated oscillometric method at our Vascular Laboratory. PWV and other risk factors were assessed with respect to being a risk factor for sac shrinkage at 2 years postoperatively. RESULTS: Univariable and multivariable analyses revealed both preoperative PWV (odds ratio [OR]=0.87; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.79-0.98; P=0.045) and the incidence of operative type II endoleak (OR 0.68; 95% CI 0.10-0.81; P=0.048) as independent risk factors for sac shrinkage at 2 year postoperatively. The receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis showed that the optimal cut-off value for predicting sac shrinkage was 17.79 m/s, and significantly predicted sac shrinkage. CONCLUSIONS: Preoperative PWV was independently associated with sac shrinkage after EVAR, suggesting that arterial stiffness may be one of the key factors for determining sac behavior after EVAR.


Assuntos
Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal , Implante de Prótese Vascular , Procedimentos Endovasculares , Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal/diagnóstico por imagem , Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal/cirurgia , Implante de Prótese Vascular/efeitos adversos , Endoleak , Procedimentos Endovasculares/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Análise de Onda de Pulso , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
J Vasc Surg ; 74(6): 2014-2022.e4, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34182034

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Arterial stiffness indices predict cardiovascular outcomes in patients with coronary or kidney disease; however, there is little data on the prognostic value of arterial stiffness in patients with advanced peripheral arterial disease. We determined whether arterial stiffness indices predict the outcomes of major amputation or death in patients with chronic limb-threatening ischemia (CLTI). METHODS: Arterial stiffness was prospectively measured using brachial oscillometry in patients with CLTI. After measuring arterial stiffness, patients were followed in 6-month intervals for up to 3 years and evaluated for limb preservation, occurrence of major amputation, or death. Hemodynamic variables and arterial stiffness indices were used to define predictors of amputation or death. RESULTS: A total of 136 patients presented with CLTI, and 134 (99%) of these patients required limb revascularization. At the end of follow-up (mean, 14 months), 24 patients (18%) were alive with a major amputation, and mortality was 7% (9 patients); 33 patients (24%) progressed to the combined outcome of major amputation or death. Patients having amputation and/or death (n = 33; 24%) initially presented with elevated pulse wave velocity (PWV) (13.41 ± 1.21 m/s vs 11.54 ± 1.65 m/s; P < .001), elevated augmentation index corrected to 75 beats per minute (40.42 ± 6.65% vs 27.12 ± 9.19%; P < .001), and high augmentation pressure (AP) (29.98 ± 4.32 mm Hg vs 13.40 ± 7.05 mm Hg; P < .001) compared with patients with preserved limbs. The initial ankle-brachial index (ABI) was lower in patients having amputation and/or death (0.43 ± 0.94 vs 0.62 ± 0.12; P < .001). Multivariable analysis identified PWV (odds ratio [OR], 2.62; P = .013), AP (OR, 1.56; P < .001), and ABI (OR, 0.01; P < .001) as predictors of amputation or death. ROC analysis identified patients with PWV ≤12.7 m/s (hazard ratio, 4.71; P < .001), AP ≤22.15 mm Hg (hazard ratio, 13.03; P < .001), or ABI >0.52 with an increased rate of limb preservation. CONCLUSIONS: PWV and AP, measurements of arterial stiffness, as well as the ABI, predict amputation or death in patients with CLTI.

16.
J Vasc Surg Cases Innov Tech ; 7(2): 253-257, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33997566

RESUMO

Secondary aortoenteric fistula is a potentially lethal complication after aortic surgery. Traditional treatment consists of open graft excision with extra-anatomic bypass or in situ reconstruction. Patients who present in extremis, however, are generally poor candidates for re-do open aortic surgery. Endovascular repair has emerged as an alternative treatment modality for patients who would otherwise be unable to tolerate an extended operation. We report here a case of urgent endovascular repair of a juxtarenal secondary aortoenteric fistula via endovascular aneurysm repair with a renal artery chimney in a patient with a solitary kidney who presented in hemorrhagic and septic shock.

17.
Acta Biomater ; 128: 305-313, 2021 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33894348

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Incomplete hemostasis after vascular cannulation can cause a hematoma or pseudoaneurysm. We hypothesized that a hydrogel-coated needle would effectively and rapidly stop bleeding after vascular cannulation. METHODS: A hydrogel composed of sodium alginate, hyaluronic acid, and calcium carbonate was coated onto the surface of suture needles. Needles were observed using scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) and immunofluorescence. Cannulation was performed in both mouse and rat models; the liver, kidney, jugular vein, inferior vena cava and aorta were punctured using uncoated and hydrogel-coated needles. Needles coated with a hydrogel with and without CD34 antibody were used to puncture the rat jugular vein and aorta. Tissues were examined by histology and immunofluorescence. RESULTS: The hydrogel was successfully coated onto the surface of 22G and 30G needles and confirmed by SEM. Hydrogel-coated needles rapidly stopped bleeding after cannulation of the liver, kidney, jugular vein, inferior vena cava and aorta. Hydrogel-coated needles that contained CD34 antibody attracted vascular progenitor cells near the puncture site; there were fewer M1-type macrophages and more M2-type macrophages. CONCLUSION: Hydrogel-coated needles can effectively and rapidly stop puncture-site bleeding. The hydrogel that contains CD34 antibody attracted vascular progenitor cells, potentially promoting healing of the site after cannulation. STATEMENT OF SIGNIFICANCE: Incomplete hemostasis after vascular cannulation can cause a hematoma or pseudoaneurysm and remains a significant clinical problem. We developed a hydrogel composed of sodium alginate, hyaluronic acid, and calcium carbonate; hydrogel-coated needles effectively and rapidly stopped bleeding after vascular cannulation. Interestingly, the hydrogel can also serve as a carrier for drugs that are delivered to the puncture site during the short time of cannulation that could additionally promote puncture site healing. Hydrogel-coated needles may be a new method for rapid hemostasis with application to patients especially at risk for bleeding.


Assuntos
Hidrogéis , Agulhas , Animais , Hemorragia/etiologia , Hemorragia/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Veias Jugulares , Camundongos , Punções/efeitos adversos , Ratos
18.
J Vasc Surg ; 74(4): 1417-1424.e1, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33864826

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Peripheral artery disease (PAD) affects more than 200 million people worldwide, among whom more than two-thirds reside in low- and middle-income countries. China, as the largest low- and middle-income country, faces a challenge from the burden of PAD as the country undergoes economic expansion. We compared the patterns of PAD between China and Western countries to determine if there are differences in risk factors, awareness, or treatment of PAD. METHODS: Literature searches were performed both in English databases and Chinese databases covering January 1, 1995, to March 1, 2020. Both landmark and high-quality articles were evaluated. RESULTS: The prevalence of PAD in high-income countries increases linearly with age, whereas PAD increases slowly until the middle 60s and exponentially thereafter in China. In contrast with Western countries, the prevalence of PAD in China is reported to be higher in women than in men. There is a higher prevalence of risk factors in China, but the rates of awareness and treatment of these risk factors are low. CONCLUSIONS: The lack of awareness and lower rates of treatment and control of PAD and its risk factors in China may be underlying the higher prevalence of PAD in women than in men as well as the steep increase in PAD after the middle 60s. In all countries, more attention should be paid to the planning and implementation of preventative strategies and clinical services. The societal and economic effects of PAD are considerable and ongoing studies are needed to help curtail the burden of this disease.

19.
J Vasc Surg Venous Lymphat Disord ; 9(6): 1467-1472.e2, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33838310

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate whether a current commercially available high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) probe can adequately image targeted vascular malformations (VMs) in anticipation of HIFU treatment planning and delivery. METHODS: We enrolled 10 consecutive patients who were scheduled to undergo treatment of symptomatic peripheral VMs confirmed by routine preoperative contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging and soft tissue duplex ultrasound. The lesions were situated no more than 6 cm from the skin. After induction of general anesthesia and before surgical intervention, we prepared and positioned the Sonablate HIFU probe (SonaCare Medical, LLC, Charlotte, NC) to obtain multiple B-mode images of the targeted VM in the transverse and longitudinal dimensions. We then rated the quality of the images and the feasibility of the imaging process itself using a previously devised questionnaire aimed at evaluating the adequacy of the images for potential HIFU treatment planning and delivery. The patients subsequently underwent surgical intervention and clinical follow-up for their VM per the standard protocol. RESULTS: The study included 10 participants aged 21 to 67 years (mean ± standard deviation, 36.5 ± 16.5 years). Six patients (60%) identified as female. The VMs imaged consisted of eight venous (80%), one lymphatic (10%), and one combined lymphovenous (10%) malformation. The lesions were in the extremities only (50%), trunk only (20%), trunk and extremities (20%), or neck and extremities (10%). Pain related to the VM was present in all 10 patients (100%). In all 10 patients, the boundary and location of the VM could be visualized via the HIFU probe despite the diminished B-mode imaging resolution. The absence of Doppler functionality in the HIFU probe did not prevent the identification of the VMs in any patient up to a depth of 6 cm. The results from the postimaging survey showed that difficulty in preparing the study device for imaging was 1.1 ± 0.3 and difficulty in use was 1.1 ± 0.1, with a score of 1 equal to easy and 5 to difficult. The stability of the acoustic coupling to the patient was 1.3 ± 0.2, with a score of 1 representing very stable. CONCLUSIONS: We were able to ultrasonically identify and outline all targeted peripheral VMs using a commercially available HIFU probe in anticipation of treatment planning and delivery. Baseline magnetic resonance imaging and soft tissue duplex ultrasound remain essential tools for guiding probe placement and HIFU imaging.

20.
Cells ; 10(4)2021 04 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33918299

RESUMO

Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) represent an innovative, somatic cell-derived, easily obtained and renewable stem cell source without considerable ethical issues. iPSC and their derived cells may have enhanced therapeutic and translational potential compared with other stem cells. We previously showed that human iPSC-derived smooth muscle cells (hiPSC-SMC) promote angiogenesis and wound healing. Accordingly, we hypothesized that hiPSC-SMC may be a novel treatment for human patients with chronic limb-threatening ischemia who have no standard options for therapy. We determined the angiogenic potential of hiPSC-SMC in a murine hindlimb ischemia model. hiPSC-SMC were injected intramuscularly into nude mice after creation of hindlimb ischemia. Functional outcomes and perfusion were measured using standardized scores, laser Doppler imaging, microCT, histology and immunofluorescence. Functional outcomes and blood flow were improved in hiPSC-SMC-treated mice compared with controls (Tarlov score, p < 0.05; Faber score, p < 0.05; flow, p = 0.054). hiPSC-SMC-treated mice showed fewer gastrocnemius fibers (p < 0.0001), increased fiber area (p < 0.0001), and enhanced capillary density (p < 0.01); microCT showed more arterioles (<96 µm). hiPSC-SMC treatment was associated with fewer numbers of macrophages, decreased numbers of M1-type (p < 0.05) and increased numbers of M2-type macrophages (p < 0.0001). Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression in ischemic limbs was significantly elevated with hiPSC-SMC treatment (p < 0.05), and inhibition of VEGFR-2 with SU5416 was associated with fewer capillaries in hiPSC-SMC-treated limbs (p < 0.0001). hiPSC-SMC promote VEGF-mediated angiogenesis, leading to improved hindlimb ischemia. Stem cell therapy using iPSC-derived cells may represent a novel and potentially translatable therapy for limb-threatening ischemia.


Assuntos
Membro Posterior/irrigação sanguínea , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/transplante , Isquemia/patologia , Isquemia/terapia , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/transplante , Neovascularização Fisiológica , Animais , Capilares/patologia , Linhagem Celular , Feminino , Humanos , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/citologia , Recém-Nascido , Macrófagos/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos Nus , Músculos/irrigação sanguínea , Músculos/patologia , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo
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