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1.
Acta Paediatr ; 2019 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31630444

RESUMO

AIM: We surveyed care practices for critically ill very preterm infants admitted to neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) in the International Network for Evaluating Outcomes in Neonates (iNeo) to identify differences relevant to outcome comparisons. METHODS: We conducted an online survey on care practices for critically ill very preterm infants and infants with severe intracranial haemorrhage (ICH). The survey was distributed in 2015 to representatives of 390 NICUs in 11 countries. Survey replies were compared with network incidence of death and severe ICH for infants born between 230/7 and 286/7 weeks of gestation from 1 January 2015 to 31 December 2015. RESULTS: Most units in Israel, Japan and Tuscany, Italy favoured withholding care when care was considered futile, whereas most units in other networks favoured redirection of care. For infants with bilateral grade 4 ICH, redirection of care was very frequently (≥90% of cases) offered in the majority of units in Australia and New Zealand and Switzerland, but rarely in other networks. Networks where redirection of care was frequently offered for severe ICH had lower rates of survivors with severe ICH. CONCLUSION: We identified marked inter-network differences in care approaches that need to be considered when comparing outcomes.

2.
J Pediatr ; 2019 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31587861

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate outcome trends of neonates born very preterm in 11 high-income countries participating in the International Network for Evaluating Outcomes of neonates. STUDY DESIGN: In a retrospective cohort study, we included 154 233 neonates admitted to 529 neonatal units between January 1, 2007, and December 31, 2015, at 240/7 to 316/7 weeks of gestational age and birth weight <1500 g. Composite outcomes were in-hospital mortality or any of severe neurologic injury, treated retinopathy of prematurity, and bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD); and same composite outcome excluding BPD. Secondary outcomes were mortality and individual morbidities. For each country, annual outcome trends and adjusted relative risks comparing epoch 2 (2012-2015) to epoch 1 (2007-2011) were analyzed. RESULTS: For composite outcome including BPD, the trend decreased in Canada and Israel but increased in Australia and New Zealand, Japan, Spain, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. For composite outcome excluding BPD, the trend decreased in all countries except Spain, Sweden, Tuscany, and the United Kingdom. The risk of composite outcome was lower in epoch 2 than epoch 1 in Canada (adjusted relative risks 0.78; 95% CI 0.74-0.82) only. The risk of composite outcome excluding BPD was significantly lower in epoch 2 compared with epoch 1 in Australia and New Zealand, Canada, Finland, Japan, and Switzerland. Mortality rates reduced in most countries in epoch 2. BPD rates increased significantly in all countries except Canada, Israel, Finland, and Tuscany. CONCLUSIONS: In most countries, mortality decreased whereas BPD increased for neonates born very preterm.

3.
BMJ Open ; 9(10): e031086, 2019 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31615799

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To compare necrotising enterocolitis (NEC) prevention practices and NEC associated factors between units from eight countries of the International Network for Evaluation of Outcomes of Neonates, and to assess their association with surgical NEC rates. DESIGN: Prospective unit-level survey combined with retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Neonatal intensive care units in Australia/New Zealand, Canada, Finland, Israel, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and Tuscany (Italy). PATIENTS: Extremely preterm infants born between 240 to 286 weeks' gestation, with birth weights<1500 g, and admitted between 2014-2015. EXPOSURES: NEC prevention practices (probiotics, feeding, donor milk) using responses of an on-line pre-piloted questionnaire containing 10 questions and factors associated with NEC in literature (antenatal steroids, c-section, indomethacin treated patent ductus arteriosus and sepsis) using cohort data. OUTCOME MEASURES: Surgical NEC rates and death following NEC using cohort data. RESULTS: The survey response rate was 91% (153 units). Both probiotic provision and donor milk availability varied between 0%-100% among networks whereas feeding initiation and advancement rates were similar in most networks. The 9792 infants included in the cohort study to link survey results and cohort outcomes, revealed similar baseline characteristics but considerable differences in factors associated with NEC between networks. 397 (4.1%) neonates underwent NEC surgery, ranging from 2.4%-8.4% between networks. Standardised ratios for surgical NEC were lower for Australia/New Zealand, higher for Spain, and comparable for the remaining six networks. CONCLUSIONS: The variation in implementation of NEC prevention practices and in factors associated with NEC in literature could not be associated with the variation in surgical NEC incidence. This corroborates the current lack of consensus surrounding the use of preventive strategies for NEC and emphasises the need for research.

4.
Neonatology ; : 1-9, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31574502

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The availability of and variability in healthcare professionals in neonatal units in different countries has not been well characterized. Our objective was to identify variations in the healthcare professionals for preterm neonates in 10 national or regional neonatal networks participating in the International Network for Evaluating Outcomes (iNeo) of neonates. METHOD: Online, pre-piloted questionnaires about the availability of healthcare professionals were sent to the directors of 390 tertiary neonatal units in 10 international networks: Australia/New Zealand, Canada, Finland, Illinois, Israel, Japan, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, and Tuscany. RESULTS: Overall, 325 of 390 units (83%) responded. About half of the units (48%; 156/325) cared for 11-30 neonates/day and had team-based (43%; 138/325) care models. Neonatologists were present 24 h a day in 59% of the units (191/325), junior doctors in 60% (194/325), and nurse practitioners in 36% (116/325). A nurse-to-patient ratio of 1:1 for infants who are unstable and require complex care was used in 52% of the units (170/325), whereas a ratio of 1:1 or 1:2 for neonates requiring multisystem support was available in 59% (192/325) of the units. Availability of a respiratory therapist (15%, 49/325), pharmacist (40%, 130/325), dietitian (34%, 112/325), social worker (81%, 263/325), lactation consultant (45%, 146/325), parent buddy (6%, 19/325), or parents' resource personnel (11%, 34/325) were widely variable between units. CONCLUSIONS: We identified variability in the availability and organization of the healthcare professionals between and within countries for the care of extremely preterm neonates. Further research is needed to associate healthcare workers' availability and outcomes.

5.
Pediatr Res ; 2019 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31398720

RESUMO

There is significant uncertainty over the role of assessment of long-term neurodevelopmental outcome (LTO) in neonatal clinical trials. A multidisciplinary working group was established to identify key issues in this area and to make recommendations about optimal approaches to evaluate LTO in therapeutic trials in newborns, which can be developed by sponsors and investigators with other key stakeholders. A key consideration for neonatal trials is the potential for the investigational product to cause widespread effects and drives the need to assess outcome in multiple organs. Thus investigators must assess whether the product has an impact on the brain and the potential for it to cause potential effects on LTO. Critically, is assessment of LTO an important direct therapeutic target or a safety outcome? Such decisions and outcomes need to be specific to the product being studied and use published data, only considering expert opinion when prior evidence does not exist. In designing the trial, the balance of benefits, costs, and burdens of assessments to the researcher and families need to be considered. Families and parent advocates should be involved in design and execution of the study. A framework is presented for use by all key stakeholders to determine the need, nature, and duration of LTO assessments in regulatory trials involving newborn infants.

6.
Semin Perinatol ; 43(6): 333-340, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31151776

RESUMO

Reducing the burden of visual morbidity from retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) begins with primary prevention, and improvements in neonatal care with a positive impact on ROP are possible in all settings. Strategies range from rigorous adoption of inexpensive evidence-based protocols, for example on temperature control, prevention of sepsis and support for breast-milk feeding, through to comprehensive quality improvement programmes, and fostering team work and camaraderie. Oxygen monitoring is essential for very preterm infants receiving supplementary oxygen. The Neonatal Oxygenation Prospective Meta-analysis (NeOProM) collaboration has reported analysis of five trials of oxygen saturation (SpO2) targeting in very preterm infants and shown that a SpO2 target of 85-89% compared to 91-95% was associated with increased mortality (on average 28 extra deaths for every 1000 infants treated). Adopting a SpO2 target higher than 85-89% might increase the risk of ROP for some infants, highlighting the importance of pursuing all other means of prevention.

7.
Semin Perinatol ; 43(6): 315-316, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31151777

RESUMO

This issue of Seminars in Perinatology reviews recent advances in ROP epidemiology, prevention, treatment and outcome. Chapters will have relevance for obstetricians, neonatologists, ophthalmologists and nurses practising in both high and middle-income countries where ROP is prevalent, and in many countries in Africa where ROP is an emerging problem.

8.
J Prim Health Care ; 11(1): 32-38, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31039987

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION Young adults are often reluctant to seek medical attention. Compared with full-term controls, very low birthweight (<1500 g; VLBW) young adults may have more health problems. AIM To assess the frequency of unrecognised or unmet physical health needs during a comprehensive health and welfare assessment of a national cohort of VLBW adults born in 1986 compared with full-term controls. METHODS The VLBW cohort (n = 229; 71% of those alive) and controls (n = 100) aged 27-29 years were assessed in one University Hospital over 2 days. Physical health assessments included growth, respiratory function, blood pressure, echocardiogram, renal function, blood tests and an interview. Cranial MRI scans were performed on 150 VLBW adults and 50 controls. Significant unrecognised or unmet health needs were defined as including a body mass index (BMI) >30 plus raised fasting insulin >80 pmol/L; any two of moderate respiratory obstruction, or reduced diffusing capacity, or being a regular smoker; cardiovascular: hypertension or abnormal echocardiogram. RESULTS Among the VLBW cohort and controls; 61% versus 73% (P < 0.05) rated their overall health as very good or excellent. A general practitioner (GP) referral letter was sent for 44% VLBW adults and 38% controls, concerning metabolic problems in 20% and 17% respectively; respiratory problems in 12% and 4% (P < 0.05) respectively; cardiovascular problems in 14% and 12% respectively; abnormal renal function in 7% in both groups; and anaemia in 3% and 5% respectively. DISCUSSION Unrecognised or unmet health needs were frequent in both VLBW young adults and controls. Respiratory problems and hypertension were more frequent in the former. Continuity of care is important for VLBW adults who require a regular GP. GPs should routinely ask about gestation and birthweight and VLBW graduates should volunteer this information.

9.
Neuroimage Clin ; 22: 101780, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30925384

RESUMO

This study examined the long-term effects of being born very-low-birth-weight (VLBW, <1500 g) on adult cerebral structural development using a multi-method neuroimaging approach. The New Zealand VLBW study cohort comprised 413 individuals born VLBW in 1986. Of the 338 who survived to discharge, 229 were assessed at age 27-29 years. Of these, 150 had a 3 T MRI scan alongside 50 healthy term-born controls. The VLBW group included 53/57 participants born <28 weeks gestation. MRI analyses included: a) structural MRI to assess grey matter (GM) volume and cortical thickness; b) arterial spin labelling (ASL) to quantify GM perfusion; and c) diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to measure white matter (WM) integrity. Compared to controls, VLBW adults had smaller GM volumes within frontal, temporal, parietal and occipital cortices, bilateral cingulate gyri and left caudate, as well as greater GM volumes in frontal, temporal and occipital areas. Thinner cortex was observed within frontal, temporal and parietal cortices. VLBW adults also had less GM perfusion within limited temporal areas, bilateral hippocampi and thalami. Finally, lower fractional anisotropy (FA) and axial diffusivity (AD) within principal WM tracts was observed in VLBW subjects. Within the VLBW group, birthweight was positively correlated with GM volume and perfusion in cortical and subcortical regions, as well as FA and AD across numerous principal WM tracts. Between group differences within temporal cortices were evident across all imaging modalities, suggesting that the temporal lobe may be particularly susceptible to disruption in development following preterm birth. Overall, findings reveal enduring and pervasive effects of preterm birth on brain structural development, with individuals born at lower birthweights having greater long-term neuropathology.

10.
J Pediatr ; 206: 128-133.e5, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30545563

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the physical well-being and components of the metabolic syndrome in a national cohort of very low birth weight (VLBW) young adults and same age controls. STUDY DESIGN: The New Zealand VLBW Study cohort prospectively included all infants with birth weight <1500 g born in 1986, with 338 (82%) surviving to discharge home. Height and weight were measured at age 7-8 years. The VLBW cohort (n = 229; 71% alive) and term-born controls (n = 100) aged 27-29 years were clinically assessed in a single center over 2 days, including assessment for components of the metabolic syndrome. RESULTS: Compared with controls, both male and female VLBW adults were significantly shorter (P < .001), but only females were lighter (P < .001) and had lower mean body mass index (P = .044), fat mass, and body fat percentage. Males, but not females, had significantly higher systolic blood pressure (P = .028), but there were no significant differences in other components of the metabolic syndrome. There was no difference in the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in VLBW adults compared with controls (males, 22.2% vs 11.1%; P = .15: females, 12.8% vs 13.1%; P = .95). Examining the VLBW cohort with logistic regression, male sex, gestational age <28 weeks, Maori/Pacific Island ethnicity, and body mass index >90th percentile at age 7-8 years were significant predictors for the metabolic syndrome at age 27-29 years, with ORs of 2-4. CONCLUSIONS: Systolic blood pressure in males was the only component of the metabolic syndrome that was significantly elevated in VLBW adults compared with controls. Extreme prematurity (<28 weeks) and body mass index >90th percentile at age 7-8 years were significant predictors of the metabolic syndrome at age 27-29 years. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Registered at the Australian Clinical Trials Registry: ACTRN12612000995875.


Assuntos
Peso ao Nascer , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Adulto , Pressão Sanguínea , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido de muito Baixo Peso , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Nova Zelândia , Prevalência , Adulto Jovem
11.
JAMA Ophthalmol ; 137(3): 305-311, 2019 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30543348

RESUMO

Importance: To facilitate drug and device development for neonates, the International Neonatal Consortium brings together key stakeholders, including pharmaceutical companies, practitioners, regulators, funding agencies, scientists, and families, to address the need for objective, standardized clinical trial outcome measurements to fulfill regulatory requirements. Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is a disease that affects preterm neonates. The current International Classification of Retinopathy of Prematurity does not take into account all of the characteristics of ROP and does not adequately discriminate small changes in disease after treatment. These factors are critical for evaluating outcomes in clinical trials. Observations: There is need for an updated ROP acute disease activity and structure scale as well as end-stage structure and ophthalmologic outcome measures designed for use at different ages. The scale and measures, based on current diagnostic methods and treatments, could be used as a guideline for clinical intervention trials. The scale is intended to be validated against retrospective data and revised for use in future trials. An iterative revision process can be accomplished if new measures are added to clinical trials and evaluated at the end of each trial for prognostic value. The new measures would then be incorporated into a new version of the activity scale and the outcome measures revised. Conclusions and Relevance: An ROP activity scale and outcome measures to obtain the most robust and discriminatory data for clinical trials are needed. The scales should be dynamic and modified as knowledge and imaging modalities improve and then validated using data from well-documented clinical trials. This approach is relevant to improving clinical trial data quality.

12.
Pediatrics ; 142(6)2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30463851

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To compare the neonatal outcomes of very preterm triplets with those of matched singletons using a large international cohort. METHODS: A retrospective matched-cohort study of preterm triplets and singletons born between 2007 and 2013 in the International Network for Evaluation of Outcomes in neonates database countries and matched by gestational age, sex, and country of birth was conducted. The primary outcome was a composite of mortality or severe neonatal morbidity (severe neurologic injury, treated retinopathy of prematurity, and bronchopulmonary dysplasia). Unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated for model 1 (maternal hypertension and birth weight z score) and model 2 (variables in model 1, antenatal steroids, and mode of birth). Models were fitted with generalizing estimating equations and random effects modeling to account for clustering. RESULTS: A total of 6079 triplets of 24 to 32 weeks' gestation or 500 to 1499 g birth weight and 18 232 matched singletons were included. There was no difference in the primary outcome between triplets and singletons (23.4% vs 24.0%, adjusted odds ratio: 0.91, 95% CI: 0.83-1.01 for model 1 and 1.00, 95% CI: 0.90-1.11 for model 2). Rates of severe neonatal morbidities did not differ significantly between triplets and singletons. The results were also similar for a subsample of the cohort (1648 triplets and 4944 matched singletons) born at 24 to 28 weeks' gestation. CONCLUSIONS: No significant differences were identified in mortality or major neonatal morbidities between triplets who were very low birth weight or very preterm and matched singletons.

14.
Indian Pediatr ; 55(9): 797-802, 2018 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30345989

RESUMO

The 'Every Newborn Action Plan' envisions to end preventable newborn deaths and stillbirths by 2035. One important objective to realize this vision is improvement in quality of maternal and neonatal healthcare. Monitoring the performance of the healthcare systems and conducting quality improvement activities need reliable systems for data collection, analysis and interpretation. Measures chosen to monitor quality are about problems accounting for a significant health burden, for which effective interventions are available, there is evidence of variable or substandard care, and for which improvement can be undertaken by stakeholders. Data can be collected about safety, effectiveness, efficiency, equity, patient-centeredness and timeliness of care. These data can be collected by direct observation, from existing records, and by interview of the involved stakeholders. Healthcare facilities and governments need to identify core sets of quality of care indicators, regularly measure and track their performance and carry out informed quality assurance and quality improvement efforts.

15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30226023

RESUMO

AIM: Delayed gastric emptying (GE) has been demonstrated in adults with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). Little is known about GE in children with T1DM. Most methods to measure GE are invasive, that is, scintigraphy, or are only indirectly related to GE, that is, electrogastrography. Carbon-13 breath testing is a non-invasive, very low-risk procedure that accurately correlates with GE time. This was a pilot study to determine the feasibility of using carbon-13 breath testing to measure GE in children with T1DM and healthy controls. METHODS: Cases were recruited from children aged 7-15 years presenting to the paediatric diabetic clinic at Christchurch Hospital. Controls were peers of the cases. Children with known gastrointestinal disease were excluded. After an overnight fast, each child ate a standardised pancake labelled with carbon-13 sodium octanoate. Samples of breath were collected over a 4-h period. Samples were analysed by mass spectrometry. GE half time (GET1/2 ) and GE coefficients (GEC) were calculated by linear regression to obtain a measure of GE. RESULTS: A total of 19 cases and 15 age- and gender-matched controls underwent testing. The mean GEC in the cases was 3.19 (±0.38) and 2.90 (±0.29) in controls (P = 0.03), with an effect size = 0.86. Mean GET1/2 in the cases was 99 (52.1) min and 103 (27.5) in controls (P = 0.8), with an effect size = 0.1. CONCLUSION: The study generated results suggesting that a larger study will be worthwhile to investigate the relationship between GE and T1DM.

16.
Neonatology ; 114(4): 323-331, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30089298

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rates of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) and ROP treatment vary between neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). Neonatal care practices, including oxygen saturation (SpO2) targets and criteria for the screening and treatment of ROP, are potential contributing factors to the variations. OBJECTIVES: To survey variations in SpO2 targets in 2015 (and whether there had been recent changes) and criteria for ROP screening and treatment across the networks of the International Network for Evaluating Outcomes in Neonates (iNeo). METHODS: Online prepiloted questionnaires on treatment practices for preterm infants were sent to the directors of 390 NICUs in 10 collaborating iNeo networks. Nine questions were asked and the results were summarized and compared. RESULTS: Overall, 329/390 (84%) NICUs responded, and a majority (60%) recently made changes in upper and lower SpO2 target limits, with the median set higher than previously by 2-3% in 8 of 10 networks. After the changes, fewer NICUs (15 vs. 28%) set an upper SpO2 target limit > 95% and fewer (3 vs. 5%) a lower limit < 85%. There were variations in ROP screening criteria, and only in the Swedish network did all NICUs follow a single guideline. The initial retinal examination was carried out by an ophthalmologist in all but 6 NICUs, and retinal photography was used in 20% but most commonly as an adjunct to indirect ophthalmoscopy. CONCLUSIONS: There is considerable variation in SpO2 targets and ROP screening and treatment criteria, both within networks and between countries.

17.
JAMA ; 319(21): 2190-2201, 2018 06 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29872859

RESUMO

Importance: There are potential benefits and harms of hyperoxemia and hypoxemia for extremely preterm infants receiving more vs less supplemental oxygen. Objective: To compare the effects of different target ranges for oxygen saturation as measured by pulse oximetry (Spo2) on death or major morbidity. Design, Setting, and Participants: Prospectively planned meta-analysis of individual participant data from 5 randomized clinical trials (conducted from 2005-2014) enrolling infants born before 28 weeks' gestation. Exposures: Spo2 target range that was lower (85%-89%) vs higher (91%-95%). Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was a composite of death or major disability (bilateral blindness, deafness, cerebral palsy diagnosed as ≥2 level on the Gross Motor Function Classification System, or Bayley-III cognitive or language score <85) at a corrected age of 18 to 24 months. There were 16 secondary outcomes including the components of the primary outcome and other major morbidities. Results: A total of 4965 infants were randomized (2480 to the lower Spo2 target range and 2485 to the higher Spo2 range) and had a median gestational age of 26 weeks (interquartile range, 25-27 weeks) and a mean birth weight of 832 g (SD, 190 g). The primary outcome occurred in 1191 of 2228 infants (53.5%) in the lower Spo2 target group and 1150 of 2229 infants (51.6%) in the higher Spo2 target group (risk difference, 1.7% [95% CI, -1.3% to 4.6%]; relative risk [RR], 1.04 [95% CI, 0.98 to 1.09], P = .21). Of the 16 secondary outcomes, 11 were null, 2 significantly favored the lower Spo2 target group, and 3 significantly favored the higher Spo2 target group. Death occurred in 484 of 2433 infants (19.9%) in the lower Spo2 target group and 418 of 2440 infants (17.1%) in the higher Spo2 target group (risk difference, 2.8% [95% CI, 0.6% to 5.0%]; RR, 1.17 [95% CI, 1.04 to 1.31], P = .01). Treatment for retinopathy of prematurity was administered to 220 of 2020 infants (10.9%) in the lower Spo2 target group and 308 of 2065 infants (14.9%) in the higher Spo2 target group (risk difference, -4.0% [95% CI, -6.1% to -2.0%]; RR, 0.74 [95% CI, 0.63 to 0.86], P < .001). Severe necrotizing enterocolitis occurred in 227 of 2464 infants (9.2%) in the lower Spo2 target group and 170 of 2465 infants (6.9%) in the higher Spo2 target group (risk difference, 2.3% [95% CI, 0.8% to 3.8%]; RR, 1.33 [95% CI, 1.10 to 1.61], P = .003). Conclusions and Relevance: In this prospectively planned meta-analysis of individual participant data from extremely preterm infants, there was no significant difference between a lower Spo2 target range compared with a higher Spo2 target range on the primary composite outcome of death or major disability at a corrected age of 18 to 24 months. The lower Spo2 target range was associated with a higher risk of death and necrotizing enterocolitis, but a lower risk of retinopathy of prematurity treatment.


Assuntos
Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/epidemiologia , Enterocolite Necrosante/epidemiologia , Lactente Extremamente Prematuro , Doenças do Prematuro/epidemiologia , Oxigênio/sangue , Cegueira/epidemiologia , Paralisia Cerebral/epidemiologia , Surdez/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Mortalidade Infantil , Recém-Nascido , Doenças do Prematuro/mortalidade , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Oximetria , Oxigênio/administração & dosagem , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
18.
Neonatology ; 114(1): 28-36, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29656287

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There are significant international variations in chronic lung disease rates among very preterm infants yet there is little data on international variations in respiratory strategies. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate practice variations in the respiratory management of extremely preterm infants born at < 29 weeks' gestational age (GA) among 10 neonatal networks participating in the International Network for Evaluating Outcomes (iNeo) of Neonates collaboration. METHODS: A web-based survey was sent to the representatives of 390 neonatal intensive care units from Australia/New Zealand, Canada, Finland, Illinois (USA), Israel, Japan, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, and Tuscany (Italy). Responses were based on practices in 2015. RESULTS: Overall, 321 of the 390 units responded (82%). The majority of units within networks (40-92%) mechanically ventilate infants born at 23-24 weeks' GA on continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) with 30-39% oxygen in respiratory distress within 48 h after birth, but the proportion of units that offer mechanical ventilation for infants born at 25-26 weeks' GA at similar settings varied significantly (20-85% of units within networks). The most common respiratory strategy for infants born at 27-28 weeks' GA on CPAP with 30-39% oxygen with respiratory distress within 48 h after birth used by units also varied significantly among networks: mechanical ventilation (0-60%), CPAP (3-82%), intubation and surfactant administration with immediate extubation (0-75%), and less invasive surfactant administration (0-68%). CONCLUSIONS: There are marked variations but also similarities in respiratory management of extremely preterm infants between networks. Further collaboration and exploration is needed to better understand the association of these variations in practice with pulmonary outcomes.

19.
Br J Ophthalmol ; 102(8): 1041-1046, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29212820

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: There are few data on visual outcomes in adulthood of former very low birthweight (VLBW; <1500 g) infants. We aimed to assess vision at 27-29 years in a national cohort of VLBW infants born in 1986 and assessed for retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) when no treatment was available, compared with term born controls. METHODS: The cohort and controls attended a 2-day assessment in Christchurch as part of a larger study. Visual assessment included glasses prescription measured by focimeter, logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR) distance visual acuity (VA), contrast sensitivity, autorefraction, retinal photographs and a questionnaire on vision-related everyday activities. Rates of reduced VA and myopia in the VLBW cohort at 27-29 were compared with the results of vision testing at 7-8 years. RESULTS: 250 VLBW adults (77% those alive) gave study consent and 229 (45 with a history of ROP) were assessed in Christchurch, plus 100 term born controls. VLBW adults with ROP had reduced VA compared with no ROP and controls (mean logMAR score (SD); 0.003 (0.19), -0.021 (0.16), -0.078 (0.09), P=0.001). There were no differences in myopia (>2 D) between the groups but high myopia (>5 D) was confined to those with ROP. VLBW adults with ROP drove a car less often and had higher difficulties with everyday activities scores due to eyesight. Between 7-8 and 27-29 years rates of reduced VA were stable but myopia increased. CONCLUSION: Former VLBW young adults with ROP have ongoing problems with vision affecting daily living and should continue in regular ophthalmological review. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ACTRN12612000995875, Pre-results .

20.
Prog Retin Eye Res ; 62: 77-119, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28958885

RESUMO

The population of infants at risk for retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) varies by world region; in countries with well developed neonatal intensive care services, the highest risk infants are those born at less than 28 weeks gestational age (GA) and less than 1 kg at birth, while, in regions where many aspects of neonatal intensive and ophthalmological care are not routinely available, more mature infants up to 2000 g at birth and 37 weeks GA are also at risk for severe ROP. Treatment options for both groups of patients include standard retinal laser photocoagulation or, more recently, intravitreal anti-VEGF drugs. In addition to detection and treatment of ROP, this review highlights new opportunities created by telemedicine, where screening and diagnosis of ROP in remote locations can be undertaken by non-ophthalmologists using digital fundus cameras. The ophthalmological care of the ROP infant is undertaken in the wider context of neonatal care and general wellbeing of the infant. Because of this context, this review takes a multi-disciplinary perspective with contributions from retinal vascular biologists, pediatric ophthalmologists, an epidemiologist and a neonatologist. This review highlights the latest insights regarding cellular and molecular mechanisms in the formation of the retinal vasculature in the human infant, pathogenesis of ROP, detection and treatment of severe ROP, the risks and benefits of anti-VEGF therapy, the identification of new therapies over the horizon, and the optimal neonatal care regimen for best ROP outcomes, and the benefits and pitfalls of telemedicine in the remote screening and diagnosis of ROP, all of which have the potential to improve ROP outcomes.

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