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J Am Chem Soc ; 135(32): 12048-56, 2013 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23855781


The dilemma of employing high-capacity battery materials and maintaining the electronic and mechanical integrity of electrodes demands novel designs of binder systems. Here, we developed a binder polymer with multifunctionality to maintain high electronic conductivity, mechanical adhesion, ductility, and electrolyte uptake. These critical properties are achieved by designing polymers with proper functional groups. Through synthesis, spectroscopy, and simulation, electronic conductivity is optimized by tailoring the key electronic state, which is not disturbed by further modifications of side chains. This fundamental allows separated optimization of the mechanical and swelling properties without detrimental effect on electronic property. Remaining electronically conductive, the enhanced polarity of the polymer greatly improves the adhesion, ductility, and more importantly, the electrolyte uptake to the levels of those available only in nonconductive binders before. We also demonstrate directly the performance of the developed conductive binder by achieving full-capacity cycling of silicon particles without using any conductive additive.

Langmuir ; 21(10): 4755-64, 2005 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16032900


A finite element model of the electrostatic double layer interaction between an approaching colloidal particle and a small region of a charged planar surface containing four previously deposited particles is presented. The electrostatic interaction force experienced by the approaching particle is obtained by solving the Poisson-Boltzmann equation with appropriate boundary conditions representing this complex geometry. The interaction forces obtained from the detailed three-dimensional finite element simulations suggest that for the many-body scenario addressed here, the electrostatic double layer repulsion experienced by the approaching particle is less than the corresponding sphere-plate interaction due to the presence of the previously deposited particles. The reduction in force is quite significant when the screening length of the electric double layer becomes comparable to the particle radius (kappaa approximately 1). The results also suggest that the commonly used technique of pairwise addition of binary interactions can grossly overestimate the net electrostatic double layer interaction forces in such situations. The simulation methodology presented here can form a basis for investigating the influence of several previously deposited particles on the electrostatic repulsion experienced by a particle during deposition onto a substrate.

J Colloid Interface Sci ; 273(1): 278-90, 2004 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15051462


Predictions of electrostatic double-layer interaction forces between two similarly charged spherical colloidal particles inside an infinitely long "rough" capillary are presented. A simple model of a rough cylindrical surface is proposed, which assumes the capillary wall to be a periodic function of axial position. The periodic roughness of the wall is characterized by the wavelength and amplitude of the undulations. The electrostatic double-layer interaction force between two spherical particles located axially inside this rough capillary is determined by solving the nonlinear Poisson-Boltzmann equation employing finite element analysis. The effect of surface roughness of the cylindrical enclosure on the interaction force between two particles is extensively studied on the basis of this model. The simulations are carried out for dimensionless amplitudes (amplitude/particle radii) ranging from 0.05 to 0.15 and scaled wavelengths (wavelength/particle radii) ranging from 0.4 to 4.0. The interaction force between the particles is significantly modified by the proximity of the rough capillary wall. Generally, the interaction force for rough capillaries oscillates around the corresponding interaction force in a smooth capillary depending on the magnitudes of the scaled amplitude and wavelength of the roughness. The influence of roughness on the electrostatic interactions becomes more pronounced when the surface potential of the cylinder wall is different from the sphere surface potentials. When the cylinder and the particle surfaces have large potential differences, the axial force experienced by a particle is dominated by the capillary roughness. There are dramatic oscillations of the force, which alternately becomes repulsive and attractive as the particle moves from the crest to the trough of the rough capillary wall. These results suggest that manipulation of colloidal particles in narrow microchannels may be subject to significant force variations owing to the roughness inherent in microfabricated channels etched on metal films.